Dissertações/Teses

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2024
Descrição
  • IZABELLA CARLA SILVA LOPES
  • EFFECT OF FIXED OIL FROM VEGETABLE SPECIES Caryocar Villosum ON FIBROBLAST IN VITRO

  • Orientador : JOSE LUIZ MARTINS DO NASCIMENTO
  • Data: 02/07/2024
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  • Fibroblasts are cells that are active in different metabolic processes, being indispensable to tissue development and homeostasis. These cells are important tools to the healing process, being present in all inflammatory phases such as inflammatory, proliferative and maturation phase. Those cells are capable of producing the extracellular matrix components such as collagen, fibronectin, elastin, laminin, among other molecules which give the necessary support to a healthy healing.  However, the healing process is subject to errors into its intrinsic processes, occasionally asking for a therapeutic intervention. In this sense, we search for more effective treatments in cases where natural healing was not concluded. Searching for natural composts altogether with traditional knowledge are necessary and attractive to projects that prioritize and value biodiversity. Between the Amazon native species, Caryocar villosum, fruit known as piquiá is a notable font of inactive compounds with therapeutic potential. In this work we aim to analyse Caryocar villosum effect ,in fixed oil form, in fibroblast cells in vitro. The VERO cell line will be used to perform assays such as cytotoxicity, cell migration, morphological analysis with giemsa, electronic, transmission and scanning microscopy and also extracellular matrix components.

  • JOSE AUGUSTO DO NASCIMENTO MONTEIRO
  • IN VIVO INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PROLACTIN AGAINST TOXIC MERCURY DAMAGE IN Geophagus brasiliensis

  • Orientador : ROMMEL MARIO RODRIGUEZ BURBANO
  • Data: 10/05/2024
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  • In general, a large part of the waste produced ends up having its final destination in water bodies. Metals such as mercury (Hg), because they are not biodegradable, accumulate in organisms and throughout food chains. The hormone prolactin (PRL) is a protein produced and secreted mainly by the lactotrophs of the adenohypophysis, whose best-known function is lactation, despite having more than 300 biological activities. Most riverside communities have a high consumption of fish in their diet, increasing the risk of exposure to heavy metals in polluted areas, which justifies the study on PRL. The objective of the study was to investigate in vivo the protective potential of PRL against the toxic action of methylmercury (MeHg) in Geophagus brasiliensis (acará fish) through the micronucleus test and biochemical analyzes (Lipid peroxidation, Catalase - CAT and Glutathione peroxidase - GPx). The fish were divided into 3 groups: 1) CN: Negative Control (n=6); 2) MeHg at 0.5 mg/L (n=6); and 3) MeHg at 0.5 mg/L and PRL at 250 µg/kg every 12h/12h (n=6). The treatments (lasting 5 days) were carried out with CH3HgCl via water and with PRL via intraperitoneal injection. There was a highly significant (p<0.001) increase in the formation of micronuclei (MNs) and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ANEs) in the MeHg group compared to the CN, but when PRL was administered (MeHg/PRL group), the frequencies of MNs and ENAs were reduced. The TBARS analysis was not significant between the tested groups. CAT suffered a highly significant reduction (p<0.001) in the treated groups compared to CN. GPx showed a very significant increase (p<0.01) in the MeHg group in relation to the CN group, and in the MeHg/PRL group there was a significant decrease (p<0.05), although it did not reach the same values as the CN. Although the role of PRL in protection against oxidative stress has not been elucidated, the protective effect of PRL against the mutagenic effects of Hg has been very well demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the protective effect of PRL against Hg-induced mutagenicity in fish.

  • IJAIR ROGERIO COSTA DOS SANTOS
  • "EFEITOS ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS E NEUROPROTETORES DO EXTRATO DE GERGELIM PRETO (Sesamum indicum L) EM UM MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE ISQUEMIA ESTRIATAL"

  • Data: 26/03/2024
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  • Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) é uma neuropatologia caracterizada como o
    surgimento súbito global ou focal de déficits da função neurológica de duração
    superior a 24 horas ou que leve a morte, cuja única causa reside na origem vascular.
    Estudos sobre a incidência, comprometimento físico e mortalidade enquadram o AVE
    como a segunda causa de morte no mundo e a principal complicação orgânica que
    leva às disfunções físico-neurológicas, frequentemente, graves e permanentes. A
    indução do AVE em animais de experimentação e o entendimento de sua
    fisiopatologia, bem como a busca de tratamentos que minimizem os danos
    neurológicos e estimulem a recuperação morfofuncional do indivíduo afetado são
    temas de grande relevância científica e clínica. Neste estudo, investigamos os
    possíveis efeitos neuroprotetores e/ou anti-inflamatórios do extrato supercrítico de
    gergelim preto (Sesamun indicum L.) após lesão isquêmica focal por microinjeções de
    80 pmol de endotelina-1 no estriado de ratos adultos, usando as coordenadas
    estereotáxicas: 1,2 mm, anterior-posterior; 2,5 mm, médio-lateral; 4,0 mm,
    dorsoventral. Após a indução do AVE, os grupos controles foram tratados com tween
    a 5% e os tratados receberam 150 mg/kg de gergelim, ambos, por via intraperitoneal,
    em duas doses diárias de 75 mg/kg. A neuropatologia foi obtida em secções
    encefálicas com 50 e 20 μm de espessuras e coradas com violeta de cresila, para
    identificar a área de lesão, e/ou imunomarcadas por anticorpos específicos à
    identificação de neurônios (anti-NeuN), astrócitos (anti-GFAP) e micróglia (anti-ED1).
    Secções de 5 μm de espessura de rim e fígado corados por métodos histológicos e
    histoquímicos não mostraram alterações morfológicas nas células que compõem
    esses órgãos essenciais, sugerindo baixa toxicidade do extrato. Todas as secções
    coradas e/ou imunomarcadas foram visualizadas em microscópio óptico e seus
    campos mais ilustrativos, em todos os tempos de sobrevida e grupos experimentais,
    foram capturados digitalmente e editados em computador. A quantificação das células
    NeuN+(neurônios), micróglia/macrófagos (ED1+) e astrócitos (GFAP+) na área de
    lesão, três secções por lâmina, todo campo ao redor de lesão por secção, com auxílio
    de uma gradícula de área 0,0625 mm2 na ocular possibilitou o teste t-Student à análise
    estatística entre os grupos e o uso do programa Microsoft Excel à plotagem dos
    gráficos. Por fim, uma caracterização da citotoxicidade in vitro, bem como a verificação
    do índice de acidez do extrato revelou baixa acidez e mínima agressividade em células
    sanguíneas, que ratifica o uso do extrato supercrítico em estudos que visem o
    tratamento de doenças agudas e crônicas no SNC.

  • LEONARDO MIRANDA ABDON
  • "IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR INTRARESIDENTIAL ASSISTING OF THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED"

  • Data: 06/03/2024
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  • This project aims to develop a technological object which proposes to facilitate the movement of individuals with visual impairments on an intra-residential scale, using an algorithm written in Python language on a Raspberry hardware platform. The motivation for this is found in the desire to create a portable system in the form of a vest, with low cost and easy maintenance to improve the individual&#39;s relationship with their private spaces. To this end, the project uses QR codes to identify paths and obstacles, detected by the installed camera and processed by a Raspberry Pi board, which generates a specific response. In the present state of the project, six QR codes were created and registered in the system, which generates text responses in the programming software terminal. In addition, precision tests were carried out with the camera to discover the best combination of resolution and image processing type to obtain uninterrupted results and lower processing consumption by the Raspberry Pi board. These tests proved that 480p resolution (640 x 480 pixels) and image processing in absolute black and white generate images sharp enough to meet distance and response time expectations, with successful identifications every 0.1 second up to 260 centimeters between the camera and the QR code printed in well-lit environments. Specific situations were also tested, such as rotated QR codes and multiple codes on the same image, from which favorable results were obtained. The level of interaction with the system has also been defined, so that alteration and customization of the object&#39;s algorithm is only allowed through direct access to it, as it operates without internet access or Bluetooth interaction. Future steps will be the exchange of text responses for vibratory responses performed by coin haptic motors, followed by the construction of the 3D model of the protective case and the making of the real model of the vest for testing in a laboratory environment.

  • NAYARA KAUFFMANN
  • A INFECÇÃO POR Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) INDUZ UM QUADRO DE ENCEFALOPATIA HEPÁTICA EM MODELO
    MURINO DE MALÁRIA NÃO COMPLICADA

  • Data: 28/02/2024
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  • A disfunção hepatocelular associada ao quadro de malária tem
    como principais alterações a insuficiência hepática, hepatoesplenomegalia e
    aumento das enzimas hepáticas. Diversos estudam já elucidaram que tais
    alterações hepáticas podem ser ocasionadas pelo aumento dos níveis amônia,
    que consequentemente pode levar à disfunção no sistema nervoso central
    (SNC), ocasionando um quadro de encefalopatia hepática, culminando em
    aumento da resposta inflamatória, edema cerebral, desregulação de
    neurotransmissores e alterações cognitivas e locomotoras. Objetivo.
    Caracterizar as possíveis alterações no sistema nervoso central a partir de uma
    lesão hepática induzida pela infecção por Plasmodium berghei ANKA em
    modelo murino de malária não complicada. Metodologia. Para isso foram

    utilizados camundongos da linhagem Balb-c (20-25g) entre 45-54 dias pós-
    natal (CEUA no 2229290317), inoculados com ~106 de eritrócitos parasitados

    via intraperitoneal. O delineamento experimental foi divido em duas partes:
    Primeiramente foram caracterizadas a curva de sobrevivência, parasitemia,
    massa corpórea, sinais clínicos, alterações hepáticas e histológicas,
    neuroquímica, presença de edema cerebral, extravasamento vascular, resposta
    inflamatória, alterações comportamentais e quantificação dos níveis de amônia
    nos grupos controle e PbA. Posteriormente, foi realizado um tratamento com
    lactulose para verificar se as alterações encontradas nos experimentos
    anteriores eram em decorrência do aumento dos níveis de amônia no cérebro
    dos animais. Para isso os grupos foram divididos em: grupo controle, lactulose
    3mg/kg, PbA e PbA+lactulose 3mg/kg, no qual foi avaliado a curva de
    sobrevivência, parasitemia e atividade locomotora pelo protocolo SHIRPA. Os
    resultados foram expressos como média+desvio padrão. Foi realizado o
    ANOVA (uma via), pós teste Tukey, considerando como significativo p<0,05.
    Resultados. Nossos dados demonstraram que o grupo PbA apresentou
    alterações nas funções hepáticas como aumento dos níveis de AST e ALP, BT
    e BD, alterações morfológicas como a hepatoesplenomegalia, além das
    alterações histológicas evidenciar infiltrado inflamatório, deposição do pigmento
    malárico e hiperplasia das células de Kupffer, demonstrando dessa forma um
    quadro de falência hepática. Após caracterizar a lesão hepática, buscamos
    entender se essas alterações poderiam gerar um comprometimento no SNC, o
    qual observamos um comprometimento cognitivo e motor, além de alterações
    nos níveis dos neurotransmissores GABA e glutamato, acompanhado com
    aumento da resposta inflamatória, edema cerebral e disfunção na barreira
    hematoencefálica. Uma vez demonstrado a falência hepática e,
    consequentemente, a presença de alterações cognitiva e comportamentais,
    buscou-se avaliar os níveis de amônia no cérebro dos animais controle e PbA
    na fase inicial da infecção. Nesse sentido, a quantificação dos níveis de
    amônia, evidenciou um aumento no 10o d.p.i., no tecido cerebral quando
    comparado com o grupo controle, em que os níveis estavam dentro do
    esperado em relação a atividade locomotora, ao aplicarmos o protocolo no
    grupo infectado e tratado com lactulose, foi possivel observar que o grupo PbA
    apresentou alterações no comportamento motor, quando comparado com o
    grupo controle. Em contrapartida, o grupo PbA+Lactulose 3mg/kg apresentou
    uma atenuação das alterações cognitivas e comportamentais, evidenciando
    que a terapia com lacutolose consegue atenuar o quadro cognitivo quanto ao 10 comportamento motor, força e tônus muscular, reflexo e função sensorial. Conclusão. Concluimos que a falência hepática ocasiona um quadro de encefalopatia hepática em modelo murino de malária não complicada, o qual culmina para alterações no sistema nervoso central, pelo aumento dos níveis de amônia no cérebro, e ao realizar o sequestro da amônia com o auxilio do tratamento com lactulose na dose de 3mg/kg, esta consegue atenuar os danos neurológicos dos animais com malária não complicada, demonstrando que as alterações comportamentais são provenientes de um quadro de encefalopatia hepática, ocasionada pelo aumento dos níveis de amônia no córtex dos animais infectados.

  • CAIO DE OLIVEIRA BASTOS
  • Classification of Productivity Profile from Nonlinear Dynamics: Phase-space reconstruction from Electroencephalography Recordings of Vale Mining Company, S11D Eliezer Batista Complex

  • Data: 30/01/2024
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  • The focus of this work is on the use of a nonlinear time series processing method to analyze electroencephalographic (EEG) records of excavation operators, during an excavation simulation, in order to characterize how the nonlinear dynamics of their EEGs and, from them, predict their performance during the simulation. The linear analysis used was the Delay Coordinate Embedding (DCE) and, from it, 4 parameters were obtained: M, τ , Lyapunov exponent and approximation entropy. In addition, the work intends to evaluate the cognitive training routine performed between simulations of excavator operations. A total of 16 operators were selected, divided into two groups, control and trained, and had their EEG collected in two different dates. The trained group underwent cognitive training between the two testing dates and the control group did not. A comparative analysis was made comparing the control and trained groups before and after the testing, and, based on the parameters collected, the individuals of those groups were characterized, according to the non-linear characteristics of their EEGs. The data obtained indicate an improvement in the performance of operators who underwent training, on average, to the detriment of those who did not. From the non-linear parameters collected, an algorithm was created, based on Machine Learning that classifies the operators, trying to predict how they performed during the simulation. The created classification algorithm reached a total accuracy of more than 99% using hold-out validation.

  • THIAGO SOUZA SANTOS
  • AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DO POTENCIAL GENOTÓXICO E CITOTÓXICO DO EXTRATO DO AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea) CLARIFICADO SOBRE A LINHAGEM CELULAR AGP01 (CÂNCER GÁSTRICO)

  • Data: 24/01/2024
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  • O açaí (Euterpe oleracea MART) é uma fruta de grande importância para a região
    Amazônica em termos nutricionais, culturais e socioeconômicos. Nos últimos anos, o açaí
    tem sido alvo de diversos estudos devido às suas propriedades benéficas à saúde,
    incluindo efeitos contra células tumorais. Portanto, o presente trabalho teve como
    objetivo avaliar in vitro os efeitos genotóxicos e citotóxicos do extrato clarificado de suco
    de açaí em uma linhagem celular de câncer gástrico humano metastático (células AGP01).
    Para fins de comparação, utilizou-se uma linhagem celular não transformada de células
    epiteliais renais de macaco verde africano (células VERO). Foram realizados o ensaio de
    viabilidade por redução de resazurina, o ensaio cometa, a determinação da morte celular
    por corantes fluorescentes diferenciais e o ensaio de migração para cicatrização de feridas.
    Foi observada redução na viabilidade apenas na linhagem AGP01 em 72h. Não houve
    dano genotóxico ou morte celular (através de apoptose ou necrose) em nenhuma das
    linhagens celulares. Entretanto, o extrato de açaí induziu redução da motilidade em ambas
    as linhagens celulares. A redução da viabilidade celular e a indução do efeito
    antimigratório na linhagem celular AGP01 abrem perspectivas para explorar o potencial
    da Euterpe oleracea como adjuvante no tratamento do câncer gástrico.

2023
Descrição
  • LUCIANA FERNANDES PASTANA RAMOS
  • VIABILIDADE E EFICÁCIA DA TELERREABILITAÇÃO E DA CARTILHA DE EXERCÍCIOS PARA PESSOAS COM
    DOENÇA DE PARKINSON RESIDENTES EM UMA REGIÃO DA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA:
    UM ENSAIO CLÍNICO RANDOMIZADO

  • Data: 18/12/2023
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  • A doença de Parkinson (DP) é uma doença neurodegenerativa crônica e progressiva, e o
    tratamento atual envolve intervenção farmacológica e fisioterapia. A telerreabilitação, que
    abrange apoio e orientação remota para pacientes em reabilitação, pode potencialmente
    melhorar o acesso aos serviços de fisioterapia para pessoas com doença de Parkinson,
    especialmente aquelas que enfrentam barreiras geográficas aos cuidados de saúde. O objetivo
    principal deste estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade e eficácia de um programa de telerreabilitação
    para pessoas com doença de Parkinson que vivem em uma comunidade sub-representada da
    Amazônia brasileira. Realizamos um ensaio clínico randomizado, de grupo paralelo,
    unicêntrico, cego, envolvendo 19 participantes com diagnóstico de doença de Parkinson de
    Belém, Brasil. Os participantes foram designados para um programa individual de
    telerreabilitação de 4 semanas ou um programa de exercícios baseado em cartilha (grupo
    controle). As avaliações foram realizadas antes da intervenção, imediatamente após a
    intervenção e 4 semanas após o término da intervenção. Mostramos que nosso programa de
    telerreabilitação teve alta adesão entre os pacientes, com efeitos adversos mínimos. Tanto a
    telerreabilitação quanto a orientação da cartilha reduziram o tempo para realização do teste
    Timed Up and Go. Concluindo, nosso programa de telerreabilitação e de cartilha de exercícios
    foi viável e eficaz para pessoas com doença de Parkinson no cenário amazônico. Este ensaio foi registrado no Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC) sob o identificador: RBR-

    6sz837s.

  • KAREN ADRIANA PASTANA MARQUES
  • “Os Efeitos da Atividade Física Voluntária na Recuperação Funcional após AVE Isquêmico (AVEi)”

  • Data: 18/12/2023
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  • O

    O acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) é resultante da oclusão (isquemia - AVEi) ou da
    ruptura (hemorragia - AVEh) de vasos sanguíneos no sistema nervoso central (SNC), ocasiona
    eventos bioquímicos complexos que causam danos ao metabolismo energético das células
    nervosas, disfunção da barreira hematoencefálica e, eventualmente, morte celular de neurônios
    e células da glia. Diversos estudos experimentais estão buscando estratégias de promover
    melhora nas repercussões funcionais e sociais em indivíduos que sofreram AVE. A prática de
    exercícios físicos vem sendo discutida e reconhecida na literatura científica como um fator
    importante estratégia de reabilitação para as repercussões clínicas neurológicas e envolve a
    redução do estresse oxidativo, a liberação de fatores de crescimento celular no SNC e o aumento
    das chances de recuperação funcional. Dessa forma, o presente projeto avaliou os efeitos da
    atividade física voluntária na recuperação funcional e na área de lesão em modelo experimental
    de AVE isquêmico (AVEi) focal na representação sensório-motora (S1/M1) da pata anterior.
    Utilizamos modelos de experimentação animal (Rattus novergicus, todos machos e da linhagem
    Wistar) que sofreram indução experimental de AVEi através do uso de microinjeções do
    vasoconstritor Endotelina-1 (ET-1). Os animais foram organizados nos grupos experimentais:
    grupo controle (GC), grupo sham (GS), AVE sem atividade física voluntária (AVE) e AVE

    com atividade física voluntária (AVE+EX). Foram realizados os testes para avaliação sensório-
    motora staircase e da escada horizontal durante a fase aguda do AVEi (baseline e 3, 7 e 14 dias

    após AVEi). Os procedimentos histológicos de coloração de Nissl foram usados para análise da
    área de lesão. Por fim, os dados foram analisados com o auxílio do sofware GraphPad Prism8
    por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA) de uma via corrigidas por pós-teste Tukey ou teste
    Kruskal-Wallis. A significância estatística foi de p<0,05 e todos os dados foram apresentados
    como média ± desvio padrão. Neste estudo a atividade de corrida voluntária promoveu a
    recuperação funcional, com repercussões na melhora do desempenho motor no teste da escada
    horizontal (F (2,223, 15,56) = [20,29], p<0,0001), além da manutenção da taxa de sucesso no
    teste staircase (F (3, 48) = 3,629, p=0,0193). Assim, apesar de não possuir influência sob o
    tamanho da área de lesão, a atividade física voluntaria foi capaz de promover a melhora dos
    déficits sensório motores, gerando recuperação funcional.

  • BRUNA MENDES LOURENCO CUNHA
  • DINÂMICA DE SUCÇÃO DISFUNCIONAL EM LACTENTES COM ANQUILOGLOSSIA

  • Data: 29/11/2023
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  • O aleitamento materno é amplamente recomendado como alimentação
    exclusiva até os 6 meses de idade e prolongada até os dois anos ou mais. Seus
    benefícios são inúmeros e comprovados, entre eles estão a melhora do sistema
    imunológico, a alimentação rica em nutrientes e o desenvolvimento craniofacial a
    partir do movimento de sucção. No entanto, não são todos os bebês que conseguem
    mamar no seio materno em decorrência de algumas dificuldades, com a
    anquiloglossia. Conhecida como língua presa, ela pode restringir os movimentos da
    língua, dificultando a amamentação e, em alguns casos, sendo responsável pelo
    desmame precoce. Objetivo: Comparar a sucção infantil em lactentes com e sem
    anquiloglossia usando um sensor de pressão controlado por microprocessador
    acoplado a uma chupeta. Métodos: Cinquenta e cinco lactentes de 0 a 2 meses de
    idade foram submetidos ao exame clínico de anquiloglossia, em seguida foi
    oferecido uma chupeta de silicone conectada ao dispositivo de aquisição de pressão
    e a atividade de sucção foi registrada. Assim, obtivemos dados sobre a frequência
    de sucções dentro de uma eclosão, a duração média da sucção, a duração da
    eclosão, o número de sucções por eclosão, a amplitude máxima das sucções por
    eclosão e o intervalo entre eclosões. O teste t não pareado foi utilizado para

    comparações entre os grupos. Resultados: A principal diferença dos recém-
    nascidos com anquiloglossia em relação aos do grupo controle é que eles realizam

    eclosões mais longas durante a atividade de sucção. Conclusão: A duração mais
    longa das eclosões é provavelmente uma estratégia compensatória e pode estar por
    trás da dor relatada pelas mães durante a amamentação. Portanto, propomos um
    método para quantificar objetivamente alguns parâmetros da sucção infantil e
    demonstramos seu uso para auxiliar na avaliação da anquiloglossia.

  • FELIPE ANDRE DA COSTA BRITO
  • DESENVOLVIMENTO DE APLICATIVO PARA A REALIZAÇÃO DO FINGER TAPPING TEST E A INFLUÊNCIA DO SEXO E DA DOMINÂNCIA MANUAL NO DESEMPENHO FINGER TAPPING TEST BASEADO EM SMARTPHONE.

  • Data: 27/11/2023
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  • O Finger Tapping Test (FTT) é um teste neuropsicológico clássico que avalia o funcionamento
    motor e recentemente tem sido utilizado por meio de smartphones. Nos protocolos clássicos,
    observou-se que o sexo e a dominância manual influenciam o desempenho durante o teste. Ao
    avaliar a influência do sexo e da dominância manual no teste, é possível ajustar as medições de
    desempenho para garantir a validade dos resultados do teste e evitar viés relacionado ao sexo e
    à dominância manual. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sexo e da
    dominância manual no desempenho de participantes em protocolos de FTT baseado em
    smartphones. Foi desenvolvido um aplicativo Android para a realização do FTT e recrutou-se
    40 homens e 40 mulheres para realizar três protocolos com diferentes desenhos espaciais
    (protocolos I, II e III). O desempenho dos participantes foi medido usando os parâmetros
    globais, temporais e espaciais do FTT. Foi observado que, para o desempenho no protocolo I,
    a dominância manual teve uma influência significativa nas variáveis globais e temporais,
    enquanto a interação entre dominância manual e sexo teve uma influência maior nas variáveis
    espaciais. Para os protocolos II e III, observamos que a dominância manual teve uma influência
    significativa nas variáveis globais, temporais e espaciais em comparação com outros fatores.
    Conclui-se que o teste baseado em smartphone é parcialmente influenciado pela dominância
    manual e pelo sexo e esses fatores devem ser considerados durante a avaliação do FTT baseado
    em smartphone.

  • RAQUEL CARVALHO BOUTH
  • The role of molecular biology in the diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, and susceptibility of M. leprae strains in an endemic area of Brazilian Amazon

  • Data: 09/10/2023
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  • Leprosy is a chronic disease, disabling and difficult to diagnose in all its clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to identify the best laboratory marker for leprosy diagnosis, to genetically understand the strains of M. leprae circulating in the Pará State and to evaluate the region drug resistance reality. A multidisciplinary team evaluated 833 individuals using different strategies at URE Dr. Marcello Candia, and in 14 municipalities in Pará. All individuals were clinically evaluated, and biological samples were collected for comparative analysis of the results of slit skin smear microscopy, molecular detection of the bacillus by qPCR RLEP in ear lobes, IgM Anti-PGL-I antibodies titration, and histopathological lesion skin biopsy, lesion qPCR RLEP, and M. leprae whole genome sequence. 351 cases were clinically diagnosed, divided into groups: individuals with classic and nonclassic clinical manifestations, asymptomatic cases and 482 healthy contacts. The comparative analysis of the results demonstrated that ear lobe RLEP detection presented greater sensitivity, specificity and agreement with the clinical diagnosis (72.5, 70.4 and Kappa = 0.42 respectively), followed by skin biopsy (sensitivity= 65.8%), Anti PGl-I serology with 61.2% (52.2 specificity), slit smears skin (41.7%) and histopathology (25.0%). The RLEP association to serology, showed an increased in laboratorial correlation with the clinic diagnosis (Kappa= 0.55). The circulant streains evaluation, we detected that the most frequent profile was profile 4N (52/66- 78.8%), followed by 4P subtype (4/66- 6.1%), 3I (9/66 -13, 6%), and 1D (1/66- 1.5%). In the drug resistance analysis, we obtained 3/101 (3%) mutation in folP1 gene, conferring dapsone resistance. 1/40 (2.5%) gyrB mutations, conferring quinolones resistance. The gyrB resistant strain also had mutation in folP1, and in the fadD9, ribD, pks4 and nth genes, considered a hypermutant strain. Our findings showed that qPCR RLEP molecular test associated with Anti-PGL-I serology were a good tool for leprosy laboratorial diagnosis, and that type 4 strains, originating in Africa, are the most frequent type in the Amazon. And we find drug-resistant strains, and a hypermuted strain circling in the region. The strains were resistant to the current polychemotherapy regimen and the alternative drug regimen.

  • JADE THALIA RODRIGUES
  • EFEITOS DE TERAPIA MOTORA BASEADA EM MOVIMENTO DE DANÇA NAS FUNÇÕES DA TEORIA DA MENTE E DO RITMO MU DE PESSOAS COM DOENÇA DE PARKINSON

  • Data: 23/08/2023
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  • A Doença de Parkinson (DP) é uma desordem neurodegenerativa progressiva que
    afeta regiões encefálicas cuja circuitaria neural é responsável pelo controle dos movimentos
    voluntários. Além dos sintomas motores, pacientes com DP apresentam sintomas não-motores
    que afetam drasticamente sua qualidade de vida. Estes incluem alterações cognitivas dentre as
    quais destacam-se déficits na memória de trabalho, déficits de funções executivas e na
    habilidade de dedução dos estados mentais de outrem (Teoria da Mente: TM) e podem ter
    relação também com as funções dos neurônios espelho (NE). Os NE são neurônios ativados
    quando uma pessoa realiza ou observa uma dada ação, realizando assim simulação “interna”
    dos atos observados, um processo necessário para a capacidade de reconhecimento de
    emoções e intenções na TM. Sua atividade é influenciada pelo treino prévio das ações
    motoras observadas e pode ser registrada usando-se eletroencefalografia (EEG) através de
    alterações nas amplitudes de onda da banda Mu (ondas alfa 1) detectadas quando um
    indivíduo observa as ações de outra pessoa. O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos de
    terapia motora sobre a atividade eletroencefalográfica e suas correlações com funções da TM
    em pacientes acometidos pela DP. Para tal, foram realizadas avaliações eletroencefalográficas
    para investigação de padrões de dessincronização característicos da atividade de neurônios
    espelho, além dos testes Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) e Faux Pas Recognition (FPR).
    Avaliamos pacientes diagnosticados com a DP (n=09), sob esquema farmacológico, Hoehn e
    Yahr 2-4, de ambos os sexos e com idades com média de 62.9 ± 7.1 anos e média de 5,8 ± 1,3
    anos de diagnóstico, em janelas temporais antes do ingresso no projeto (Teste) e após doze
    meses de participação realizando 2 sessões semanais (Reteste) de terapia motora baseada em
    movimento de dança. Os dados tabulados foram analisados usando o teste t de Student. Não
    foram observadas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de avaliação do teste FPR nas
    janelas temporais de Teste e Reteste. Já no teste RMT, a pontuação média obtida pelos
    participantes no Teste foi de 9,7 pontos, enquanto no Reteste a média foi de 11,3 pontos, com
    significância observada de p=0,0148. A análise estatística eletroencefalográfica (TRPs)
    apresentou resultados significativos no nível de dessincronização das ondas alfa 1 (p=0,014
    ep=0,010). Os resultados demonstram que embora os indivíduos não apresentem melhora no
    desempenho na maioria dos componentes dos testes TM analisados, os resultados de EEG
    indicam alteração de atividade cortical cerebral específica relacionada à ativação do sistema
    de neurônios-espelho, influenciada pela terapia motora baseada em movimentos de dança o
    que a torna uma opção terapêutica adjuvante no tratamento dos sintomas motores e não
    motores de pessoas acometidas por DP.

  • EVERTON RENAN QUARESMA DOS SANTOS
  • Avaliação do óleo essencial de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) em modelo de depressão induzida por álcool em ratas adolescentes.

  • Data: 23/08/2023
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  • A depressão é um distúrbio de prevalência mundial, que afeta a funcionalidade e a
    qualidade de vida das pessoas. O óleo essencial de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora
    Ducke) rico em linalol apresenta atividades sobre o sistema nervoso central,
    incluindo do tipo antidepressiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do
    óleo essencial em ratas adolescentes através de um modelo de depressão induzida
    por álcool em padrão binge. O óleo essencial foi destilado e analisado por um
    sistema duplo CG-EM e CG-DIC. A capacidade antioxidante do óleo essencial foi
    determinada nos ensaios ABTS•+ e DPPH•. Ratos Wistar fêmeas, com 29 dias de
    idade, receberam por via oral água destilada ou etanol (3 g/kg/dia) em 4 episódios
    de binge e por via intranasal solução salina ou óleo de pau-rosa (35 mg/kg) uma vez
    ao dia por 28 dias. A concentração plasmática de linalol foi determinada após 1h, 2h
    e 48h da administração intranasal do óleo essencial. Após o tratamento
    experimental, foram realizados os testes splash e nado forçado. A expressão gênica
    de BDNF e S100B, os parâmetros biológicos do estresse oxidativo e os níveis de
    citocinas pró-inflamatórias foram determinados no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo.
    Os resultados demonstraram que o óleo essencial promoveu melhora do perfil
    anedônico e depressivo induzido pelo álcool, prevenindo as alterações
    comportamentais observadas no grupo etanol. Os efeitos comportamentais do óleo
    essencial foram relacionados à modulação positiva de genes de BDNF e S100B, à
    restauração dos níveis de GSH e TEAC, além da atenuação do aumento de TBARS,
    IL-1β, IL-6 e TNF-α induzidos pelo álcool. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo
    essencial melhorou o perfil depressivo induzido pelo álcool através de um
    mecanismo neuroprotetor ao modular positivamente a expressão gênica de fatores
    neurotróficos, reequilibrar o estado antioxidante e atenuar o processo inflamatório,
    possivelmente pela ação do linalol.

  • NAINA YUKI VIEIRA JARDIM
  • Unexpected cognitive similarities between older adults and young people: scores variability and cognitive performances

  • Data: 17/08/2023
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  • Interindividual variability in cognitive performances has been investigated as they may provide important clues about the multivariate age-related cognitive decline. In the present work, we searched for cognitive variability, similarities, and differences between elderly and young people. For this, we used hierarchical cluster and canonical discriminant function analysis of cognitive scores using specific and sensitive tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychology Test Automated Battery - CANTAB. Among 415 tested volunteers, three distinct cognitive groups were found, mainly based on working memory and episodic memory scores: group 1 was composed almost exclusively of young adults, while groups 2 and 3 were composed predominantly of elderly adults. Although group 1was the youngest group with the highest level of education compared to the other groups, 18% of young people shared similar performances with elderly group 2 while 5% shared cognitive similarities with group 3. As compared to group 1, elderly groups 2 and 3 had equally lower scores in working memory, but as compared to group 3, group 2 showed greater performances in reaction time, sustained attention, and episodic memory. When the hierarchical cluster and discriminant function analyzes were limited to the same age group, we found 4 and 5 distinct clusters among young adults and elderly people respectively. Episodic memory, sustained attention, and reaction time most contributed to group formation in the elderly, while working memory and sustained attention contributed to cluster formation of young adults. Cognitive variability across subjects showed significant dispersion in rapid visual processing, spatial working memory, reaction time, and paired associated learning. The comparative analysis of these differences showed that they do not occur in the same direction and magnitude between individuals, cognitive domains, and tasks. We found that elderly with greater education (larger cognitive reserve) and active lifestyle deviated less from young adult reference group. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of studying variability as an instrument for the early detection of subtle cognitive declines and to interpret results that deviate from normality.

  • AUREA GABRIELA RODRIGUES MENDES
  • EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO COMBINADO COM LASERTERAPIA E GEL DE AÇAÍ NA FASE PROLIFERATIVA DE REPARO EM MODELO DE LESÃO POR RUPTURA TENDÍNEA TOTAL EM RATOS.

  • Data: 11/08/2023
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  • O extrato de açaí tem sido investigado como estratégia farmacológica devido aos
    seus efeitos anti-inflamatórios, antioxidantes e antinociceptivos. Além disso,
    estudos relatam que o laser de baixa intensidade (LBT) pode favorecer o reparo
    tecidual devido aos seus efeitos proliferativos no aumento do número de fibroblastos
    e na síntese de colágeno. Portanto, o uso combinado de açaí com LBT pode ser
    uma alternativa terapêutica no manejo da reparação tendínea. O objetivo deste
    estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do tratamento combinado com gel de açaí e LBT nos
    aspectos morfofuncionais e nociceptivos da lesão do tendão de calcâneo na fase
    proliferativa de reparo. Para isso, 40 ratos Wistar foram divididos em grupo controle
    (CTRL), lesão (LESÃO), gel de açaí 10% (LESÃO+GA), laser infravermelho 2J,
    (LESÃO+LAS) e tratamento combinado (LESÃO+LAS+GA). O teste de Von Frey,
    Ângulo Articular e Índice Funcional de Aquiles foram realizados em 0, 3, 7, e 14 dias
    pós-lesão (DPL). Após 14 dias, os tendões foram coletados e o padrão de
    organização tecidual foi analisado por H&E e Alcian Blue para avaliar as variações
    de glicosaminoglicanos na matriz extracelular, marcação com DAPI para quantificar
    o número de células e autofluorescência de colágeno para avaliar o padrão de
    orientação das fibras colágenas. Demonstramos melhora das características
    macroscópicas do tendão dos grupos tratamentos em relação ao LESÃO, o que
    pode estar correlacionado com melhor organização e orientação tecidual, assim
    como, das fibras colágenas nesses grupos. O aumento do número de células e
    fibroblastos foi mais evidente no grupo laser enfatizando o papel proliferativo da
    laserterapia. A recuperação funcional foi observada em 7 DPL no grupo laser
    isolado, enquanto o tratamento combinado melhorou a nocicepção na fase aguda
    (7o DPL). Na fase proliferativa (14o DPL), o IFA apontou melhora dos aspectos
    funcionais no grupo tratamento combinado. Em contrapartida, a sensibilidade
    nociceptiva foi reestabelecida em todos os grupos tratamentos. Em suma, nossos
    achados indicam que o uso combinado de gel de açaí com LBT pode ser uma
    alternativa terapêutica no manejo do reparo de lesões tendíneas.

  • VALDENIRA DE JESUS OLIVEIRA KATO
  • “Significado da expressão de p16ink4a e da perda de heterozigosidade do gene PTEN no carcinoma epidermóide bucal relacionado ao papilomavirus humano.”

  • Data: 30/06/2023
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  • Os genes p16 e PTEN fazem parte da família dos genes supressores de tumor comumente associados à inativação de uma variedade de cânceres humanos. A perda de sua expressãotem sido estudada mundialmente no Carcinoma Epidermóide Bucal (CEB). Neste estudo, avaliou-se a hipótese de que p16 coopera com PTEN inativo durante a patogênese do CEB, especialmente na agressividade e proliferação do tumor. Para tanto, utilizou-se 119 amostras de CEB nas quais foram avaliadas a relação entre a infecção por HPV, a expressão de
    p16 e mutações em PTEN através das técnicas de imunohistoquímica (IHC), western blot e  imunofluorescência. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que PTEN possui alta positividade em pacientes com tumor de tamanho mais avançado (p <0,01) e metástase linfonodal (p = 0,02). A análise estatística evidenciou que a expressão de p16 foi fortemente associada à presença de HPV (p <0,0001), mas que sua expressão aberrantenão está relacionada com PTEN alterado (p=0.52). Observou-se também que 60% das amostras em estágio IV (estágio avançado do tumor) estavam estatisticamente associadas a presença de mutação. Conclui-se que PTEN e p16 são genes supressores que controlam a progressão tumoral. No estudo atual, PTEN demonstrou maior reatividade em estágios avançados da doença (superior a sete vezes). O p16 foi fortemente associado ao HPV, mas não demonstrou associação significativa com nenhum fator clínico- patológico analisado. Ambas as proteínas apresentam grande importância no prognóstico dos pacientes. Foi demonstrado que a presença viral diminui a agressividade do tumor. Lesões em estágios avançados apresentam menor sobrevida, além disso, a presença de mutação foi mais comumente observada em estágios avançados da doença. Observou-se que pacientes fumantes com ausência de p16 estão significativamente associados a uma taxa de sobrevida duas vezes menor.

  • LAIS TEIXEIRA BONFIM
  • “ANÁLISE TRANSCRIPTÔMICA DAS LINHAGENS CELULARES B103 E C6 EXPOSTAS À AÇÃO DO METILMERCÚRIO”

  • Data: 27/04/2023
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  • A intensificação das atividades antrópicas tem produzido uma alta taxa de poluição
    ambiental principalmente em corpos hídricos, onde a contaminação por metais se tornou
    objeto de grande importância, devido à incapacidade desses ambientes em suportar tal
    poluição. O mercúrio (Hg) é um metal pesado de ocorrência natural, que pode ser
    utilizado na fabricação de elementos domésticos como lâmpadas fluorescentes,
    fungicidas e germicidas. A entrada do Hg na cadeia alimentar ocorre pela metilação dos
    íons Hg2+ em MeHg. Após a metilação, o mercúrio é considerado altamente tóxico para
    o ser humano, e entre os principais órgãos alvo dessa intoxicação podemos citar o cérebro,
    uma vez que o MeHg atravessa facilmente a barreira hematoencefálica, podendo
    acumular-se em diferentes áreas cerebrais. Sabe-se que, uma vez no SNC, o MeHg pode
    causar extensos danos celulares, como dano ao DNA, estresse oxidaivo, neuroinflamação
    e morte celular tanto em neurônios quando em células da glia. Dessa forma, o objetivo
    deste trabalho foi analisar as alterações transcriptômicas das linhagens celulares B103 e
    C6, células derivadas de neuroblastoma e glioma de Rattus norvegicus, expostas à ação
    do metilmercúrio. Para isso, foi utilizada a técnica de microarray de expressão afim
    avaliar o perfil global de expressão genica após 24 h de exposição ao MeHg. Nossos
    resultados demonstraram que o MeHg induz alterações significativas na expressão genica
    das duas linhagens celulares estudadas, sendo estas alterações mais proeminentes na
    linhagem C6, na qual observou-se uma maior quantidade de genes diferencialmente
    expressos. Entre os genes que mais se destacaram após a exposição das células B103 ao
    MeHg destacaram-se os genes Cdc42se2 (log2 FC -4.055713), Dcx (log2 FC 3.618981)
    e 4930449C09Rik (log2 FC 3.5129156) para a concentração de 0,1 μM. Já para a
    exposição de 2,8 μM, os genes com maior FC foram Crem (log2 FC -4.027875),
    Otoa (log2 FC 3.501512) e Dcx (log2 FC 3.423433). Além dos genes acima citados,
    destacaram-se os genes Trim14, Gm14169, Gm30871, Otoa e Dcx por serem
    compartilhados entre os dois grupos expostos. Quanto a linhagem C6, destacaram-se dez
    transcritos com FC maior que 3 (Aldh1l2, Dac1, Rps4l, Zbtb46, 6430573p05Rik, Tcf12,
    Awat2, Muc3, Dclre1b, Slc38a6). No tratamento de 6,3 μM, apenas três genes foram
    alterados mais de 3 vezes (Rps4l, Ankdr44 e 2610318N02Rik). Vale ressaltar que três
    genes foram compartilhados entre os tratamentos (Rps4l, Lamb 3 e Gm 41386).

  • PATRICIA SEIXAS ALVES SANTOS
  • MODIFICAÇÃO DO ESPECTRO DE TREMOR DA MÃO PELA MASSA DO APARELHO DE AVALIAÇÃO DO TREMOR EM INDIVÍDUOS JOVENS SAUDÁVEIS: COMPARAÇÃO DE SMARTPHONE E APARELHO VESTÍVEL

  • Data: 28/03/2023
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  • Os tremores são distúrbios comuns caracterizados por uma oscilação
    involuntária e relativamente rítmica que pode ocorrer em qualquer parte do corpo,
    podendo ser fisiológico ou associado a alguma condição patológica. Sabe-se que o
    carregamento de massa pode alterar a distribuição espectral de potência do tremor.
    Atualmente, muitos instrumentos têm sido utilizados na avaliação de tremores com
    sensores inerciais embutidos, que podem diferir significativamente na massa do
    dispositivo. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a quantificação do tremor
    da mão usando análise espectral de Fourier obtidas a partir de leituras de acelerômetros
    embutidos em um dispositivo portátil leve (wearable) e um aparelho de telefonia móvel
    comercial (smartphone). Métodos: Foram recrutados 28 indivíduos destros saudáveis
    com idades variando de 18 a 40 anos. Em cada participante foi registrado o tremor da
    mão em repouso e sob adoção de postura ativa usando wearable (6 g) e smartphone
    (170 g) e foi feita análise de Fourier para estudar o espectro de frequências do tremor e
    foram comparadas características espectrais nas faixas entre 0 e 5 Hz e 5 e 12 Hz entre
    os registros obtidos pelos dois aparelhos. Resultados: Os principais achados desta tese
    mostram que na condição de repouso o espectro de tremor da mão teve maior amplitude
    de pico na faixa entre 5 e 12 Hz quando o tremor foi registrado com smartphones, e na
    condição postural houve pico de energia e frequência de pico significativamente
    maiores nos tremores registrados com smartphones na mão dominante. Conclusões:
    Dispositivos com massas diferentes podem alterar as características do espectro do
    tremor da mão e suas comparações mútuas podem ser prejudicadas.

  • JANE DO SOCORRO DOS NAVEGANTES MARCAL CUNHA
  • SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE CREATINA E NEUROPROTEÇÃO APÓS TRAUMATISMO CRANIOENCEFÁLICO: ANÁLISES ESTEREOLÓGICAS EM NEURÔNIOS HIPOCAMPAIS DE RATOS.

  • Data: 24/03/2023
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  • O traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) é considerado um dos maiores problemas em
    Saúde Pública no mundo, pois causa um elevado número de mortes nas sociedades
    modernas, por meios diversos. No Brasil, é responsável por cerca de 50% das mortes
    decorrentes de trauma, sendo considerada a principal causa de morte em adultos
    jovens. Estudos recentes, como o de Gerbatin et al., (2019), propõe que a creatina
    possui efeitos protetores em doenças neurodegenerativas, assim como, efeito
    anticonvulsivante pósTCE associado à sua capacidade de reduzir a perda celular,
    incluindo o número de células parvalbumino-positivas (PARV+) na região do corno de
    Amon 3 (CA3) do hipocampo. Este trabalho apresenta a hipótese de que a
    suplementação com creatina também pode ser promotora de neuroproteção após um
    TCE nas regiões do cornus de Amon 1 e 2 (CA1 e CA2). Todos os protocolos foram
    aprovados junto ao Comitê de Ética Profissional (CEP) da Universidade Federal de
    Santa Maria (UFSM), (protocolo número, 011/2015). Foram utilizados ratos Wistar
    machos (166) com 90 dias de idade provenientes do biotério da UFSM. Os animais
    foram submetidos à cirurgia e 24 horas após, o TCE foi induzido por meio de Fluidic
    Percursion Injury (FPI). Os animais receberam suplementação de creatina durante 4
    semanas e ao final da quarta semana, os animais foram mortos. Os animais foram
    perfundidos transcardiacamente com solução de paraformaldeído 4%, e após
    craniotomia, os encéfalos foram seccionados a 100 μm de espessura sob plano
    coronal para posterior processamento imunohistoquímico para parvalbumina,
    evidenciando neurônios inibitórios (PARVO+), associada a um fator neuroprotetor e
    de aumento de resistência às lesões excitotóxicas. A estimativa de neurônios Parvo+
    foi realizada por estereologia sem viés nas regiões de CA1 e CA2. A análise de
    variância de duas vias para estimativa de neurônios (PARV+) na camada piramidal de
    CA1 e CA2 dorsal demonstrou que tanto o traumatismo crânio encefálico [F(1,18)=0,01,
    p=0,91)] quanto a suplementação de creatina [(F(1,18)=0,79, p=0,38)] não alteraram
    significativamente o número desses neurônios inibitórios entre os grupos
    experimentais. Os resultados não sugerem efeito neuroprotetor produzido pela
    suplementação de creatina, por não ter-se observado perda significativa de neurônios
    inibitórios nas regiões estudadas.

  • LUIS FELIPE SARMIENTO RIVERA
  • La toma de decisiones en los deportes de combate:
    ¿lo que décimos y lo que hacemos? Relaciona entre toma de decisiones y perfil neurocognitivo

  • Data: 02/03/2023
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  • Tem duas formas de pensar como e feito o processo de tomada de decisões. O processo pode ser
    automático ou pode ser modulado por processos linguísticos – de uma forma deliberada-. Além, as
    lutas geram um ambiente de alta emocionalidade, apresentando-se a ansiedade. O objetivo deste
    estudo e entender como o processo de tomada de decisões, a ansiedade e a impulsividade apresentada
    na atividade física do combate, uma luta de judô, donde tem decisões constante em respostas
    constantes em tempo limitado. Para fazer isto, dois grupos de participantes (30 lutadores e 15 não
    lutadores), os lutadores se dividiram em dois subgrupos (15 lutadores em um grupo e 15 lutadores em
    outro). Um dos grupos assistiu um vídeo antecipando os movimentos dos lutadores com um
    questionário e o outro grupo fui filmado em uma luta. Os dois grupos também fizeram um teste de
    impulsividade e outro de ansiedade. Cada participante tinha mais de 4,5 anos de treinamento e era
    competidor. Foram encontradas diferenças nas decisões que os participantes executavam na luta com
    as que eles falavam, especificamente quando faziam uma ação. Também fui encontrada diferencia
    significativa entre os lutadores e constróis apresentando os lutadores maiores níveis de ansiedade não
    fue encontrada diferencia significativa em quanto a impulsividade entre os grupos. Os resultados desta
    pesquisa ajudam a entender como e a cognição em judocas, indicando focos para futuros programas de
    treinamento e preparação para competição dos atletas

  • ANGELICA RITA GOBBO
  • "Estratégias moleculares identificam novos alvos para o diagnóstico e compreensão da fisiopatogenia da hanseníase."

  • Data: 27/02/2023
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • A hanseníase é uma doença infecto contagiosa crônica ocasionada pelo Mycobacterium leprae que se caracteriza clinicamente por um amplo espectro de sinais e sintomas dermatoneurológicos. A transmissão do M. leprae ocorre principalmente através das vias aéreas superiores, sendo o convívio prolongado com pacientes bacilíferos a principal forma de aquisição do patógeno. O contato com casos de hanseníase dispersos na comunidade
    aumenta o risco de adoecimento em indivíduos susceptíveis. Nesse sentido, a fim de avaliar a aplicabilidade das ferramentas laboratoriais atuais, o presente trabalho avaliou 171 casos de hanseníase e 126 comunicantes. A detecção do gene RLEP pela qPCR foi a técnica que melhor identificou os doentes (89,47%), seguido pela titulação de anticorpos anti-ND-O-HSA (55,5%) e, por fim, a baciloscopia (39,7%). Como as ferramentas laboratoriais utilizadas até o momento possuem limitações, o presente trabalho se propôs a realizar também uma investigação global dos mRNAs alterados em amostras de pele com alterações macroscópicas, microscópicas e moleculares decorrentes da hanseníase, com a finalidade de compreender melhor os processos
    biológicos alterados no desenvolvimento da doença e, assim, identificar alvos em potencial que possam ser utilizados como assinaturas moleculares. Analisando o perfil de expressão de mRNA, foram identificados 894 genes com expressão alterada, sendo 149 suprimidos e 745 aumentados. Separando os genes que se destacam exclusivamente em cada polo da doença, foi possível identificar candidatos para o diagnóstico do polo lepromatoso da hanseníase, sendo FKBP5 e ZBED2 genes com expressão aumentada e CHRM4, CLDN23 e MAST1 com expressão diminuída. Nós observamos que o sistema imunológico é alterado em ambos os
    grupos, porém, por mecanismos imunológicos completamente distintos. No polo TT há predomínio dos processos de ativação da imunidade celular, enquanto no polo LL houve preponderância na resposta imune associada ao sistema complemento. Por fim, a associação entre as abordagens de mRNA, miRNA e piRNA identificou correlação entre 1) mRNA e miRNA (genes ITGA5, ICAM1 e IFNG) nos processos vinculados à ativação/recrutamento leucocitário e à entrada do M. leprae na célula hospedeira, e 2) entre mRNA e piRNA (gene KCNMA1) no controle da excitabilidade neural que pode cursar com o dano ou proteção neural.

  • DEUSA PRISCILA RESQUE XIMENES PONTE
  • Effect of reading competence on perceptive organization strategies of visual dinner in schoolchildren.

  • Data: 09/02/2023
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Written language arose about 5000 years ago, which is a relatively short period in evolutionary terms for the appearance of a specific neural system for decoding orthographic characters. Literacy thus depends on the recycling of brain circuits originally evolved for the routine processing of sensory, motor and language functions. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between reading competence and the ability for holistic visual processing in a group of schoolchildren. We recruited 140 (one hundred and forty) volunteers (girls: 6-10 ± 8.5 y.o.; boys: 6-10 ± 8.2 y.o.) enrolled in the first to fifth year of elementary School. Participants we submitted to a reading evaluation and the Mooney's face test, which assesses perceptual closure. Our results demonstrate that the performance of boys aged 6-10 years is different from that of girls in the same age group for the reading competence test and in the perceptual closure test, with the boys showing superior performance. These findings demonstrate that the development of reading competence and holistic visual skills are not dissociated in childhood and have important implications for children's literacy.

2022
Descrição
  • ANA LIGIA DE BRITO OLIVEIRA
  • Caracterização epidemiológica, clínica e laboratorial de pacientes sépticos diagnosticados com covid-
    19 e sem covid-19 em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI): identificação de biomarcadores.

  • Data: 21/12/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • A sepse é uma doença sistêmica com risco de vida atribuída a uma resposta desregulada do
    hospedeiro à infecção. A sepse é um grave problema de saúde pública que mata cerca de 11
    milhões de pessoas anualmente. Em dezembro de 2019, uma nova condição de pneumonia
    denominada doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), causada pela síndrome respiratória
    aguda grave coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), surgiu e resultou em mais de 1,5 milhões de
    mortes em todo o mundo. Embora existam algumas características únicas pertinentes ao
    COVID-19, muitas de suas manifestações agudas são semelhantes à sepse causada por outros
    patógenos já que essas duas condições compartilham muitas características fisiopatológicas e
    clínicas. Nesse sentido, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar características
    epidemiológicas, clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes sépticos diagnosticados com COVID-19
    e sem COVID- 19 em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) para assim identificar possíveis
    biomarcadores associados ao agravamento de sepse nesses pacientes. Este estudo foi realizado
    a partir da análise de prontuários e/ou amostras de plasma de pacientes atendidos em UTI de
    um Hospital de Belém/PA em dois períodos 2020 (1º período) e 2021 (2º período). Na
    primeira etapa do estudo foram incluídos 200 participantes diagnosticados com COVID-19
    internados em enfermaria e UTI. Na segunda etapa do estudo a população de estudo foi
    composta por 402 pacientes internados em UTI no período de Fevereiro à Junho de 2021. Por
    fim, observamos que a maioria dos casos de sepse com COVID foram por sepse clínica. Os
    marcadores de Dímero D, PCR, IL-6 e IL-10 foram preditivos em determinar em curso clínico
    de COVID-19, em particular para as formas mais grave de sepse. A mortalidade por sepse na
    UTI do hospital foi de 22,3%, sendo que o choque séptico foi o agravamento mais
    representativo dos casos de óbitos em pacientes diagnosticados ou não com COVID. O
    envelhecimento e comorbidades foi associado ao aumento do risco de sepse além disso, eles
    apresentam menor sobrevida quanto maior tempo internação na UTI. O aumento nos valores
    de RPL e RNL foi associada a piora clínica e mortalidade tanto em pacientes sem COVID
    como com COVID. A redução de hemácias e hemoglobina foi associada a piora clínica e
    mortalidade em pacientes com COVID. A partir destes dados, o estudo apresenta descobertas
    sobre biomarcadores que podem ser relevantes na estratificação de risco, diagnóstico,
    identificação da gravidade da sepse que auxiliam na escolha das medidas de cuidado de
    pacientes com sepse diagnosticados ou não com COVID-19.

  • DANIELE SALGADO DE SOUSA
  • Expressão gênica durante o desenvolvimento ocular e regulação da assimetria de opsinas na espécie
    Anableps anableps, peixe de quatro olhos.

  • Data: 30/11/2022
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  • O desenvolvimento ocular é um processo complexo orquestrado por vários eventos que
    incluem: especificação, morfogênese e diferenciação celular. Todos esses processos de
    desenvolvimento e funcionamento do olho são extremamente conservados entre as espécies de
    vertebrados viventes, entretanto, por vezes são observadas adaptações interessantes, como em
    peixes do gênero Anableps. Ao contrário da maioria dos peixes, que usam os olhos para a
    exploração de um mundo submerso, em Anableps anableps (Anablepidae:
    Cyprinodontiformes), o olho é adaptado para a percepção simultânea de um mundo acima e
    abaixo d’água. Essas adaptações excepcionais incluem: córneas e pupilas duplicadas, bem
    como retina especializada contendo regiões associadas à visão aérea e aquática simultânea, e
    que expressam genes de modo assimétrico. Recentemente, por análise transcriptômica dos
    olhos em desenvolvimento de A. anableps, 20 genes de opsinas não visuais foram identificados
    sendo assimetricamente expressos entre estágios pré e pós duplicação de córneas e pupilas.
    Desse modo, aqui, analisamos por hibridização in situ a expressão de uma opsina biestável
    (Parapinopsin) e uma neuropsina (Opn5) em larvas de A. anableps. Nossos dados mostraram
    que o padrão de expressão gênico destas opsinas é simétrico entre a retina dorsal e ventral,
    respectivamente, havendo expressão nas camadas CNE, CNI e CCG. Investigamos também a
    expressão de três genes de melanopsinas não visuais (opn4x1, opn4x2, opn4m3), uma opsina
    de tecido múltiplo teleósteo (tmt1b), e duas opsinas visuais (lws e rh2-1) nas retinas dorsal e
    ventral de A. anableps, logo após alterarmos as condições fóticas em que os peixes juvenis se
    encontravam. Mostramos que na transição de um ambiente de alta turbidez para um de água
    límpida, as opsinas alteram seus padrões de expressão gênica. Adicionalmente, por
    imunofluorescência, desvendamos a expressão de Lamin A/C e γ-cristalino, proteínas que
    fazem parte do desenvolvimento ocular em A. anableps e que são expressas de forma similar a
    de outros organismos em desenvolvimento. Portanto, acreditamos que as informações aqui
    descritas elucidam muitos aspectos dos mecanismos moleculares por trás do desenvolvimento
    e da plasticidade adaptativa dos olhos de A. anableps.

  • BRUNO GONCALVES PINHEIRO
  • Investigação dos efeitos da cafeína e SCH58261sobre as alterações comportamentais e no estresse oxidativo, e papel dos receptores A2A na potenciação de longo prazo após intoxicação por etanol em padrão binge em ratos fêmeas da adolescência a fase adulta.

  • Data: 25/11/2022
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  • O consumo binge de etanol é um padrão de ingestão intermitente e episódico envolvido em vários distúrbios cerebrais que afetam adolescentes e mulheres, considerados mais suscetíveis a danos persistentes até a idade adulta. Nos efeitos deletérios do etanol um mecanismo de intoxicação importante, é a superprodução de adenosina, que causa hiperexcitabilidade em seus receptores gerando alterações comportamentais e estresse
    oxidativo. Estes receptores são antagonizados pela cafeína, substância bioativa que pode modular a superativação nociva do etanol. O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar os efeitos da administração de cafeína nas alterações da locomoção, ansiedade, cognição e desequilíbrio redox induzidos pelo álcool, e se estas alterações são mediadas pelos receptores A2A através do bloqueio por SCH58261, bem como elucidar o papel de A2A na potenciação de longo prazo (LTP) desde a adolescência até a idade adulta. Material e Métodos: Ratas Wistar fêmeas (35 dias de idade; n = 90) foram alocadas em seis grupos: controle (água destilada- gavagem, v.o), etanol (3 g/kg/dia; 3 dias on-4 dias off, v.o), cafeína (10 mg/kg/dia, v.o), cafeína mais etanol (v.o), SCH58261 (0,1 mg/kg/dia, antagonista A2A, intraperitoneal – i,p), e etanol + SCH58261 (i.p e v.o). Todos
    os animais foram submetidos a testes comportamentais de campo aberto, reconhecimento de objeto e labirinto em cruz elevado. Ensaios bioquímicos de capacidade antioxidante equivalente trolox (TEAC), glutationa (GSH), catalase (CAT), superóxido dismutase (SOD), óxido nítrico (NO), substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) foram avaliados no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo. Nos ensaios de LTP foram selecionados quatro grupos: controle, etanol, etanol mais SCH58261 e apenas o antagonista (SCH58261) no mesmo esquema de tratamento como reportado previamente no córtex pré-frontal medial (mPFC), e porção ventral (vHip) e dorsal (dHIP) do hipocampo. Resultados: A cafeína evitou os prejuízos comportamentais através do bloqueio dos receptores A2A. Além disso, atenuou o estresse oxidativo induzido pelo desafio do binge drinking por vias alternativas parcialmente diferentes do receptor A2A. E nos estudos de LTP o bloqueio aumentou LTP no mPFC e vHIP, porém diminuiu no dHIP. Conclusão: Assim, sugerimos que o antagonismo de cafeína e A2A consistem em robustez de neuroproteção em deficiências induzidas pelo etanol durante a adolescência.

  • LUANA CARVALHO MARTINS
  • AS CÉLULAS GLIAIS DA CÓCLEA MEDEIAM A CAPTAÇÃO DE GLUTAMATO POR UM TRANSPORTADOR INDEPENDENTE DE SÓDIO

  • Data: 20/10/2022
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  • Embora muitos avanços tenham sido alcançados nos estudos sobre células gliais no Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC), em regiões periféricas como o sistema auditivo periférico, pouco se sabe sobre o papel das células gliais que envolvem os neurônios ganglionares ao longo de toda a via auditiva. A cóclea é um órgão sensorial do sistema auditivo periférico responsável pela recepção e propagação de estímulos periféricos até o sistema nervoso central. O principal neurotransmissor que medeia as sinapses excitatórias na cóclea é o L-
    Glutamato, cuja ação excessiva sob seus receptores tem sido associada a danos na função auditiva. Nesse sentido, ressalta-se o papel crucial de mecanismos de transporte de glutamato capazes de regular a concentração extracelular desse neurotransmissor nos espaços sináptico e extra sináptico para a manutenção da função normal da cóclea. Dentro desse contexto, neste estudo buscamos investigar a atividade e expressão de sistemas de transporte de glutamato em modelo in vitro de culturas primárias de células gliais cocleares obtidas de camundongos (Balb/C) neonatos. Para isso, determinamos o transporte de glutamato dependente e independente de sódio por meio de ensaios de captação e liberação utilizando diferentes estratégias
    farmacológicas. A quantificação de glutamato extracelular em cada amostra foi realizada por meio de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência acoplada a um detector de fluorescência. Por fim, as células foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescência para marcação do transportador de glutamato independente de sódio X CG . Em nossos resultados, demonstramos que as células gliais medeiam a captação de glutamato por meio de um mecanismo independente de sódio que apresenta uma atividade proeminente quando comparado a astrócitos do córtex. Além disso, identificamos pela primeira vez a expressão do transportador X CG - em células gliais da cóclea, principal representante da família de transportadores de glutamato independente de sódio. Tais dados sugerem um possível papel deste transportador no controle das concentrações extracelulares de glutamato e regulação do estado redox, que pode auxiliar na preservação da função auditiva.

  • ANALU ALVES MACIEL
  • O TRATAMENTO COM MEIO CONDICIONADO EM CULTURA PRIMÁRIA DE TENÓCITOS ACELERA O REPARO TENDÍNEO EM MODELO DE LESÃO TOTAL DO TENDÃO CALCÂNEO.

  • Data: 14/10/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Conventional treatments for tendinopathies are ineffective and most clinical
    interventions do not provide adequate recovery leaving this tissues more likely to suffer
    reinjures. Recently, cell based therapies has been shown to be effective for the
    treatment in connective tissue injuries, such as tendons. Our aim is to evaluate if local
    treatment with tenocytes conditioned medium promoves tissue and functional
    improvements in the calcaneal tendon of tenotomized mice. The calcaneal tendon cells
    of Swiss mice were cultured for conditioning culture medium that will be used as a
    treatment. The animals were subjected to right calcaneal tenotomy and treated with
    saline solution (SAL), DMEM without serum (DMEM) and DMEM conditioned in
    primary tenocyte culture (MC) and compared to the control group (CTRL). Tendon
    functionality was measured using the Achilles Functional Index (AFI) and mechanical
    sensitivity through the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) using the Von Frey test. All
    analyzes were performed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-injury (dpi). For histological
    analysis, tissues were stained with HE. Statistics were performed by ANOVA-2
    followed by Tukey's post test, p<0.01. The MC group showed functional improvement
    at 7° and 14°dpi (-40.4±12.6; -36.6±10.4) compared to the DMEM groups (-76.5±11.7;
    -71, 6±7.9, p<0.01) and SAL (-88.8±15; -71.4±12.6 p<0.01). The MC group showed
    improvement in the paw withdrawal threshold at 7° and 14°dpl (2.24±1.15; 2.66±1.06)
    compared to the DMEM groups (0.15±0.07; 0 .45±0.76 p<0.01) SAL (0.13±1.15;
    0.77±0.95 p<0.01). In the histological analysis, the MC group showed better tissue
    organization with cells presenting a format more similar to the control group, while the
    SAL and DMEM groups were more different from this one. We conclude that treatment
    with tenocytes conditioned medium accelerates tendon recovery, promoving
    improvement in mechanical sensitivity, functionality and tissue organization in the
    proposed injury model.

  • JHON JAIRO BUENHOMBRE VASQUEZ
  • PEZ-CEBRA (Danio rerio) COMO MODELO COMO MODELO DE BIENESTAR ANIMAL.

  • Data: 06/10/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • These project aims to establish a model to asses’ emotions in zebrafish (Danio rerio) that can be used in other species and contexts. This idea came up because there is not a reliable model for the assessment of long-term emotional valence, especially the positive one. Most of the time what is measured is the arousal or physical activity and frequently short-term negative emotions. This happens with most of the animal welfare assessments and preclinical models that evaluate emotions.
    Although currently is impossible to directly evaluate the subjective aspect of emotion in animals, this research will try to set up a more objective and robust evaluation of animals´ emotional valence by measuring the observable components (behaviour and physiology) of emotion along with the cognitive process which allow to indirectly infer the subjective component of emotion from the bi-directional interaction between emotions and cognition.
    Also, we are going to study personality to assess the effects of individuality on long-term emotions, this will allow to differentiate those effects related to emotional traits from those related to emotional states induced by mood manipulation. Moreover, personality assessment will allow us to evaluate emotional mood-trait interactions.
    Furthermore, we are aimed to give more validity to the model by measuring other parameters and correlate them all together. As the multifactorial nature of emotions cannot be measured completely by having into account one or few parameters. Thus, besides the cognitive bias and personality assessment, we are going to measure behaviours according to natural history, we will assess anxiety (Dark/light) and frightening (Salinity) responses to add more validity and evaluate stress coping and finally we are going to evaluate neuronal activity to correlate emotional states and brain areas.
    This way we are planning to have a better approach to the animal´s point of view regarding the best housing conditions that allow them to deal better with stress and to have a better mood and consequently a good quality of life.

  • ANA CAROLINA BRITO DOS ANJOS
  • ANÁLISE IN VITRO DO POTENCIAL ANTITUMORAL DO CONJUGADO
    LDE/PACLITAXEL COMPARADO À FORMULAÇÃO COMERCIAL TAXOL®
    SOBRE LINHAGEM CELULAR C6 DE GLIOBLASTOMA DE RATO

  • Data: 22/09/2022
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  • ANJOS, A.C.B. In vitro analysis of the antitumor potential of the LDE / Paclitaxel conjugate compared to the commercial formulation Taxol ® on human glioma cell line H4. Dissertação (Mestrado). Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, 2020.
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), also known as glioblastoma and grade IV astrocytoma, is one of the most common and aggressive types of tumors in the central nervous system. Among the characteristics of this type of tumor, the following stand out: infiltration of isolated tumor cells in normal brain tissue, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and intense necrosis. Currently, the main therapeutic approach consists of surgical resection (removal of the entire visible tumor) followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, in most cases, the tumor is not well defined, spreading through the brain region, which makes it difficult to fully resection. In addition, the removal of tissue from this region can leave several sequels. Consequently, patients have high rates of recurrence and low rates of survival. Another problem in the treatment of this type of tumor is due to the lining of the blood-brain barrier that restricts the entry of molecules and substances, including drugs. Thus, this project aims to analyze the antineoplastic effects of the association of a nanoparticle called LDE with a structure similar to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that will act as a carrier of the drug paclitaxel (PTX), commercially known as Taxol®, it is a chemotherapeutic drug whose cell antiproliferative action has been proven in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as breast and refractory ovarian cancers. The analysis of cytotoxic effects and oxidative stress will be performed in vitro with the human glioma cell line H4. To evaluate the growth and the effect of the drug on the treatment groups with PTX and LDE/PTX, about 5x103 cells will be cultured in 96-well microplates, in concentrations of 0.01; 0.1; 1 and 10 μM. After this procedure, the concentrations that obtain the greatest cell growth inhibition will be used for the subsequent experiments in order to evaluate the effect of drugs on the cell cycle, apoptosis and necrosis rates, as well as, characterization of reactive oxygen species. For experimental control, cells not exposed to the compounds will be used. All tests will be carried out in triplicate and finally, the results will be compared in order to verify the group that presented the greatest antitumor activity.

  • JOSÉ RAMON GAMA ALMEIDA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DA SELETIVIDADE OLFATIVA PÓS ALTERAÇÕES OCASI-ONADAS POR COVID-19

  • Data: 16/09/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Introduction: Sudden loss of smell is among the first and most prevalent symptoms of COVID-19, where the main symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection are flu-like, such as fever, cough and asthenia. The symptoms of COVID-19 vary between individuals, from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory failure, in addition to a variety of other symptoms. Which can affect, among others, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions. The sense of smell ranges from detecting warning odors in the environment to building our most pleasurable experiences. This is a process that involves a complex neural network, including the temporal lobe, the amygdala, the insula and a large part of the limbic lobe: the loss of smell should not only be considered as a sensory symptom, but also as a complex syndrome. psycho-sensory. Objective: With that, this work aims to evaluate the olfactory selectivity and trigeminal sensation in the olfactory alterations reported by patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: Randomized case-control study involving 88 COVID-19-related patients with persistent anosmia or hyposmia after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Forty-four patients diagnosed with COVID-19 underwent evaluation by the Mini Mental Examination test, data collection form, olfactory identification test, olfactory memory test, olfactory threshold test and trigeminal sensation test. Results: In the identification test for the 4 odorants in their essences, it showed a selectivity of the patients to identify certain odors, however, the vast majority of them were not able to identify the odorant of the banana essence. For the short-term olfactory memory test, the results were visible and significant for the errors being more presented in the CoVID-19 group when compared to the control, in the olfactory threshold, differences in perception were observed between the groups. Absence of at least one trigeminal chemosensory function during the test period was reported by 24 patients (58%). The identification of lavender-induced cooling sensation was correct in 20 patients (52%).

  • MATEUS DOS SANTOS SILVA
  • "GLUTATHIONE MODULATES ADENOSINE RELEASE BY PRIMARY MICE CORTICAL ASTROCYTES"

  • Data: 06/09/2022
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  • Glutathione (GSH) is one of the main antioxidants in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and a potential gliotransmitter, inducing calcium waves in the cytosol of glial cells. Adenosine (Adn) is a neuromodulator widely expressed in the CNS and its extracellular levels are a critical factor in determining its effect on nervous tissue. It is known that Ca 2+ - dependent pathways regulate Adn release. Since GSH has the ability to induce Ca 2+ waves in the cytosol of glial cells, the present work aims to investigate whether this molecule can regulate extracellular DNA levels. To assess this, we used primary cultures of cortical astrocytes maintained in DMEM+10% SBF in a CO 2 oven (37oC, 95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) for 12-15 days, when they reached confluence. The cells were incubated with Hank buffer for different time intervals, after which this solution was collected and the neurotransmitters present there were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Our data show that GSH induces an 80% increase in extracellular Adn levels at two analyzed times: 5 and 20 minutes. Removal of GSH from the incubation medium returns the Adn concentration to baseline levels. Removal of Na + or Ca 2+ from the medium did not affect the effect of GSH. Blockade of nucleoside equilibrative transporters by dipyridamole (10 M) significantly decreased the levels of Adn in the medium, but did not interfere with the action of GSH. In order to assess whether the effect of GSH derives from an indirect modulation on the release of glutamate or GABA (two agents described as regulators of Adn release), the quantification of these transmitters was performed. Both were significantly increased in the presence of GSH. However, unlike what was observed with Adn, the removal of Na + from the incubation medium mitigated the effect of GSH on glutamate release. The incubation of astrocytes with GABA (50 and 100 M) did not influence the extracellular Adn concentration in our experimental model, ruling out a GABAergic modulation behind the effect of GSH. The evaluation of redox agents showed that thiol compounds reproduce the effect of GSH, while the non-thiol antioxidant alpha-tocopherol did not regulate extracellular Adn levels. Thus, the present work concludes that astrocytes express a GSH-sensitive component that can be modulated by its sulfhydryl group.

  • LEONY DIAS DE OLIVEIRA
  • ESTUDOS CITOGENÉTICOS E MOLECULARES NOS GÊNEROS Mesomys e Lonchothrix
    (RODENTIA, ECHIMYIDAE, EUMYSOPINAE).

  • Data: 29/08/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  •  

    The Echimyidae family is considered the most taxonomically diverse among South American
    rodents, comprising 25 genera and 93 species. The subfamily Eumysopinae is represented by
    nine genera, among which we highlight the arboreal genera Mesomys, which has four
    recognized species, and Lonchothrix described as monotypic (L. emiliae), both distributed in
    the Amazon. Morphological, molecular and chromosomal studies in the genera Mesomys and
    Lonchothrix have helped to improve taxonomic delineation, phylogenetic relationships and
    karyotypic patterns. Phylogenetic investigations have helped to elucidate hidden diversity,
    suggesting that these taxa are more diverse than previously assumed. Furthermore, the
    distribution limits in the Amazon for M. hispidus and M. stimulax have been questioned by
    some authors. In this sense, the objective of this study is to understand the karyotypic
    evolution of the genera and the geographic limits of the mentioned species. Samples of
    Mesomys and Lonchothrix from different locations in the Brazilian Amazon were analyzed
    using classical and molecular cytogenetics (telomeric probes and 18S rDNA), and by
    sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (Cytb) and Cytochrome C Oxidase -
    Subunit I (COI). Our results indicate a new species not yet described for the genus Mesomys
    (Mesomys sp. n.) presenting the same karyotypic formula as M. stimulax (2n=60/NF=110),
    while M. hispidus presented 2n=60/NF=112, unprecedented for the genre. L. emiliae
    presented 2n=66/NF=126, unprecedented for the genus. Constitutive heterochromatin (HC)
    was distributed in the centromeric region of all chromosomes of M. hispidus, M. stimulax and
    L. emiliae, including the sex chromosomes, with the exception of Mesomys sp. no. who
    presented HC distributed in the proximal region of all chromosomes, including the sexual
    ones; FISH with telomeric probes showed distal markings in both genders, in addition,
    interstitial marking was observed in two chromosome pairs in L. emiliae; FISH with 18S
    rDNA probe showed interstitial staining in only one pair in both genders. Phylogenetic
    analysis confirmed Mesomys and Lonchothrix as sister genera, showed a high rate of
    intraspecific variation in M. hispidus and Mesomys sp. no. may be related to a new lineage in
    the genus.

  • KLINSMANN THIAGO LIMA
  • COX-2 INHIBITION IN HEALTHY INFANT MICE: CONSEQUENCES ON BEHAVIOR AND OXIDATIVE PROFILE.
  • Data: 26/08/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • In the central nervous system, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a constitutive enzyme, which acts in the maintenance of neural homeostasis, modulating synaptic plasticity and the generation of new neurons. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are drugs of choice that act to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, with nimesulide (NMS) being a drug of this class. Several studies have demonstrated the role of these enzymes in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, epilepsy, depression and schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of COX-2 inhibition in healthy infant mice on behavioral and biochemical criteria. For this, male Swiss mice, aged between 21 and 34 days, were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: (1) Vehicle, (2) NMS 2.5mg/kg, (3) NMS 5mg/kg and (4) NMS 10mg/kg. Two injections of NMS were administered intraperitoneally daily. Throughout the experiment, the body mass of the animals was recorded daily and they were submitted to the behavioral tests of Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Light/Dark Box Test (LDB) and Recognition of New Object (RNO). In addition,  brain samples were collected for biochemical analyses. The results demonstrated the induction of oxidative stress with increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus, as well as the promotion of anxiogenic behavior.

  • EMERSON FEIO PINHEIRO
  • "ACTIVATION OF THE CANNABINOID TYPE 1 RECEPTOR (CB1r) PREVENTS BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS AND INHIBITS AGGRESSIVE TYPE BEHAVIOR IN Danio rerio (ZEBRAFISH)".

  • Data: 17/08/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Aggression is a set of complex actions that involve several factors of a genetic, neurophysiological, hormonal and behavioral nature. Furthermore, the brain redox state can also influence aggressive behavior in different species. Thus, modulators of this process can influence the expression of aggressive episodes, between them is the Endocannabinoid System that acts as the main neuromodulator of the CNS, in addition to exerting an antioxidant effect in different conditions. However, its participation in the modulation of aggressive-like behavior needs to be better understood. In this context, this study evaluated the role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1r) in brain redox state and aggressive-like behavior in Danio rerio (Zebrafish). For this, 68 animals were subdivided into groups: (a) Control (n=26), (b) ACEA (n=30) and (c) AM-251 (n=12), all treated with the drugs of interest: (a) Vehicle (NaCl 0.9%); (b) ACEA agonist 1 mg/kg; (c) 1 mg/kg AM-251 antagonist. The animals were isolated in pairs, without physical contact for 24 hours, followed by pre-treatment and after 30 minutes of pharmacokinetics, the fights were filmed for 30 minutes, the individuals were identified as Dominant or Subordinate and the brains were collected for evaluation of the state brain redox of these individuals. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the activation of CB1r by the ACEA agonist modulates aggressive-like behavior and, consequently, partially interferes with the establishment of social hierarchy in Zebrafish, through a redox-independent mechanism. We suggest, therefore, that acute treatment targeting CB1r is a useful neuropharmacological tool to elucidate the role of CES in social interaction and aggressive behavior, allowing a translation with numerous pathologies that have aggression as a behavioral disorder.

  • EDINALDO ROGERIO DA SILVA MORAES
  • MÉTODO BASEADO EM CROMATOGRAFIA LÍQUIDA DE ALTA EFICIÊNCIA PARA ANALISAR A ATIVIDADE DOS TRANSPORTADORES DE GABA NO SISTEMA NERVOSO CENTRAL

  • Data: 11/08/2022
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  • Os GATs são os principais transportadores de GABA no sistema nervoso central e
    alterações em sua atividade estão envolvidas em várias doenças neurológicas, incluindo
    retinopatias. O presente estudo descreve um método eficiente utilizando cromatografia
    líquida de alta eficiência acoplada à detecção por fluorescência para determinação da
    atividade dos GATs em preparações de retina. Explants de retina foram incubadas em
    concentrações conhecidas de GABA (50-1000 μM) por 30 minutos, e os níveis do
    neurotransmissor derivado de o-ftaldeído (OPA) no meio de incubação foram mensurados.
    Ao avaliar a diferença entre as concentrações inicial e final de GABA no meio (
    Δ𝐺𝑎𝑏𝑎 = [𝐺𝑎𝑏𝑎] 𝑡_0 − [𝐺𝑎𝑏𝑎] 𝑡_𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙), um mecanismo de captação saturável foi
    caracterizado ( Km e Vmáx de 382,4 μM e 34 nmol/mg proteína/minuto, respectivamente).
    Tal mecanismo foi amplamente dependente do Na+ e de temperatura, reiterando que o
    mecanismo de diminuição da concentração é de fato captado por transportadores de alta
    afinidade. Somado a isso, nossos resultados também demonstraram que o ácido nipecótico
    (um substrato dos transportadores GAT) inibiu a captação de GABA em preparações
    retinianas, demonstrando uma elevada especificidade dessa metodologia. No geral, o
    presente estudo caracteriza um método alternativo e altamente sensível para avaliar a
    atividade do GAT no SNC.

  • NAGILA MONTEIRO DA SILVA
  • ANTITUMOR EVALUATION OF FATTY AMIDES DERIVED FROM TRIGLYCERIDES FROM ANDIROBA OIL (Carapa guianensis Aublet) IN GLIOMA CELL LINES IN VITRO.

  • Data: 28/06/2022
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Glioma is a rare type of tumour, which acts on Nervous System in a very aggressive way, presents problems in its diagnosis, low effective treatments and survival time less than one year after diagnosis. Due to factors such as intratumoral cell variability, inefficient chemotherapy drugs, adaptive resistance development to the drugs and tumour recurrence after resection, the development of new drugs becomes necessary. In this sense, molecules analogues to endocannabinoids such as fatty amides are a good alternative, since scientific literature shows that they can act as antitumor agents through the interaction with the endocannabinoid system, which modulates many metabolic pathways related to cancer. In this work, two fatty amides synthetized from andiroba (Carapa guianensis aublet) using lipase from Candida antarctica-B (CAL-B) oil were tested aiming to evaluated its potential in the glioma treatment in vitro (C6). AGs reduced C6 cell  viability in a dose dependent manner while were not toxic to normal glia cells. Both FAA1 and FAA2 caused apoptosis cell death and also loss of mitochondrial integrity probably by inhibiting PI3k/AKT pathway. Furthermore, FAAs were capable of reduce the C6 migratory potential. In conclusion FAAs have a promising potential to treat glioma-type brain cancer.

  • JULIANA DOS SANTOS DUARTE
  • “PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BASED ON DANCE MOVEMENTS AS COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE: THE EFFECTS ON THE MOVEMENT, EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, AND QUALITY OF LIFE”

  • Data: 21/06/2022
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  • Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms that are well understood, but non-motor symptoms may be present and appear at different temporal stages of the disease. Physical activity based on dance movements is emerging as a complementary therapeutic approach to a range of PD symptoms as a multidimensional activity that requires rhythmic synchronization and more neuromuscular functions. Objective: To evaluate the effects of physical activity based on dance movements on the movement, executive functions, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and severity of PD in individuals diagnosed with PD. Methods: 13 individuals with PD (Hoehn & Yahr I-III, MDS-UPDRS 67.62 ± 20.83), underwent physical activity based on dance movements (2x week for 6 months). Participants were assessed at baseline and after 6 months on movement (POMA, TUG and MDS-UPDRS Part III), executive function (FAB), depressive symptoms (MADRS), quality of life (PDQ-39), and severity of PD (MDS-UPDRS TOTAL). Student's t-test was used to compare pre and post-intervention results. Results: We observed a significant improvement in the movement (balance and gait) by the POMA test, p = 0.0207, executive function by the FAB test, p = 0.0074, abstract reasoning and inhibitory control by the FAB, Conceptualization test, p = 0.0062, and Inhibitory Control, p = 0.0064, depressive symptoms assessed by the MADRS test significantly reduced, p = 0.0214, and the quality of life by the PDQ-39 had a significant increase after the intervention, p = 0.0006, showed significant improvements between the pre-and post-intervention periods of physical activity based on dance movements. Conclusion: Physical activity based on dance movements contributed to significant improvements in movement (balance and gait), executive functions, especially in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, and the quality of life too. Sensorimotor integration, most cognitive processing and social skills may have contributed to the results.

  • GABRIELA SANTOS ALVAREZ SAMPAIO
  • “TOPOGRAFIA DE CÉLULAS GANGLIONARES ALFA NA RETINA DE Cuniculus paca,
    Dasyprocta aguti E Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.”

  • Data: 31/05/2022
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  • Introdução: O sistema visual de roedores da Amazônia da subordem Hystrichomorpha
    foi largamente descrito, mas pouco se sabe a respeito da topografia de células
    ganglionares alfa, as quais apresentam função no processamento da visão de estímulos
    em movimento. Os roedores cutia (Dasyprocta aguti), paca (Cuniculus paca) e capivara
    (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) são três diferentes espécies de Hystrichomorpha que
    apresentam ciclo circadiano e estilo de vida diferente. Objetivos: Quantificar a
    densidade das células ganglionares alfa e analisar o tamanho do corpo celular de acordo
    com a excentricidade na retina de cutia, paca e capivara. Métodos: Foram utilizadas três
    retinas de cutia, de paca e de capivara provenientes da coleção histológica de retinas do
    Laboratório de Neurofisiologia Eduardo Oswaldo Cruz da UFPA. Para a obtenção das
    retinas, os animais foram anestesiados e sacrificados conforme as normas vigentes na
    época da coleta. As lâminas da coleção foram coradas pelo método de Nissl e foi
    realizada a contagem direta ao microscópio óptico Zeiss. Analisou-se a densidade de
    células ganglionares do tipo alfa-like em diferentes excentricidades da retina, como na
    faixa visual, area centralis, regiões dorsal e ventral. Resultado: Analisando a totalidade
    da retina, a densidade média das células ganglionares alfa-like da cutia foi de 94,7±5,05
    células/μm2 , da paca foi de 28,7±2,03 células/μm2 e da capivara foi de 101,03±24,42
    células/μm2. Foi observada a presença de áreas com alta densidade de células
    ganglionares alfa na região temporal da retina dos três roedores, sendo que a cutia foi a
    espécie que apresentou a especialização mais acentuada desse tipo de células
    ganglionares. A área do corpo celular das células ganglionares alfa que apresentou
    maior frequência na retina da cutia foi o de 200 μm2, na retina da paca foi de 300 a 600
    μm2 e na capivara foi de 300 a 500 μm2. Conclusão: Conclui-se que há uma relação

    ix
    entre a ecologia das espécies e densidade de células ganglionares alfa da retina dos
    grandes roedores brasileiros, de forma que os que apresentam hábitos diurnos
    apresentam retinas com maior número dessas células e com maior especialização na
    região temporal.

  • DIEGO RODRIGUES DE PAULA
  • "TOTAL RUPTURE OF ACHILLES TENDON INDUCES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AND GLIAL ACTIVATION ON THE MICE SPINAL CORD"

  • Data: 30/05/2022
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  • Achilles tendon rupture is a common accident that affects both professional and recreational athletes. Acute and chronic pain are commonly seen in patients after rupture, usually associated with local inflammatory activation. The factors leading to hyperalgesia in symptomatic patients are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that Achilles tendon rupture is not restricted to tissue changes, but is able to evoke changes in the central nervous system (CNS). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Achilles tendon rupture on the biochemical and histological profile in the spinal cord (L5) and on the nociceptive response in a murine model. The animals after Achilles tendon tenotomy surgery were divided into two groups: control (without rupture) and Rupture (tenotomized). Mechanical sensitivity test (von Frey) was assessed on the 7th and 14th day post-tenotomy (dpt). Glial reactivity was assessed by immunohistochemistry for microglia (IBA-1) and astrocytes (GFAP). Inflammatory activation was assessed by immunofluorescence for NOS-2 and COX2 at 7th and 14th dpt. We show, by the mechanical sensitivity test, an increase in the algesic response in the ipsilateral paw of the ruptured group on the 7th and 14th dpt when compared to the control group. This phenomenon was accompanied by hyperactivation of astrocytes and microglia in sensory processing areas of the L5 spinal cord, predominantly on the ipsilateral side to the tendon injury. We show inflammatory activation by expression of COX-2 and NOS-2, exclusively in the 14th dpt. These data were supported by biochemical findings that demonstrated significant nitrite levels increase in the lumbar spinal cord of animals submitted to Achilles tendon rupture at 7 and 14 dpt. The present study demonstrated for the first time that complete rupture of the Achilles tendon induces a neuroinflammatory response associated with glial activation in the spinal cord (L5) of mice.

  • GABRIELE DOS SANTOS COIMBRA
  • SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF PERINEURONAL NETWORKS DURING THE POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX

  • Data: 22/04/2022
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  • The mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex area involved in processing several functions as cognition and complex motor control for social interactions. In this PFC area, there is no duration of the time window definition about its critical period of plasticity. One of the potential biological markers for this may be the Perineuronal Nets (PNNs). The present work aimed to examine the developmental time course of PNN formation focusing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats using histochemistry with Vicia villosa agglutinin. We use 21 male rats Rattus novergicus, wistar lineage, which were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, composed of 3 animals in each group, as follows: group at 7, 14, 20, 26, 58, 75, and 135 postnatal days, respectively. We  found that in PFC, PNNs appear at P26 with a small number of Vv+ cells, increasing in total numbers until adulthood. The results of the present study demosntrate the temporal development of PNN formation in the Wistar rats mPFC, and we suggest a time window for the end of the critical period of plasticity in this cortical area (26- 75 postnatal days), there is a progressive decrease in PNNs with immature profile and a concomitant increase in mature PNNs during postnatal development of the mPFC, making this PNNs profile more prevalent at more advanced ages, around 3 months of age, when the animals are already considered young adults.

  • LORENA ARAUJO DA CUNHA
  • IN VIVO EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROLACTIN AGAINST DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLMERCURY

  • Data: 18/04/2022
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  • Biodegradable metals, such as mercury, accumulate in living organisms throughout their lives (bioaccumulation) and also in food webs (biomagnification), and can reach high concentrations in humans. Human contamination by mercury found in drinking water and food can be common, especially in riverine communities that depend on fish as their main source of protein. In vitro studies with human cell lines exposed to methylmercury showed that prolactin has cytoprotective properties against cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of this metal, and can act as a co-mitogenic factor and apoptosis inhibitor. The present study investigated, in vivo, the protective potential of prolactin against the toxic effects of methylmercury in mammals, using the mouse (Mus musculus) as a model. Biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and activity of CAT and SOD enzymes), together with histological (in liver, kidney and brain tissue samples) and biochemical (renal and hepatic and measurement of Hg and PRL in the blood), were used to verify the protective potential of prolactin in mice exposed to methylmercury. It was observed, in a more expressive way, a reduction in the alterations of the renal and hepatic biochemical parameters and of the mutagenic effects in the presence of prolactin, in comparison with the isolated effects of the metal. When prolactin was used together with the metal, a decrease in histological damage and an increase in SOD enzyme activity were also observed. The study results indicate that prolactin has protective effects against the toxic impacts of methylmercury.

  • FRANCISCA CANINDÉ ROSÁRIO DA SILVA ARAÚJO
  • STUDY OF THE AUDITORY EVELOPMENT OF BINAURAL FUSION SKILL

  • Data: 11/04/2022
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  • Introduction: Binural Interaction (BI) allows the introduction of auditory information (in the brain as a function of differences in perception of intensity or time of acoustic stimuli). Allows you to assess the action and integrated co-operative of the brainstem in lower understanding. As the maturation of the central nervous system occurs in the craniocaudal direction, the response to this ability may change during the course of development. Objectives: To normalize and compare the development with increasing age of response in the binaural diffusion test (BPT) with digital low-pass (LP) and high-pass (HP) filters in normative listeners. Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 120 years were evaluated, in different age groups (6 to 8 years old, 10 to 12 years old, 14 to 16 years old and 20 to 30 years old) with TFB, filter at Fc 500/1700 Hz digital Finite Impulse Response type order 4096, with null phase and 5000 between 18 and 30 years with unfiltered speech material. Results: a progressive improvement in performance with increasing age (ANOVA (one-way): p&lt;0.0001). There was a significant difference between the filtered words, age and the unfiltered p &lt; (Dunnet: any filtered words,01). The difference between the age groups was significant (Tukey: p&lt;0.01), less for the results obtained in the age groups of 6-8 and 10-12 years and of 14-16 and 18-30 years. Discussion: IB is a skill that evolves with age development and NC fabrication. Final considerations: The interpretation of the TFB should take into account the performance by age group of the patients. This is important for future applications of these tests in people with Auditory Processing Disorder.

  • FLAVIA MONTEIRO FARIAS
  • "DIMORFISMO SEXUAL DA ESPESSURA DA RETINA: UMA ANÁLISE DE APRENDIZAGEM DE MÁQUINA"

  • Data: 11/03/2022
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  • The present research compared the accuracy of machine learning algorithms in classifying the thickness and volume measurements of retinal layers as obtained from male and female subjects. The study evaluated the retina of sixty-four healthy participants (38 women and 26 men), with normal vision and without eye or systemic diseases, aged between 20 and 40 years. The data acquisition was obtained with a Spectralis HRA+OCT tomograph in the macular region of the retina and its layers: retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), inner retina (IRL) and outer retina (ORL). The classification accuracy was obtained with the following algorithms: support vector classifier (SVC), logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analyses (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), decision tree (DT), gaussian naive bayes (GNB) and random forest (RF). The characteristics attributed to each participant's samples were the thickness values in the nine regions of the macula plus the total macular volume of each retinal layer. The statistical tests Twoway ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc were used in the statistical comparisons between the accuracies for the classifier and retinal layer variables, considering a significance level of < 0.05. All factors (classifier, retinal layer, and their interactions) had significant influences on accuracy (p < 0.05). The main effect of the algorithm type factor resulted in an F ratio of F (6, 630) = 4.527, p = 0.0002. The main effect for the retinal layer produced an F ratio of F (9, 630) = 51.64 and p < 0.0001. The interaction effect was also significant, F(54, 630) = 1.741, p = 0.0012. All algorithms classified with high accuracy (> 0.70) the innermost layers of the retina (total retina, inner retina, RNFL, GCL, INL) according to the gender of the participants, where we observed significant differences between genders in thickness and measurements volume. The SVC, LDA, and LR algorithms produced high accuracy (>0.70) when thickness and volume data came from the RNFL compared to the outermost layers of the retina. The KNN, RF and DT algorithms performed better in correctly classifying the total retina data in relation to the outermost layers. The thickness and volume of the retina and the innermost layers of the retina allow machine learning algorithms to be more accurate in separating data from different sexes.

  • LUIS CARLOS PEREIRA MONTEIRO
  • RELAÇÃO ENTRE SIMETRIA FACIAL E EXPERTISE ARTÍSTICA NA PREFERÊNCIA ESTÉTICA POR FACES

  • Data: 10/03/2022
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  • Visual symmetry is almost universally present in both natural and artificial environments. Its importance is on both perceptual and cognitive levels. Symmetry processing, especially bilateral symmetry, is fast, efficient, and noise resistant. Humans, like other species, prefer symmetrical visual stimuli, a preference that is influenced by factors such as age, sex, and artistic training. In particular, artistic training in visual arts seems to decrease the rejection of asymmetry in abstract stimuli. But it is not known whether the same trend would be observed concerning concrete stimuli, such as human faces. In this work, the role of expertise in visual arts, music, and dance, in the perceived beauty and attractiveness of human faces with different asymmetries was investigated. With this objective, the beauty and attractiveness of 100 photographs of faces (50 male and 50 female) with different degrees of asymmetry were evaluated by 116 participants with different levels of art expertise. The art expertise in the three artistic modalities mentioned was assessed through an Arts Expertise Questionnaire. Facial asymmetry was obtained from geometric morphometric techniques in the MorphoJ software. Multilevel modeling strategies (ANOVA for repeated measures, correlation for repeated measures and linear mixed models) were used for statistical analysis. Expertise in visual arts and dance was associated with the extent to which facial asymmetry influenced the beauty ratings assigned to the faces. The greater the art expertise in visual arts and dance, the more indifferent to facial asymmetry the participant was to evaluate beauty. The same effect was not found for music and neither for attractiveness ratings. These findings are important to help understand how face aesthetic evaluation is modified by artistic training and the difference between beauty and attractiveness evaluations.

  • CÍNTIA TIZUE YAMAGUCHI
  • Recovery function after 12 months of cochlear implant use

  • Data: 04/03/2022
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  • Introduction: Cochlear implant is the standard treatment for severe and profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. To optimize the adaptation of this device, especially in patients who do not have the ability to refer to the parameters necessary for programming, such as children and people with associated disabilities, objective tests based on the action potential of auditory nerve fibers have been studied as possible predictors. of these parameters to be used in cochlear implant programming. The auditory nerve recovery function is a test that measures the time the auditory nerve needs to recover from a stimulus (leave the absolute refractory period) to receive new stimulation and possibly be more responsive to the auditory sensation offered by the cochlear implant. Objective: Through a specific software for cochlear implants, with the objective of measuring the time constant (τ) in the intraoperative period and in the postoperative period after 12 months of cochlear implant use in children. Method: We recruited children with cochlear implant and intraoperative neural response, evaluated the recovery function using commercially available cochlear implant software. Data were collected intraoperatively and repeated twice 12 months after surgery. Results: We found that the recovery time of the auditory nerve increases after 12 months of cochlear implant use. Our results also show that the profile of temporal responses is significantly higher in the postoperative measurement than in the intraoperative one. The test-retest reproducibility of the composite evoked action potential recordings proved to be reliable and stable. Conclusion: There was a change in 12 months of cochlear implant use, in relation to the same measure at the intraoperative moment in the subjects of this study. The intraoperative τ measurement was faster, however, in the postoperative period the mean showed higher τ values. However, the current level was different intraoperatively and 12 months after use, needing to be further explored. There was no statistical difference regarding the test-retest in the postoperative period, showing reliability and reproducibility of the measurement. Possibly it would be the beginning of the study of a responsiveness profile in relation to the recovery time of the auditory nerve.

2021
Descrição
  • KELY CAMPOS NA VEGANTES
  • AVALIAÇÃO DO EFEITO DA FRAÇÃO LIPÍDICA EXTRAÍDA DE Agaricus brasiliensis ANTIOXIDANTE E IMUNOMODULADORA in vitro E EM MODELO DE SEPSE LETAL EM MURINO.

  • Data: 30/12/2021
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  • Sepsis is defined as a potentially fatal organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host immune response to an infection. During sepsis, dysregulation of the host response occurs with the excessive release of pro-inflammatory mediators, generation of reactive species with depletion of antioxidant defenses and cellular damage. As a result, the patient develops organ dysfunction. In this context, our group proposes the A.brasiliensis Lipid Fraction (FLAb) as a possible therapy for sepsis considering its immunomodulatory and systemic antioxidant activity in a murine sepsis model. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the activity of FLAb isolated in vitro and to evaluate the effect of treatment with FLAb alone or associated with the antibiotic ertapenem (F-Erta) on coagulation, antioxidant and immunomodulatory parameters in the lethal sepsis model in murine. For this, FLAb was kindly provided by Dr. Herta Dalla-Santa from UNICENTRO. In the present study, the antioxidant capacity of different concentrations of FLAb (1.25 and 5 μg/mL) was evaluated and in a RAW 264.7-Luc macrophage cell line, cytotoxicity, phagocytic capacity, nitric oxide, NF-κB activity and cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were evaluated.The survival rates were analyzed 7 days in a model of CLP sepsis in swiss albino mice (Mus musculus), and treated with CLP+Salt (0.9%), CLP+FLAb (0.2mg/Kg), CLP+F-erta (0.2mg) /Kg; 30mg/Kg). For evaluation of on coagulation, antioxidant and immunomodulatory parameters, the mice were treated by 6 and/or 24h after CLP. In vitro, FLAb show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in both concentrations. In vivo, all CLP+Salt animals died within a maximum of 48 hours while the FLAb and F-Erta treated groups survived the 7 days. During this period, clinical parameters of these animals were evaluated, the septic animals treated with saline showed piloerection, with little active level of consciousness and most of the time they were stopped in the cage, some of them had ocular secretion. In addition, animals treated with saline showed significant weight loss, reduced water and feed consumption resulting in death. The FLAb and F-Erta groups were active, with normal appearance, with normal breathing and heart rate, in addition to consuming water and food within normal limits. In the inflammatory site, peritoneal cavity, the treatment with FLAb showed an anti-inflammatory effect, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased GSH antioxidant activity and protected from cell damage, maintaining neutrophil recruitment and nitric oxide levels (NO), reducing the bacterial load. Regarding coagulation parameters (platelet count, tp and ttpa), treatment with FLAb and F-Erta eliminated the bacterial load and protected the animals from tissue damage. In the liver, 6 hours after CLP the treatment  with FLAb and F-ERTA was observed in the biochemical parameters protective effect, in addition, it presented immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity preventing liver damage. In the parameters evaluated in the heart, the treatment with FLAb and F-ERTA after CLP protected the animals from cardiac damage through immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. In this sense, FLAb alone showed promise as a treatment and/or adjunct in sepsis, in addition to preventing organic dysfunction in septic animals.

  • CAROLINA RAMOS DOS SANTOS
  • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF METOTREXATE CONJUGATE IN RATS SUBMITTED TO STRIAL ISCHEMIA
  • Data: 22/12/2021
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  • Stroke is defined as a focal neurological deficit caused by vascular injury, and can lead to neurological dysfunction, physical limitations and death. Although stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, current treatments are expensive and have limited therapeutic window, thus, new therapies are necessary. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory drug used to treat several diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and carcinomas. In order to increase the specificity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment, some studies investigate the use of MTX associated to lipid nanoparticles (LDE). Thus, this work aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential of LDE-MTX in the treatment of ischemic stroke induced in the striatum of adult rats, and compare the outcomes with the effects of unconjugated MTX. For this, 24 adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were divided into four experimental groups, which were treated as follows: 1) Saline 0,9%, 200 μL); 2) LDE, 200 μL; 3) MTX at 1 mg/kg; and 4) LDE-MTX at 1 mg/kg. Ischemic stroke was induced by microinjections of endotelin-1, the treatments were administrated 4 hours after injury by intravenous injection, and the groups were observed for seven days post-injury. After that, animals were euthanized for histological processing, then the injury site was analyzed by Nissl staining, showing a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate in animals treated with LDE- MTX. Afterwards, immunohistochemical analysis showed that LDE-MTX increase the number of neurons (NeuN+ cells) in the peri-infarct zone, in addition to reducing apoptotic cells (caspase3+) and activated microglia (round cells, Iba1+) in the injury site. Furthermore, animals that received LDE-MTX showed an increase in IL-10 and decrease in TNF-α. Treatment with unconjugated MTX also led to a decrease in caspase3+ cells and increase in IL-10 in the injury site, however, no effects were noticed in neurons, microglia and TNF-α. At last, the toxicity of the treatments was evaluated by histopathology, showing that LDE, MTX and LDE-MTX did not induce any further changes in liver and kidney when compared to the saline group. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the long-term anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of LDE-MTX.

  • SUSANNE SUELY SANTOS DA FONSECA
  • ATIVIDADE ANTINEOPLÁSICA DA 1-DESOXINOJIRIMICINA EM MODELOS DE CÂNCER IN VITRO

  • Data: 16/12/2021
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  • Cancer is one of the diseases that kill the most in Brazil, with alarming projections until 2030. In view of the problems related to cancer treatment, such as the compromise of healthy cells and, consequently, the presence of adverse effects, it is imperative to seek of alternative substances that may have antineoplastic effects and that are effective in the treatment of patients with this disease. In this way, the use of bioactive compounds has been widely used in the fight against neoplasms. Thus, the substance 1-deoxynojimyricin (1-DNJ) isolated from Bagassa guianensis may have great anticancer potential. In view of the problems related to cancer treatment, such as the impairment of healthy cells and, consequently adverse effects, it is necessary to search alternative substances that may have antineoplastic effects and they are effective in the treatment of patients with this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) extracted from wood residue of the species Bagassa guianensis in different cancer cell lines to investigate possible antineoplastic actions in vitro using gastric adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma cancer cell lines. To do that, it was evaluated the effect of the substance 1-deoxynojirimycin on cell viability in vitro after 72h of treatment in cell lines ACP02 and A172. We also evaluated the effect of this bioactive compound on cell migration pattern, cell death by apoptosis and cell cycle changes using flow cytometry and reactive oxygen production. The results showed that 1-deoxynojirimycin makes a significant reduction in cell viability of cancer cell cultures in both glioblastoma (A172) and gastric cancer cell (ACP02) cell lines. The reduction in viability appears to be more effective in glioblastoma cell lines, with a common ic50 much lower when compared to other cell lines. We propose that the reduction in viability may be related to the decrease in reactive oxygen production in both lines after treatment with 1-DNJ. Besides that, 1-DNJ interrupts the cell cycle, prevents cell migration and induces necrosis-like cell death in the ACP02 lineage and apoptosis in the A172 lineage. Therefore, we suggest that 1-deoxynojirimycin may be an important and effective chemopreventive substance for the treatment of glioblastoma and gastric adenocarcinoma cancers.

  • CAMILA NUNES DA SILVA
  • "MULTI-SENSORY ELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR SENSORY-MOTOR REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER BRAIN VASCULAR ACCIDENT"
  • Data: 07/12/2021
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  • The stroke is caused by the interruption of the blood supply to the nervous tissue, usually by the blockage or rupture of a blood vessel causing cellular, tissue, and functional damage in the brain affected region. Stroke is one of the main causes of neurological sequelae throughout the world, thus it becomes increasingly important therapies aimed at functional recovery of limbs affected by the stroke aiming to improve the occupational performance of patients. Several studies have shown that the central nervous system (CNS) can readjust in response to environmental stimuli (external or intracorporeal), even after suffering the injury, a process known as neuroplasticity. In this sense, the present project uses a Multisensory Electronic Device (DEM- multisensory glove), as a glove format, which playfully controls an electronic game with to promoting functional rehabilitation across the induction of neural plasticity in patients with upper limb motor and sensory dysfunction after the stroke. In all, 7 people participated in the survey, after undergoing cognitive screening using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tests. Then, they underwent sensorimotor assessments and began the sessions with the DEM (multisensory glove), for 1 hour a day, 5 times a week, in the room of the Specialized Rehabilitation Center (CER II), under the supervision of the occupational therapist responsible for this the study. Every 10 sessions, we perform sensorimotor assessments again. After totaling the 20 sessions granted to each participant, they were again reassessed for sensorimotor activities. The results showed that low-cost DEM was able to induce functional recovery in patients who suffered a stroke and had upper limb sensorimotor dysfunctions, with increased range of motion (ROM) in the wrist and hand, increased strength (Kg), and improvement in tactile sensitivity.

  • THAIS ALVES LOBÃO
  • ESTIMULAÇÃO TRANSCRANIANA POR CORRENTE CONTÍNUA EM ESPORTES DE COMBATE: EFEITOS SOBRE O DESEMPENHO FÍSICO E COGNITIVO

  • Data: 25/11/2021
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  • Transcranial direct current electrical stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique used to promote improvement in clinical symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. There is evidence that tDCS could modulate the psychomotor abilities of athletes, which are important for the performance of these athletes. Among the combat sports, judo and jiu-jitsu are two types that represent fighting sports with specific physical and cognitive demands. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single stimulation in the M1 region (primary motor), on cognitive (anxiety, reaction time) and physical (strength, muscle power, flexibility) parameters in male and female athletes. federated of these modalities. For this purpose, the fighters were submitted to two experimental sessions of tDCS (sham and stimulated), in a cross over scheme to avoid the effect of the order of results, consisting of psychomotor evaluations using as metrics the jump against movement (SCM), Wells’ test , manual and scapular dynamometry, STAI and the TReaction software, all performed pre and post intervention with a-tDCS where the stimulated condition was delivered with anodic current at 2 mA for 20 minutes. There were no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-stimulation conditions (sham or stimulated) and in the percentage of difference between the two pre- and post-test conditions. This data showed the absence of effects of tDCS in the parameters and test used.

  • DARIO CARVALHO PAULO
  • MORFOLOGIA MICROGLIAL EM ESPÉCIES DISTANTEMENTE RELACIONADAS: INFLUÊNCIAS FILOGENÉTICA, AMBIENTAL E DE IDADE NOS ESTADOS REATIVOS E DE VIGILÂNCIA DA MICRÓGLIA

  • Data: 19/11/2021
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  • Microglial immunosurveillance of the brain parenchyma to detect local perturbations in homeostasis, in all species, results in the adoption of a spectrum of morphological changes that reflect functional adaptations. Here we review accounts of these changes in microglia morphology in distantly related species in homeostatic and non-homeostatic conditions with three principal goals: (1) to review the phylogenetic influences on the morphological diversity of microglia during homeostasis; (2) to explore the impact of homeostatic perturbations (Dengue virus challenge) in distantly related species (Mus musculus and Callithrix penicillata) as a proxy for the differential immune response in small and large brains; and (3) to examine the influences of environmental enrichment and aging on the plasticity of the microglial morphological response following an immunological challenge (neurotropic arbovirus infection). Our findings reveal that the differences in microglia morphology across distantly related species under homeostatic condition cannot be attributed to the phylogenetic origin of the species. However, large and small brains, under similar non-homeostatic conditions, display differential microglial morphological responses, and we argue that age and environment interact to affect the microglia morphology after an immunological challenge; in particular, mice living in an enriched environment exhibit a more efficient immune response to the virus resulting in earlier removal of the virus and earlier return to the homeostatic morphological phenotype of microglia than is observed in sedentary mice.

  • DIANDRA ARAUJO DA LUZ
  • EFFECTS OF Ganoderma lucidum ON BEHAVIORAL CHANGES AND OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCED BY BINGE DRINKING
  • Data: 19/11/2021
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  • Introduction: Ethanol is a psychoactive substance, whose consumption causes cognitive impairment, emotional disorders and tissue damage to the central nervous system, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, excitoxicity, etc. The management of damage induced by this drug, both in abstinence syndrome and alcoholism, is not well established yet, being based only on the treatment of symptoms, reinforcing the necessity the search for therapeutic inputs able of correcting broadest the changes provoked. Ganoderma lucidum is a species known for its multiple health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, among others properties. Thus, it is possible that preparations of this mushroom can reverse the damage resulting from ethanol consumption. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of the mycelium of G. lucidum on changes induced by alcohol exposure in binge drinking. Material and Methods: Wistar rats (n=30) were exposed to 5 binges of ethanol (3g/kg/day; 20% w/v) and 24 hours after the last administration were treated with an aqueous extract obtained from the mycelium of the G. lucidum at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days. Approximately 24 hours later, open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming and inhibitory avoidance tests were performed, and the animals were subsequently euthanized for analysis of oxidative stress markers in the blood. Results and Discussion: The treatment reversed the changes induced by alcohol, namely the decrease in the total distance covered by the animals in the open field test, indicating an improvement in locomotor activity; the length of stay in the open arms in the elevated plus-maze, suggesting attenuation of the anxiogenic-like behavior; the latency time for descent from the safe platform in the inhibitory avoidance test, demonstrating improvement in short-term memory and learning, and also the immobility time in the forced swimming test, which suggests reversal of the depressive-like behavior. Regarding oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, glutathione and total oxidizing capacity levels were reduced by the extract, suggesting the reestablishment of the oxidative balance. Conclusion: Given these results, it can be inferred that G. lucidum can be used as an adjuvant in the management of disorders caused by alcohol, however care with the dose must be observed.

  • ROSEANE GUIMARÃES FERREIRA
  • PIPER ADUNCUM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI: ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
  • Data: 08/10/2021
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  • Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live in symbiotic association with plants, bringing a series of benefits to them, such as defense against predators and pests and resistance to stress. These endophytes are considered excellent sources of biomolecules such as enzymes, antibiotics and antioxidants. The industry in general has increased its investments in microbial natural products, emerging as one of the areas in which the most investment is made in developed countries. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the enzymatic and biological activity of the lyophilized supernatant from the fermentation broth obtained from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus PAC 123 of the Piper aduncum plant. Isolation of endophytic microorganisms was performed using leaves and stems of P. aduncum in Saboraund dextrose agar (ASD). After growth, the strains were purified and identified by morphology and cell biology, and the fungus PAC 123 (Fusarium lateritium nees) was chosen for the development of the work. Growth curves were constructed with two different culture media (medium with maltose called M and medium with pulverized corn + maltose called S). From the curve, the days of collection of the supernatant resulting from the fungal fermentation broth were established, followed by subsequent lyophilization of the samples. Lyophilized samples were used for enzymatic and biological tests. The results showed that samples M and S showed protease activity with an average halo formation of 10-35 mm, antioxidant activity representing 3-15% inhibition of the ABTS + radical, 80-98% inhibition of the DPPH radical • and average content 0.5-0.8mg of total polyphenols for every 100mg of M and S samples. Thus, this study contributed to increase knowledge about the endophytic biology of the P. aduncum plant, still so little explored, as well as to demonstrate its enzymatic potential and antioxidant from the endophytic fungus Fusarium lateritium nees (PAC 123).

  • PAULA PINTO RODRIGUES
  • ESTUDOS CITOGENÉTICOS EM GYMNOTIFORMES DA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA

  • Data: 07/10/2021
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  • The Gymnotiformes (Neotropical electric fish) are widely distributed in Central and South America, with greater diversity and abundance in the Amazon Basin, being an extremely diverse order. Among these, the Brachyhypopomus genus (Hypopomidae), currently with 28 described species, has karyotype data available for eleven species. Their diploid number (2n) ranges from 36 in B. brevirostris to 44 in B. flavipomus females. The Archolaemus genus (Sternopygidae), which comprises a complex of six species, has no cytogenetic data published so far. Aiming to extend this cytogenetic information to help the cytotaxonomy and better identification of species, as well as to investigate the chromosomal rearrangements responsible for the intragenic karyotype variation, in this work we aim to study the B. brevirostris karyotype from two localities: Santarém – PA and Mamirauá, Tefé – AM, besides making the first karyotypic description of the species Archolaemus janeae sp. nov., analyzing individuals from two localities: Rio Xingu, Altamira - PA and Rio Tocantins, Santarém – PA. The results obtained so far for the species Brachyhypopomus brevirostris show 2n = 38, all chromosomes being acrocentric, with constitutive heterochromatin evidenced in the centromeric region of all the chromosomes, as well as small heterochromatic bands in interstitial and distal regions of some pairs, in the of Tefé region - AM and Santarém - PA. Fluorescent in situ Hybridization with 18S rDNA probe marked the distal region of the 19q chromosomal pair and the telomeric probe hybridized to the distal region of all chromosomes, with no interstitial signs for Santarém – PA and Tefé – AM samples. Archolaemus janeae shows 2n equal to 46, being composed of 4 chromosomes of two arms and 42 chromosomes acrocentric (2n = 46; 4m / sm + 42a), for the localities of Santarém - PA and Altamira - AP. The constitutive heterochromatin is evidenced in the centromeric region of all chromosomes, as well as small heterochromatic bands in interstitial and distal regions in some pairs. The 18S rDNA occurs in the distal region of the short arm of pair 2, the 5S rDNA occurs in 5 chromosomal pairs and the snDNA sequence U2 indicated multiple hybridization. No interstitial telomeric sequences were observed. The populations exhibit identical karyotypes, confirming to be a single species. We present the first U2 marker data for this family. These data are of great importance as a reference for future cytotaxonomic studies of the genus.

  • MARIA LUCIA SOUZA SIQUEIRA
  • METABOLIC AND VISUAL HEALTH PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH BREAST CANCER UNDER ANTI-CANCER TREATMENT

  • Data: 30/09/2021
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  • Female breast cancer, according to current estimates, is still reaching a very high level of incidence and prevalence in Brazil and Pará. The need for studies that expand knowledge about therapeutic options and mitigate the damage suffered by cancer becomes innovative in our region. Thus, we aim to determine and assess metabolic and visual health parameters in patients diagnosed with breast cancer exposed to anti-cancer therapies. The specific objectives were divided into three sections: Section I: determine lipid, anthropometric, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine markers to assess metabolic health; Section II: determine tamoxifen metabolites (4-hydroxy tamoxifen and endoxifen) and correlate with blood lipids to assess drug interaction and metabolism with lipids; Section III: Perform visual tests to assess the effect of anticancer therapies on retinal thickness. Research approved by the ethics committee with opinion number 1.915.051 (CEP-HOL) and 1.897.057 (CEP-ICS-UFPA) from March 2017 to September 2019. It consisted of 40 women diagnosed with breast cancer (Ductal Carcinoma Grade II and III) in a public cancer reference hospital in Belém of Pará and who consented to participate in the research. A group of 20 patients formed the chemotherapy group (GQt), 20 patients the tamoxifen hormone therapy group (GTam) and another group of women without cancer was constituted as a comparative control (GC) based on the inclusion criteria. For the determination of biochemical markers, the automated method was used; anthropometry followed the Ministry of Health manual; for oxidative stress the colorimetric method; for the measurement of cytokines the ELISA method; for the determination of tamoxifen and metabolites in plasma, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used; for retinal analyses, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used. The results obtained showed that the patients were predominantly women aged between 40 and 50 years, brown, with an income of 1 to 3 minimum wages, were in pre- and post-menopause; were overweight/obese with high BMI, between 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, waist circumference above 80 cm and did not perform regular physical activity; the mean levels of lipids were altered in both groups studied, but with emphasis on the chemotherapy group with elevation of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and low levels of HDL cholesterol, (p<0.05); the antioxidant parameters (TEAC, GSH, CAT and SOD) showed low levels of GSH and high CAT activity for the chemotherapy group and less activity for the tamoxifen group compared to the control (p<0.01); the pro-oxidant parameters (MDA and NO) showed that chemotherapy patients had a higher level of lipid peroxidation than tamoxifen patients compared to control (p<0.05); the GSH/MDA ratio showed greater sensitivity to oxidative damage for chemotherapy patients (p<0.01); as for cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, they were elevated both in the chemotherapy group and in the tamoxifen group (p<0.05). Mean plasma concentrations of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy tamoxifen, and endoxifen were 62 ng/mL, 1.04 ng/mL and 8.79 ng/mL; triglyceride levels ranged from 59 to 352 mg/dL, total cholesterol from 157 to 321 mg/dL, LDL-c from 72 mg/dL to 176 mg/dL and HDL-c from 25.1 mg/dL to 62.8 mg/dL; there was no significant association between tamoxifen and metabolites with cholesterol and triglyceride levels; there was a weak association between tamoxifen and its active metabolites with HDLc, LDLc and VLDLc. Mean retinal macular thickness revealed no significant difference between patients who received chemoradiotherapy and control tamoxifen (p>0.05); regional macular thickness revealed that only one macular field showed a significant difference between two groups; in the external nasal macular field, the chemoradiotherapy patients showed thinner retinal thickness compared to the control. We conclude that breast cancer patients exposed to chemotherapy and hormone therapy presented: unfavorable lipid profile with high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and low HDL, overweight and obesity, lower antioxidant capacity for patients who received chemotherapy and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, elevated; there was a weak association between plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and its active metabolites with levels of HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c, with a low impact of lipoprotein levels on exposure to tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen; a macular field was altered in the chemotherapy group, which had a thinner retina compared to the control group, however the retinal structure was sensitive to the presence of tamoxifen metabolites.

  • MARICELI BAIA LEAO BARROS
  • ANÁLISE MOLECULAR DE REGIÕES HOT SPOT DO GENOMA MITOCONDRIAL DE LINHAGENS DE GLIOBLASTOMA (GBM) TRATADAS E NÃO TRATADAS COM PISOSTEROL

  • Data: 10/09/2021
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  • Gliobalstoma (GBM) is a tumor characterized by a high level of aggressiveness with a mean survival of only 14.6 months, originating from neural stem cells present in the central nervous system, with great histopathological and genomic diversity. The high rate of intratumoral heterogeneity in the GBM makes the diagnosis of the disease and the appropriate therapeutic intervention difficult. Mitochondria are cell organelles associated with the regulation of cell metabolism, redox signaling, energy generation, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, the accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBM, favoring abnormal energy production through aerobic glycolysis and contributing to resistance to apoptosis and conventional radio and chemotherapy treatments. This scenario makes it necessary to introduce new lines of research that bring together technologies that enable a better analysis and understanding of the GBM carcinogenesis process, as well as the understanding of the action of pisosterol, a compound with anti-proliferative activity. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the mitochondrial integrity in four glioblastoma cell lines (AHOL1, U343MG, 1321N1 and U-87MG) treated and not treated with pisosterol at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 µg/mL-1 ), based on the investigation of possible alterations in this genome. Six mtDNA genes (ND1, ND3, COI, COII, COIII, ATPase-6) were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), followed by automatic sequencing and subsequent analysis and comparison of the sequences obtained. The study revealed that treatment with pisosterol did not change the pattern of mtDNA changes in GBM cell lines. We identified alterations in the ND1, ND3 and COI genes. In the ND1, a non-synonymous transition at position 3547 (A→G) was observed, which causes the change of the amino acid isoleucine to valine, and a synonymous transversion at position 3552 (T→A). In ND3, two transitions were also identified, the first nonsynonymous located at position 10398 (A→G) and the second synonymous at position 10400 (C→T). In the COI gene a non-synonymous transition was detected at position 7196 (C→A). The most frequent alterations were those observed in mitochondrial complex I, which is suggestive of a possible hot spot for the analyzed GBM cell lines. Complex I is related to the maintenance of equilibrium levels of NAD+/NADH and ROS, with the generation of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, therefore, its dysfunction is often the cause of mitochondrial disorders and diseases. The analysis of polymorphisms and alterations present in mtDNA in GBM samples is necessary so that patients can have a better prognosis and more efficient treatment, as these changes influence the cell phenotype.

  • SABRINA DE CARVALHO CARTAGENES
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  • Data: 03/09/2021
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  • Ketamine, also called ‘K-powder’, is a derivative of N-1-pehnycyclohexy-piperidine and an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. In addition to generating analgesic and anesthetic responses, ketamine stimulates the limbic system, causing hallucinations and a state of dissociation in the body. These effects have allowed the drug to be used recreationally, and it is currently among the main hallucinogenic drugs used among drug users who attend rave-type parties. It is generally a drug of choice among teenagers and young adults. Announces the epidemiological and harmful consequences of ketamine as a drug of abuse on the CNS in adolescents, the aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and biochemical responses in the period of abstinence from ketamine in adolescent female rats. Adolescent female Wistar rats (n=20) that received intraperitoneal ketamine (10mg/kg/day) for 3 consecutive days were used. Twenty-four hours after the last administration of ketamine, the animals were submitted to behavioral tests in the open field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming. They were then anesthetized with 2% isoflurane intranasally and sacrificed to collect the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus to assess thiobarbituric levels, total antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species, and reduced glutathione. Our results showed that 24 hours after recreational use of ketamine, there were losses on emotional behavior, related to anxiety and depression, associated with disorders with changes in reactive oxygen species, antioxidant indicators and lipid peroxidation in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Therefore, we conclude that immediate abstinence from recreational use of ketamine in adolescent rats generates changes similar to mood disorders (anxiety and depression), associated with the induction of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

  • RAYAN FIDEL MARTINS MONTEIRO
  • EFEITOS DO TRATAMENTO AGUDO-SISTÊMICO DE β-CARIOFILENO EM CAMUNDONGOS FÊMEA SAUDÁVEIS E EM MODELO DE INFLAMAÇÃO SISTÊMICA

  • Data: 30/07/2021
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  • All the functions of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are not yet fully understood, however this system is known to have a neuromodulatory effect, essentially attributed to cannabinoid type I receptors (CB1R), which systemic activation induces psychoactive effects. In contrast, the immunomodulatory effect of ECS, attributed mainly to cannabinoid type II receptors (CB2R), has been demonstrated as an alternative treatment for several acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases in animal models via chronic CB2R activation. However, the effects of this treatment are still unclear shortly after its administration. In this sense, we seek to investigate the effects of the acute-systemic treatment of β-caryophyllene (BCP), a phyto-cannabinoid agonist of CB2R in a murine model of neuroinflammation induced by LPS. We performed the open field test (OF) 2 and 4 h after the induction of sickness behavior by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and demonstrated that in animals pretreated with BCP, in the 2 h window, there was maintenance in the quality of movement in animals that received LPS without alteration in the induction of sickness behavior, and increased activity in the aversive region of the apparatus in animals that did not receive LPS. Indicating the immune and neuromodulatory effect of BCP. We also performed the Morris Water Labyrinth (MWM) test 24 h after inoculation of LPS, however it was not possible to discriminate changes in learning, howeverthe inoculated and untreated animals proved to be more likely to form spatial memory. Finally, we observed that pretreatment with BCP increases lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentration in the brain 2 h after LPS inoculation, thus suggesting an immediate increase in oxidative stress by acute treatment with BCP in neuroinflammatory models. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to continue researching the immediate neurological and immunological effects of BCP treatment in healthy animal models and in neuroinflammatory models for better determination of the risks attributed to this treatment, as well as the addition of acute treatment to the detriment of the treatment. chronic in different neurological pathologies.

  • KETLIN JAQUELLINE SANTANA DE CASTRO
  • BALANCE POSTURAL AND PLANTING PRESSURE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

  • Data: 12/07/2021
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  • The visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems send information to the central nervous system that helps in postural control. Therefore, an alteration in one of these systems, such as visual impairment, can cause deficits in postural balance. However, individuals with visual impairment can reorganize their posture while standing in order to maintain balance. This reorganization of the bipedal posture can alter the load distribution on the sole of the foot, increasing plantar pressure in certain regions. Therefore, checking plantar pressure in subjects with visual impairment can be an indicative factor of postural reorganization to maintain balance. To compare the impact of visual impairment on postural control in individuals with congenital and acquired visual impairment and subjects with normal vision. Postural control was assessed by measuring the center of pressure (COP) between the feet, and pressures on the plantar surface of each foot in 18 normal-sighted participants and compared their data with measures from 18 legally blind participants, either acquired or congenital. Pressures were measured in open- and closed-eye conditions using a baropodometric resistive plate. In the eyes-open condition, there were no differences between the sighted and legally blind groups in COP displacement. However, participants with visual loss had significantly increased pressures in two metatarsal regions (M1 and M2 zones) of the plantar surface in both viewing conditions (p < 0.05). The differences in pressure measures between the normally sighted and legally blind groups could be attributed mainly to the subgroup of subjects with acquired impairment. Our findings suggest that subjects with visual impairment present increased metatarsal pressures (i.e. forefoot), not yet associated to anterior displacement of COP or impaired balance control.

  • GABRIEL MESQUITA DA CONCEIÇÃO BAHIA
  • CYTOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Copaifera reticulata AN IN VITRO EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF ROTENONE-INDUCED NEURAL DEGENERATION: TOTAL CEREBRAL CORTEX, HYPOCAMPUS AND MISENCEPHALUS.

  • Data: 09/07/2021
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  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, affecting about 2% of the world population. Some neuroinflammatory processes are associated with the causative (or consequential) factors of PD and neuroprotective drugs can be used as possible palliative treatments to delay the development of the disease. In this sense, one of the possible treatments is using oil-resin extracted from plants of the Copaifera sp. which already has an important ethnopharmacological role as an anti-inflammatory and, therefore, may have neuroprotective action. In the present study, we propose to evaluate the copaiba oil resin on cell viability in an in vitro rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model and its possible cytoprotective effect. We used mixed primary cultures of cells derived from the ventral midbrain, mixed primary cultures of cells from the total cerebral cortex and mixed primary cultures of cells from the hippocampus of newborn rats. To mimic PD in vitro and cell degeneration, we used the rotenone intoxication model with 3-day exposure for ventral midbrain cultures and 24-hour exposure for cultures derived from the total cerebral cortex and hippocampus. We performed the concentration-response curve analysis for the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata Ducke during 3-day exposure to ventral midbrain cultures. Finally, we carried out experiments of concomitant exposure to copaiba oil-resin and rotenone intoxication. We perform MTT assay to measure cell viability. Our results demonstrated that rotenone caused a reduction in cell viability at all concentrations of rotenone from all mixed primary cultures. In the concentration-response curve for the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, there was cytotoxicity at the highest concentrations tested for the mixed primary culture of ventral midbrain. When exposure to concomitant cell cultures to rotenone and copaiba oil-resin, the oil-resin was effective only for mixed primary cultures derived from the ventral midbrain and hippocampus of newborn rats and was not effective in protecting the cells of the mixed primary culture of total cerebral cortex cells against rotenone-induced intoxication. Our results showed that rotenone has a concentration-dependent deleterious effect, the oil-resin of copaiba has toxicity in concentrations greater than 10 µg/mL for cells from the ventral midbrain, whereas the oil-resin promotes neuroprotection against the deleterious effects of rotenone for the mixed primary cultures of the ventral midbrain (1 µg/mL) and mixed primary cultures of the hippocampus (25 µg/mL) and that for the mixed primary cultures of the total cerebral cortex the oil-resin was not capable of neuroprotection.

  • DARA DA COSTA SOARES
  • "ACTIVITY AND EXPRESSION OF METALLOPROTEASE GP63 IN LEISHMANIA (LEISHMANIA) AMAZONENSIS AND LEISHMANIA (VIANNIA) BRAZILIENSIS SPECIES"

  • Data: 29/06/2021
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  • The american cutaneous leishmaniasis (ATL) is a neglected tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania sp. In Brazil, Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are the main pathogenic species. The different strains and species, as well as the immune response of the vertebrate host, are key points in the development of the disease and, consequently, in the different clinical manifestations caused by these protozoa such as localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCD) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (CML). Leishmania parasites have improved mechanisms with the ability to silence the microbicidal response of infected macrophages through the action of virulence factors such as glycoprotein 63 (GP63). This glycoprotein, which has a zincdependent catalytic site, is the main surface metalloprotease of Leishmania and is able to modulate the vertebrate host's immune response by cleaving a wide set of cytosolic substrates. However, due to the need to understand the role and involvement of GP63 in infection processes and different clinical manifestations, it is important to analyze how this molecule is present during these processes. In view of this, the hypothesis of this study is whether there is a difference in the expression of the virulence factor gp63 between two ATL-causing species, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which cause different clinical manifestations. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyze the expression and activity of gp63 in the species Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, which are more relevant to the involvement of ATL. The activity of gp63 was analyzed using promastigote forms in the stationary phase (4 and 7 days of culture). The parasites were submitted to analysis of the proteolytic profile through DQ-gelatin (10µg / ml) in fluorimeter (VICTOR Multilabel Plate Reader X) with wavelength of 480-520 nm. The proteolityc activity will be analyzed by zymography gel containing 0.1% gelatin as substrate. The expression of gp63 will be analyzed by Western blot using anti-GP63 antibody. The immunostaining and quantification of the GP63 protein will be analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence. This work showed for the first time that the species Leishmania (L.) amazonensis shows greater activities of the glycoprotein 63 kDa compared to the species Leishmania (V.) braziliensis.

  • GYSELLE RIBEIRO DE CARVALHO OLIVEIRA
  • ANÁLISE DE PATÓGENOS ORAIS ENTRE INDIVÍDUOS PORTADORES DE CÂNCERGÁSTRICO E INDIVÍDUOS SEM CÂNCER.

  • Data: 29/06/2021
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  • The loss of teeth and lack of oral hygiene have been associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer in several populations evidenced in epidemiological studies. In this study, we quantitatively compared the proportion of oral pathogens in individuals with gastric cancer and individuals without cancer in a referral hospital in the city of Belém, Brazil. This study evaluated 192 patients with gastric cancer and 192 patients without cancer. Periodontal clinical examination was performed, and all individuals were submitted to the collection of salivary and dental biofilms. When comparing the median periodontal indexesin the gastric and cancer-free groups, it was statistically significant in the gastric cancer group compared to the probing depth of the periodontal pocket. Levels of bacterial DNA were observed in saliva and dental plaque, with a statistically significant difference between individuals with cancer and without neoplasia in all the bacteria surveyed. Significant relationships between biological agents and gastric cancer have been found in bacterial species that cause high rates of periodontal pathology and caries. The results suggest a different quantitative association in the presence of oral pathogens between individuals without cancer and patients with gastric cancer. As noted, it cannot be said that the bacteria present in the oral cavity increase the risk of gastric cancer or are aggravating factors of the disease. However, it is worth mentioning that, as it is part of the digestive system, the lack of care for the oral cavity can negatively affect the treatment of patients with gastric cancer.

  • BRENDA JAQUELINE DE AZEVEDO ATAIDE
  • "MELATONINA PREVINE DANOS CEREBRAIS E DÉFICITS NEUROCOGNITIVOS INDUZIDOS PELA INFECÇÃO POR Plasmodium berghei ANKA EM MODELO MURINO DE MALÁRIA CEREBRAL"

  • Data: 20/05/2021
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Cerebral malaria is characterized by permanent cognitive impairments in Plasmodiuminfected children. Antimalarial therapies show little effectiveness to avoid neurological deficits and brain tissue alterations elicited by severe malaria. Melatonin is a wellrecognized endogenous hormone involved in the control of brain functions and maintenance of blood–brain barrier integrity. The current study has evaluated the effect of melatonin on the histological alterations, blood–brain barrier leakage, and neurocognitive impairments in mice developing cerebral malaria. Swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain was used as cerebral malaria model. Melatonin treatment (5 and 10 mg/kg) was performed for four consecutive days after the infection, and data have shown an increased survival rate in infected mice treated with melatonin. It was also observed that melatonin treatment blocked brain edema and prevented the breakdown of blood–brain barrier induced by the Plasmodium infection. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that melatonin mitigates the histological alterations in Plasmodium-infected animals. Melatonin was also able to prevent motor and cognitive impairments in infected mice. Taken together, these results show for the first time that melatonin treatment prevents histological brain damages and neurocognitive alterations induced by cerebral malaria.

    Keywords: cerebral malaria, melatonin, blood–brain barrier, neurobehavioral
    impairment, Plasmodium

  • ANDRÉ LUIZ DE SOUZA RODRIGUES
  • EVALUATION OF CIRCULATING microRNA'S IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: FROM EPIGENOMIC DEREGULATION TO POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS
  • Data: 31/03/2021
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Introduction: Schizophrenia is a serious and complex pathology that affects about 0.5-1% of the world's population, is chronic in nature, and is recognized as one of the 15 leading causes of disability. For the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, there are clinical criteria to be evaluated, which include both positive and negative symptoms. There is a genetic predisposition and its manifestation occurs after exposure to environmental stimuli. Thus, strong evidence shows that these environmental stimuli have the ability to act on epigenetic mechanisms that act in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stable and potentially reliable biomarkers, and some miRNAs have been previously identified as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia in peripheral samples. Objective: To evaluate the expression profile of circulating miRNA's in patients with schizophrenia (hsa-miR-34a, miR-449a, miR-564, miR-432, miR-548d, miR-572 and miR-652) in relation to control individuals negative for the disease. Methods: Analytical, case-control, cross-sectional study using samples previously collected from patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia (N = 650) and control group (N = 924), who adequately met the inclusion criteria. The samples were analyzed after RNA extraction through its quantification and techniques for obtaining reverse transcriptase reaction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS22 statistical program. Conclusion: Using the peripheral blood collection method with the intention of finding possible biomarkers for schizophrenia, an increased expression of the seven miRNA's was observed in several analyzed scenarios, showing potential diagnostic value.


    Keywords: Schizophrenia; microRNA; Mental health; Biomarkers; Epigenetics.

  • DANIELA ROSA GARCEZ
  • "AJUSTES POSTURAIS ANTECIPATÓRIOS E COMPENSATÓRIOS EM IDOSOS COM E SEM LOMBALGIA"

  • Data: 25/03/2021
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Chronic low back pain (DLC) is associated with changes in postural control and is highly prevalent in the elderly. Research shows that aging and DLC are described as important factors that affect postural control. The postural control impairments increase the risk of falls. Researches evaluating the postural control in elderly people with DLC are still necessary for greater effectiveness in balance rehabilitation programs to prevention falls in this population. The objective of this study is to verify whether anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) are affected by DLC in elderly people by assessing their postural control during a self-initiated perturbation paradigm induced by rapid upper arm movement when pointing to a target. Elderly people were divided into: Group with DLC (GDLC) (n = 15) and Control Group (CG) (n = 15). The participants’ lower limb muscle onset and center of pressure (COP) displacements were assessed prior to perturbation and throughout the entire movement. T0 moment (i.e., the beginning of the movement) was defined as the anterior deltoid (DEL) onset, and all parameters were calculated with respect to it. The rectus femoris (RT), semitendinosus (ST), and soleous (SOL) showed delayed onset in the GDLC group compared with the control group: RF (control: -0.094 ± 0.017 s; GDLC: -0.026 ± 0.012 s, t = 12, p < 0.0001); ST (control: - 0.093 ± 0.013 s; GDL: -0.018 ± 0.019 s, t = 12, p < 0.0001); and SOL (control: -0.086± 0.018 s; GDL: -0.029 ± 0.015 s, t = 8.98, p < 0.0001). In addition, COP displacement was delayed in the GDLC group (control: -0.035 ± 0.021 s; GDL: -0.015 ± 0.009 s, t = 3; p = 0.003) and presented a smaller amplitude during APA COPAPA [control: 0.444 cm (0.187; 0.648); GDLC: 0.228 cm (0.096; 0.310), U = 53, p = 0.012]. The GDLC group required a longer time to reach the maximum displacement after the perturbation (control: 0.211 ± 0.047 s; GDLC 0.296 ± 0.078 s, t = 3.582, p = 0.0013). This indicates that GDLC elderly patients have impairments to recover their postural control and less efficient anticipatory adjustments during the compensatory phase. Our results suggest that people with GDL have altered feedforward hip and ankle muscle control, as shown from the SOL, ST, and RT muscle onset. This study is the first study in the field of aging that investigates the postural adjustments of an elderly population with GDLC. Clinical assessment of this population should consider postural stability as part of a rehabilitation program. Keywords: Elderly. Postural Adjustments. Chronic Low Back Pain.

  • JESSICA SOUZA PINHEIRO
  • A INDUÇÃO DO COMPORTAMENTO TIPO ANSIEDADE E ESTRESSE OXIDATIVO PELA INDOMETACINA NO CEREBRO DO Danio rerio (ZEBRAFISH) É PREVENIDA PELO α-TOCOFEROL

  • Data: 27/01/2021
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most used and prescribed in the world, however this type of drug has several side effects at the neural level. Studies related to neurobehavioral and neurochemical damage of this class of drug are still necessary for a better understanding of all the possible damages that they can cause. As a result, indomethacin, which is an NSAID, has been widely used to treat pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal injuries, osteoarthritis and postoperative pain. Indomethacin non-selectively blocks the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, acting to decrease the production of prostaglandins. Therefore, this study proposed that the indomethacin could be generated anxiogenic effects and oxidative stress in the brain, and whether the antioxidant α-tocopherol exercised protection against the possible damage caused by indomethacin in zebrafish. The animals used were fish of the species Danio rerio (n=160), subdivided into the following groups: Control - Saline 0.9%; Indomethacin - INDO 0.5 mg/kg; INDO 0.75 mg/kg; INDO 1.0 mg/kg; INDO 2.0 mg/kg; INDO 3.0 mg/kg; α-Tocopherol - TF; TF + INDO 1 mg/kg; TF + INDO 2 mg/kg and were subjected novel tank diving test, the parameters time on top, freezing, erratic swimming and crossed quadrants were analyzed. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using one-way ANOVA with a post-test bonferroni or tukey for comparison between groups, with values with p <0.05 being considered significant. The results regarding the behavioral parameters and oxidative stress were expressed as mean ± standard error or standard deviation. The parameters that showed statistical differences were the time at the top and freezing, where the animals of the groups INDO 0.5 mg/kg, INDO 0.75 mg/kg, INDO 1 mg/kg and INDO 2 mg/kg explored for less the top of the apparatus compared to the CTRL group. In the freezing parameter the groups treated with indomethacin INDO 0.5 mg/kg, 0.75 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg did not show statistical differences with the CTRL group, however there was a difference between the CTRL and INDO groups 1 mg/kg. In the freezing parameter, the animals in the INDO 1 mg/kg group showed a longer time without movement compared to the CTRL group. In the other parameters, there were no significant differences between the groups treated with the control group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation, the INDO 1 mg/kg and INDO 2 mg/kg groups showed an increase in MDA production compared to the CTRL group, thus inferring that there was an increase in oxidative stress when animals were treated with indomethacin. The α-tocopherol exercised protection when animals were previously treated in both the TF + INDO 1 mg/kg group and the TF + INDO 2 mg/kg group compared to the INDO 1 mg/kg and INDO 2 mg/kg groups, respectively. Therefore, indomethacin is involved in inducing anxiety- like behavior and oxidative stress in zebrafish brains.

    Keywords: NSAIDs; indomethacin; anxiety-like behavior; oxidative stress; zebrafish.

  • RAFAEL DIAS DE SOUZA
  • EFEITOS DO EXTRATO DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea MART.) EM MODELOS IN VITRO E IN VIVO DE ISQUEMIA CEREBRAL

  • Data: 19/01/2021
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Stroke is one of the main causes of death in the world, generating impacts on health, the economy and social life. The stroke can be hemorrhagic or ischemic, and can result from small sequelae, even death. Cerebral ischemia, whether global or focal, is caused by a decrease in blood flow in the central nervous system that leads to bioenergetic failure, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, recruitment of microglia/macrophages, culminating in death of neurons, glia and endothelial cells. Antioxidant compounds, such as adjuvant therapy, can contribute to mitigating the damage caused by an ischemic event. Products of plant origin, widely used in traditional medicine, have numerous substances beneficial to health, scientifically proven, for having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, anti-aging effects and many others. Among these plants, we highlight the açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) an Amazonian fruit used for several purposes, such as in food, medicinal, industrial and scientific use. The ripe fruits of the açaizeiro have a purple color, which is due to the large amount of anthocyanins and other flavonoids. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of açaí extract in a murine model in vitro and in vivo of ischemic stroke. For in vitro experiments, we were used primary cultures of neurons/glial cells derived from the prefrontal cortex of neonate Wistar rats. On the 8th day in vitro, the cultures were treated with açaí extract in concentrations of 10 ng/mL to 500 μg/mL for 24 hours, followed by cell viability analysis by MTT assay. After these experiments, concentrations of 1 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL were chosen for use in oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) assays (60 minutes of OGD followed by 24 hours of reperfusion). For in vivo experiments, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used. The animals were submitted for 30 minutes of MCAO and followed up to 7 days. Thus, 4 hours after the beginning of reperfusion, the animals received the extract of açaí by gavage and after that, every day, in the concentration of 0.05 g/ml. The weight gain, food intake and neurological deficit were evaluated daily. At the end of the experiments, brains were collected for histological analysis (infarction volume). In the in vitro results, for dose-response curve, there was no change in cell viability in the tested açaí doses compared to the control. The hypoxia reduced cell viability by 19%, however, açaí did not protect against OGD-induced damage. In vivo, animals submitted to MCAO had a reduction in weight gain and food intake parameters and presented significant neurological deficits and infarction volume when compared to control animals. Treatment with açaí extract did not reverse the changes caused in the parameters of weight gain, food intake and infarction volume. However, there was an improvement in the clinical score on days 1 and 6 of the animals treated with açaí compared to the animals submitted to ischemia. Thus, the mechanisms by which açaí may have changed the clinical score need further study to suggest that the compounds present in the fruit may play a beneficial role in stroke patients.

2020
Descrição
  • RHAYRA XAVIER DO CARMO SILVA
  • COMPORTAMENTO DEFENSIVO DO ZEBRAFISH (Danio rerio, HAMILTON 1822) COMO MODELO PARA O ESTUDO DO MEDO E ANSIEDADE:
    PAPEL DO RECEPTOR 5-HT2C

  • Data: 22/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The anxiety disorders are related to dysfunctional defensive behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) modulates these defensive reactions, increasing anxiety-type conflict responses through action in prosencephalic structures and inhibiting escape/panic-type physiological and behavioral responses through action on mesencephalic structures. Evidence of a dual role of serotonin on the regulation of defensive behavior has also been found in zebrafish. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the involvement of the 5-HT2C serotonergic receptor in the zebrafish alarm reaction triggered by the exposure to the alarm substance (AS). Alarm reaction is a set of adjustments neurobehavioral behavior characterized by an increase in the time the animal spends at the bottom of the aquarium (geotaxis), an increase in the frequency of erratic swimming and freezing behaviors and the production of an intense autonomic response. Additionally, the acute restraint stress (ARS) protocol was used to investigate the participation of the 5-HT2C receptor in the response to restrictive stress. Before being subjected to stress protocols, the animals were pre-treated with selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist - MK212. The results revealed an increase in geotaxis, erratic swimming, and in the duration of freezing during exposure to the alarm substance. After exposure, AS increased the duration of freezing. The ARS decreased the time at the top of the aquarium and increased geotaxis, erratic swimming, and the freezing duration. Pretreatment with MK212 (2 mg/kg) blocked the increase in geotaxis and erratic swimming during exposure to the alarm substance. After exposure to SA, treatment with MK212 (1 mg/kg) decreased the duration of freezing. MK212 (2 mg/kg) blocked the increase in the duration of freezing after the ARS. The results demonstrate that the activation of 5-HT2C receptors partially blocks the alarm reaction of the zebrafish (panicolytic-like effect) and blocks the increased freezing in the DVEN test. Together, these findings suggest that the 5-HT2C receptor selectively participates in neurobehavioral responses in zebrafish and is more strongly involved in panic-related defensive reactions.

  • DEISE CIBELE NUNES DE ALMEIDA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO GENOMA DE TUMORES DA TIREÓIDE POR HIBRIDIZAÇÃO GENÔMICA COMPARATIVA EM MATRIZ (aCGH)

  • Data: 16/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Thyroid is an endocrine gland of endodermal origin located in the region anterior to the trachea, constituted of two lobes united by an isthmus. Histologically, it is formed by numerous spherical sacs, called thyroid follicles. These are formed by a cavity containing a protein rich substance (the colloid) that is bounded by a layer of simple epithelium, which may be cubic, pavement or columnar cells, the so-called follicular cells. Despite its simple organization, the thyroid gland can give rise to a wide spectrum of malignancies, from innocuous to highly malignant lesions. Approximately 94% of malignant tumors are represented by well differentiated thyroid carcinoma formed by cells of follicular origin. These neoplasms are divided into two main categories: papillary carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Despite their origin in the same cell type, the two neoplasms show different biological behavior and distinct sets of genetic characteristics, including specific cytogenetic patterns. Cytogenetic analyses may reveal new genes, as well as their pathways, involved in the onset of these tumors. One of the most sensitive techniques for the detection of loss and gain alterations of chromosomal segments is aCGH, which may reveal submicroscopic alterations. Thus, the present work aims to analyze the genome of samples of the three major types of thyroid tumors, comparing the results among themselves and with benign tumors, in order to detect alterations that can be used as differentials between tumor types, as well as to better understand the pathways that may be involved in its emergence. In the study involving 40 samples of thyroid tissue (1 of normal tissue, 31 patients with malignant disease and eight patients with benign thyroid disease) we observed that there are no amplifications and deletions common to the three groups; chromosome 22 undergoes changes compatible with the evolution to adenomas ; there is a positive correlation between benign and malignant that has the same sense of growth; the sex chromosome is not related to the severity and / or predominance of the female sex; and some genes are candidates for marker: SESN, deleted in patients over 45 years old and could be the target of analysis for diagnosis of more aggressive tumors, IGH, SLC20A1P1, C14orf99, HOMER2P1, LINC00221, LOC102724977, which were amplified in the normal and malignant sample, and not altered in the benign; GOLG14 pseudogene 1,2,3 and LOC107984633, which were found amplified only in the malignant sample; PDE4DIP, NBPF9, LOC653513, LOC730257, LOC100996716, LOC101060398, LOC101929790 and LOC102723348, which were found deleted n the malignant sample.

  • GISELE VIEIRA HENNEMANN KOURY
  • AVALIAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE DE EVOCAR A MEMÓRIA AUDITIVA POR ESTÍMULO VERBAL DIGITALMENTE RESTRITO

  • Data: 11/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Speech understanding requires constant reconstruction by the central nervous system of sound signals corrupted by environmental sounds, a central auditory processing skill known as auditory closure. Currently, in Brazil, to evaluate this ability, testing with monosyllables analogously filtered, which has a restricted speech material and a limited attenuation of the acoustic components, not adequately forcing the nervous system to recompose the original message. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the ability to perform auditory closure using speech material with significant content, the extrinsic redundancy of which is effectively reduced through digital filtering, both in the frequency range and in the intensity of sound attenuation, in order to improve the detection of central nervous system failures to understand the original message. A cross-sectional and prospective study was carried out. Initially, words with significant content, used in literacy, were selected based on verification of comprehension by healthy children. After the selection, this speech material was digitally filtered at various low-pass and high-pass cut-off frequencies and listened to by normal hearing adults, to establish the appropriate cut-off frequency for testing. The two new filtered speech tests were applied to children and adolescents of different age groups to determine how age affected performance, and in children with auditory processing disorders, before and after acoustically controlled auditory training to assess diagnostic capacity and clinical improvement after treatment. There was a progressive increase in performance with less restrictive filters (p <0.001) and with increasing age for all tests (p <0.001). The auditory closure for low-pass filtering matured earlier than with highpass filtering. It has been shown that the new tests can also be used to diagnose changes in auditory processing and to evaluate functional improvement after auditory training. These tests enhance the current diagnostic tools to assess auditory closure, providing information on its maturation during normal development, validating this method for diagnosis and for control after treatment of patients with auditory processing disorders.

  • LAIANE PINHEIRO DE SOUSA
  • EFEITO PROTETOR DA EDARAVONA NOS DÉFICITS NEUROCOMPORTAMENTAIS INDUZIDOS PELA MALÁRIA CEREBRAL

  • Data: 16/11/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The Malaria is transmitted through the female Anopheles mosquito bite and caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The infection by P. falciparum can cause the disease's most severe form as cerebral malaria (CM). CM can be defined as an acute, diffuse, and potentially reversible encephalopathy, diagnosed with the presence of asexual forms of P. falciparum in a blood smear and a coma state. The CM most studies originate from infection by P. berghei ANKA (PbA) in a murine model due it has common characteristics with infection by P. falciparum. Experimental models are used to investigate the mechanisms and behavioral deficits involved in the CM evolution, in addition to the action of substances with neuroprotective action against the disease. Therefore, the main objective of the present study is to evaluate the edaravone neuroprotective effect on the evolution of experimental CM. Swiss albino mice were used as experimental animals and infected via intraperitoneal, with the strain PbA (10⁶ parasitized erythrocytes). Control group, EDA group 1 mg/kg, EDA group 3 mg/kg, PbA group, PbA+EDA group 1 mg/kg and PbA+ EDA group 3 mg/kg. The CM characterization was analyzed using parameters such as body mass, survival curve, and parasitemia evolution. The vascular permeability test was performed in the evaluation of vascular leakage in brain tissue. In the analysis of neurobehavioral deficits, the RMCBS, open field, and light/dark tests were used. The results demonstrate that between the 3rd-12th day after infection, all groups maintained the constant body mass. Regarding the survival curve, the PbA group showed the death of mice from the 7th d.p.i, evolving to the death of all in the 11th d.p.i. Similarly, the PbA + EDA group 1 mg/kg exhibited neurological clinical signs and a death window similar to the PbA group. The PbA + EDA 3 mg/kg group, on the other hand, evolved to death only from the 10th d.p.i, and with their last animal treated alive until the 21st d.p.i. In the parasitemia, there were no statistical differences between groups and in the days after infection. Concerning the behavioral tests, the PbA group exhibited an increase in neurological deficits as opposed to the PBA + EDA 3 mg/kg group, which showed improvement in neurobehavioral impairments. In conclusion, treatment with edaravone increased the survival of infected animals and attenuated the neurological complications of mice infected with the PBa strain.

  • NADYME ASSAD HOLANDA DA SILVA
  • ATIVAÇÃO NITRÉRGICA DO COMPORTAMENTO TIPO ANSIEDADE INDUZIDO POR ESTRESSE AGUDO DE CONTENÇÃO EM Danio rerio (ZEBRAFISH).

  • Data: 13/11/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The homeostatic state of an organism is constantly subjected to stressful situations, which can change according to its nature and duration. The stress response refers to the response of a subject to these stressful stimuli, resulting in several physiological adaptations that can lead to behavioral changes and trigger neurobehavioral disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Among the changes that occur in the organism due to the anxiety-like behavior induced by stress, we highlight the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In this sense, nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the adaptive response of the organism, since exposure to stressors modifies its production. However, the data regarding the role of NO in stress-induced anxietylike behavior is not fully understood. Thus, we aim to demonstrate pharmacologically the participation of the nitrergic system in the generation of anxiety-like behavior induced by acute restraint stress (ARS) in Danio rerio (zebrafish). For this, 92 adult fishes of the specie Danio rerio (zebrafish) were used and divided into the following groups: control (saline 0,9%), ARS, L-NAME (10 mg/kg) and L-NAME+ARS. The ARS protocol consisted in keeping the animals under restraint in microtubes for 90 minutes. Subsequently, anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the Novel Tank Diving Test and, right after, the brains were collected to quantify lipid peroxidation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post-hoc, considering statistical difference when p<0.05. Our results demonstrated that the exposure to ARS had an anxiogenic effect on the behavior of the animals tested in the Novel Tank and raised the levels of lipid peroxidation in the brain of zebrafish. On the other hand, pre-treatment with NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) prevented those changes in behavior and lipid peroxidation induced by ARS. Then, we conclude that the activation of the nitrergic pathway play a role in the generation of anxiety-like behavior induced by ARS.

  • NIVIA DE SOUZA FRANCO MENDES
  • EFEITO NEUROPROTETOR DA MANGIFERINA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DA MALÁRIA CEREBRAL EXPERIMENTAL

  • Data: 09/11/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Cerebral malaria is the most common clinical manifestation of infections caused by P. falciparum. This disease causes severe and irreversible neurological complications, such as visual changes, ataxia and cognitive disorders. Therefore, its necessary new therapies to be used to reduce the damage caused by cerebral malaria. Mangiferin (Mgf), a compound present in plants such as Mangifera indica, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and appears as a possible ally in the treatment of the disease. Aiming to evaluate the effect of mangiferin (50mg/kg), on the neurological changes, caused during the development of the experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we used a swiss mice and the infection was induced by a Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) strain. The animals are divide into four experimental groups: control, mangiferin (mgf), Infected by PbA (PbA) and Infected by PbA and treated with Mangiferin (Mgf+PbA). The treated group received intraperitoneal injection with mangiferin for 8 days. To characterize the ECM, we analyzed the cognitive impairments by Rapid Murine Coma and Behavior Scale protocol, the survival curve, the parasitemia (%), body weight and the vascular permeability. The cell death was verified by the expression of Caspase-3 and behavioral changes through the open fiel test. Over the all study, we can observed that treatment with mangiferin showed a increased in the survival curve, reduction in the vascular permeability and the cell death. Furthermore, there was a improvement in the neurological changes, due to the less exposure of the cerebral parenchyma of the treated animals. Thus, our research allowed us to evaluate the effect of Mangiferin in the course of the disease.

  • ELLEN ROSE LEANDRO PONCE DE LEÃO
  • ANÁLISE COMPORTAMENTAL E QUANTITATIVA DE MICRÓGLIAS NO SEPTO LATERAL EM MODELO MURINO EXPOSTO AO ÁCIDO VALPRÓICO NO PERIODO PRÉ NATAL.

  • Data: 14/10/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disorder manifested by deficiencies in the conditions of neurodevelopment and characterized by severe impairment in reciprocal social interactions and communication skills, in addition to the presence of stereotyped behaviors. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in mice has been widely used as a model of inducing behaviors similar to autism associated with cellular changes. However, no study has reported the influence of exposure to VPA in utero, in tasks dependent on the hippocampus and on the microglial response in the lateral septum (SL) in adult female mice. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate behavioral and microglial changes in the lateral septum in a murine model (Balb / c) of ASD, induced by exposure to valproic acid in the gestational period, compared to control animals. Female mice (Mus musculus), of the BALB / c strain, received, on day 12.5 of gestation, a single dose of oral solution of sodium valproate diluted in saline (600 mg / kg by body weight), or an equal volume of solution saline. The offspring were organized in standard laboratory cages on the 21st postnatal day. After 5 months of age the females were subjected to behavioral tests, and then the processing of their brains for selective microglial marker (IBA-1 antibody). The analysis of the open field tests (distance covered, immobility, crossed lines and occupation index of the periphery vs. center), elevated maze in the cross (distance covered, immobility and occupation index of closed vs. open arms) and microglial quantification and volumetric showed significant differences between the VPA and control groups, (two-tailed t test, p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that female mice exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy showed significant losses in their exploratory behavior in adulthood. We suggest that these behavioral changes are associated with the central inflammatory response triggered by VPA. We infer that this gain may be related to the behavioral changes found, which are similar to those observed in autism.

  • VICTOR OLIVEIRA DA COSTA
  • Impactos de 8 meses de destreinamento físico e cognitivo sobre o desempenho cognitivo, capacidade funcional ao exercício e qualidade de vida de idosos

  • Data: 09/10/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The benefits of intervention protocols involving physical exercise and cognitive stimulation in dual tasks f or the physical and cognitive health of the elderly are already known. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of an 8-month detraining period on the physical, cognitive, and quality of life parameters in healthy elderly people who participated in an Intervention Program for multimodal physical exercises in dual task. The dual task Intervention Program whose benefits were assessed consisted of physical exercises (aerobic training involving strength and balance) and multisensory stimuli of a varied nature, applied simultaneously for 24 sessions, twice a week, lasting 75 minutes each (JARDIM, 2018). Twenty-two (22) elderly people aged 67.2 ± 1.1 years old, living in community, were reevaluated at detraining of 8 months. The cognitive assessment consisted of: Mini-Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Scale for screening, CERAD Battery Tests (Semantic and Phonological Fluency, Word List and Clock Test), and automated neuropsychological tests (CANTAB), while the assessment of functional capacity to exercise was composed of cardiorespiratory conditioning (Six-Minute Walk Test), mobility and functional balance (Timed Up and Go), muscular resistance of the lower limbs (Sit and Stand Test), handgrip strength, balance and gait (Tinetti scale), balance (Berg scale), and performance in dual tasks (walking while talking); the level of physical activity was assessed using the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ); the subjective perception of the quality of life of the elderly through the SF-36 questionnaire; and the assessment of cardiovascular risk by anthropometric measures and resting and after effort heart rate. To analyze the impacts of detraining for 8 months, only the impact of detraining on variables that showed changes between the pre- and post-training evaluations in the Intervention Program was analyzed. The Shapiro-Wilk normality test was applied to analyze the sample distribution, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with Bonferroni correction to compare pre-training, post-training, and 8-month detraining data. The effect size of the Intervention Program was estimated for each variable through the percentage of variation in post-training and detraining performances. Statistical analyzes were performed using the GraphPad Prism software (USA). All values are presented as mean and standard error, and p ≤ 0.05 (two-tailed) adopted as an indicator of statistical significance. The results showed that 8 months after the end of the intervention program, the best cognitive performance was maintained in the evaluation of immediate memory and evocation (CERAD battery), Learning and visual memory (PAL), and sustained visual attention (RVP) of the CANTAB Battery, but not in the Recognition function (CERAD Battery) and Recognition Memory (DMS - CANTAB). The comparisons made between the data collected after 8 months and those collected in the preintervention still showed significant differences, reflecting sustained improvement in long-term cognitive performance. In contrast, measures of functional capacity during exercise declined significantly in the same period, returning to pre-intervention performance levels. This study demonstrated the effect size for cognitive variables, functional capacity to exercise, quality of life, and level of vigorous activity, and also will add to the literature, since there are still few studies that examined the duration of effects (detraining) of simultaneous interventions in dual task using this tool. Taken together, the results suggest the adoption of dual task programs in public policies dedicated to the elderly to reduce the cognitive decline progression associated with aging.

  • MICHELE AMARAL DA SILVEIRA
  • "PERFIL DE ALTERAÇÕES NO NÚMERO DE CÓPIAS (CNAs) EM AMOSTRAS DE

    MENINGIOMAS COLETADAS EM BELÉM-PA"

  • Data: 09/10/2020
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  • Meningiomas correspond to more than a third of primary neoplasms of the Central Nervous System (CNS), being the most common intracranial tumor. They are mostly benign, slow-growing, affecting twice as many women as men. Studies of quantitative genomic changes in tumor samples allow the performance of correlative analyzes, with possible identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of these pathologies. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the occurrence of changes in the number of copies (CNAs) in 33 samples of meningiomas collected from patients in a population of Belém-PA, through the application of aCGH. According to histopathological classification, the samples were divided into twenty-six grade I samples, 9 meningothelial, 5 fibroblastic, 4 transitional, 2 psamomatous, 3 mixed, 1 syncytial, 1 microcystic and 1 hemagioblastic. Two grade II samples being of the clear cell subtype and one grade III sample of the anaplastic subtype. The study revealed that the proportion of women affected in relation to men was 3: 1. The aCGH analysis showed a total of 2,304 CNAs with an average of 69.8 ± 57.4 per case, of which 1,197 were won (52%), 926 were losses (40.2%), 105 were amplifications (4.5 %) and 76 were deletions (3.3%). A significant relationship was observed between the type of ANC and the degree of the tumor (χ2 = 65,844; p <0.0001; contingency coefficient: 0.1772; p <0.0001). Taking into account all the CNAs found in the study, when comparing samples belonging to the three degrees of malignancy, we identified changes in most of the chromosomes, with some being present in the three histopathological degrees, such as losses in 1p, 10q, 14q, 22q and gain in 14q. Others were present in grades I and II, such as gain in 5p, 9q, 16p, 17p and 17q. Alterations present only in grades II and III, such as loss in 3p, were also identified. The analysis of these regions showed the compromise of genes with functions such as regulation and maintenance of cell survival, reorganization of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling and DNA repair, among others. An interesting finding was a recurrent gain of 8p22 seen only in grade I meningiomas, a region that includes DLC1, a candidate suppressor gene, probably implying the development or progression of meningiomas, usually found deleted in other tumor types. Thus, our findings infer about a specific pattern of changes in the studied population, suggesting a specific pattern for the appearance and progression of these tumors. Key Words: Meningioma, aCGH, CNAs, DLC1.

  • SILVIA MAIARA PRESTES COSTA
  • DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM DISPOSITIVO PARA TREINAMENTO MUSCULAR DA FORÇA DE PREENSÃO PALMAR

  • Data: 18/09/2020
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  • The handgrip strength, commonly measured by means of a dynamometer, depends on the characteristics of the subject, in addition to being related to pathologies that lead to its decrease and generate limitations in daily tasks. Currently, specific equipment is available for the rehabilitation of hand muscle strength, but the evolution of training in the individual has not been evaluated. In this way, the creation of a device that can measure hand strength based on the training exercise is essential to provide the users’ measurements of performance throughout the training sessions, as well as it can guide the planning of activities to the professionals involved in the training program. rehabilitation . Thus, this work and the development of a programmable device, made from the adaptation of a manual exercise ball (used for rehabilitation training and increased muscle strength), in conjunction with the Arduino TM platform, a pressure sensor and others electronic components controlled by a graphical interface designed to manage the entire process using Python as a programming language. To test efficiency, compare whether the data generated by the Digiflex device with those chosen by the proposed project, using a six-week muscle strengthening protocol in healthy people. The results showed that Digiflex achieved results only in women, whereas, the apparatus developed generated strength gain in men and women.

  • CARLOS EMILIO MOLANO PATERNINA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCIAL CITOTÓXICO E GENOTÓXICO DO CHUMBO E DO MERCÚRIO EM FIBROBLASTOS HUMANOS

  • Data: 15/07/2020
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  • Environmental pollution is one of the consequences of large-scale industrialization, due to the dumping of chemicals and other wastes, especially in water bodies. A prominent place is occupied by heavy metals, due to the large quantity in industrial waste and harmful effects to health. Among these, we highlight mercury (Hg), used in the extraction of gold in clandestine gold mining and discarded in rivers, and lead (Pb) used as a container for radioactive agents, in water pipes, in cable coverings. Many human populations are exposed to sublethal doses of these pollutants, with no acute effects. However, in organisms, heavy metals can accumulate and affect systems, organs and cellular components, including interactions with DNA and certain nuclear proteins, causing damage and conformational changes in the genetic material, which can lead to apoptosis, changes in the cell cycle, and to carcinogenesis processes. Considering that in vitro studies provide important information regarding the interactions of substances and cell components, our study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and lead in human fibroblasts. In addition, the results were analyzed by different methodologies in order to analyze their efficiency and complementarities. For this, a fibroblast secondary cell line, not transformed, was exposed to three different sublethal concentrations (5, 10, 15 µM) of MeHg and Pb(NO3)2 for 30 minutes. Cytotoxicity and viability were analyzed using protocols based on membrane damage test (Trypan Blue), transformation of resazurin into resorufin, and protease activities. In addition, we performed the MTT test. Genotoxicity was analyzed using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. The results of the Trypan Blue and tests based on protease activities showed that all concentrations showed cytotoxic effects, with significant p value, while the test using resazurin showed cytotoxic activity only in the two highest concentrations. This difference may be due to the influence of cell number in the results of this technique. Results obtained using the MTT test did not agree with the other viability tests, but could be interpreted as alterations in cell metabolism, confirming recent reports. Micronucleus test and Comet assay indicated both metals are genotoxic. MeHg showed a higher frequency of micronuclei in relation to Pb (p <0.001), but there was a higher number of apoptotic nuclei in cells treated with Pb, which may indicate that the concentration used was more cytotoxic than MeHg, and a lower number of cells completed the cycle in order to produce micronuclei. In the comet assay, which is done right after the exposure period, both metals produced DNA fragmentation, with a slightly higher value of breaks by Pb. We conclude, therefore, that mercury and lead are cytotoxic and genotoxic even in sublethal doses. Concerning the different protocols, Trypan blue, although simple, is a good indicator of cell viability, while MTT behaved clearly as an indicator of general cell metabolism, and should not be used as a viability test. The use of different tests was relevant to a better understanding of the mechanisms of aggression of heavy metals to cells, bringing preliminary evidence about the effects on human health, as well ecological damages.

  • FABIO RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA
  • POTENCIAL ANTICONVULSIVANTE DE AMIDAS GRAXAS DERIVADAS DE TRIGLICERÍDEOS DE ÓLEO DE ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis aublet.)”.

  • Data: 09/06/2020
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  • Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by excessive neuronal activity leading to seizure; about 30% of affected patients suffer from the refractory and pharmacoresistant form of the disease. The anticonvulsant drugs currently used for seizure control are associated with adverse reactions, making it important to search for more effective drugs with fewer adverse reactions. There is increasing evidence that endocannabinoids can pharmacologically modulate action against seizure and antiepileptic disorders. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of fatty acid amides (FAAs) in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in mice. FAAs (FAA1 and FAA2) were obtained from Carapa guianensis oil by enzymatic catalysis and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). FAA1 showed highest content of Palmitoylethanolamide compared to FAA2 and only FAA1 was effective in controlling the increased latency time of the first myoclonic jerk and in significantly decreasing the total duration of tonic-clonic seizures relative to the pentylenetetrazol model. Also, electrocortical alterations produced by pentylenetetrazol are reduced when treated by FAA1 that subsequently decreased wave amplitude and energy in Beta rhythm. The anticonvulsant effects of FAA1 are reversed by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-A (GABA-A) receptors, indicating a mode of action via the benzodiazepine site of these receptors. To conclude, the FAA obtained from C. guianensis oil is promising against PTZ-induced seizures.

  • CINTHIA CRISTINA SOUSA DE MENEZES DA SILVEIRA
  • EFFECTS OF KETAMINE ASSOCIATED WITH ETHANOL ON EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND HIPPOCAMPUS OF FEMALE RATS IN PUBERTY

  • Data: 24/03/2020
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  • The use of drugs of abuse is a worldwide public health problem. Alcohol is often used in combination with other drugs, including ketamine. Little information is available about the damage caused by this association. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in emotional behavior and oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus caused by the consumption of ketamine associated with ethanol in female rats in their adolescence. Four groups of adolescent rats (n = 10 animals per group) were used, with 28 days of life, divided into control (saline intranasal, + distilled water via gavage), CET (10 mg/Kg intranasal), EtOH (3 g/Kg via gavage), CET + EtOH (10 mg/Kg intranasal + 3 g/Kg via gavage). The administration was carried out for 3 consecutive days. The animals were evaluated twenty-four hours after the last administration. The battery of behavioral tests consisted of open field, elevated plus maze and forced swimming. After the behavioral tests, the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were collected to evaluate ROS, ACAP and LPO. The results obtained in the open field test demonstrated preserved spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in the CET + EtOH group, with no differences with the isolated drugs, a result confirmed with the elevated plus maze. In the forced swim test, the CET + EtOH group demonstrated depression-like behavior, similar to the isolated drugs. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the CET + EtOH group demonstrated an increase in ROS production similar to the CET group in the hippocampus. In the prefrontal cortex, the increase in ROS production in the CET + EtOH group was higher than the EtOH group and lower than the CET group, but there were no changes in ACAP and in the levels of LPO. With these results it can be concluded that the combination of Ketamine and Ethanol induces anxiety and depression behaviors, similar to isolated drugs, with increase in ROS production in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

  • JORGE EDUARDO CHANG ESTRADA
  • Isolamento de Metaloprotease tipo 1 de Bothrops moojeni e sua ação na hipertensão renovascular em ratos

  • Data: 19/03/2020
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  • The hypertension is a global disease of concern, which can generate vascular diffusion and a chronic vascular remodeling. The actual treatments include some diuretics; β-blockers; drugs that act in the Renine-Angiotensine system and others. To evaluate a possible new drug against hypertension our objective is to evaluate the use of the metalloproteinase of Bothrops moojeni (Bm1). To evaluate this possible effect we use the animal model of two kidney one clip (2K1C) with a treatment of 4 weeks with 4 experimental groups (divided in Sham and Has): using a saline group, a control group with Losartan (10mg/kg), a group with the metalloproteinase (denominated Bm1 for this experiment, 1μg/kg) and a group with both drugs (Losartan (10mg/kg) and Bm11μg/kg). Experimental data include isolation and characterization of Bm1, induction of an animal model with alteration of blood pressure, evaluation of electrocardiogram and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. In this study, our data show that the use of Bm1 decreased blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in the animal model of hypertension, data that were shown by assessing cardiac parameters by electrocardiogram (comparing hypertensive groups, Sham treated or not with Bm1). In addition, Bm1 did not show hematotoxic effect in vivo, as it altered blood cells, such as platelets, red blood cells and lymphocytes. These data show that treatment with Bm1 can be effective in controlling hypertension, without leading to hematoxicity. From the combined data, it was possible to conclude that B. moojeni metalloproteinase can be used to control hypertension in a pilot experiment, we believe that its mechanism of action is associated with the ability of Bm1 to cleave angiotensin I.

  • RAIMUNDO MIRANDA DE CARVALHO
  • FREQUENCIA DE PERDA DE HETEROZIGOSIDADE DO GENE NF2 EM PACIENTES COM SCHWANNOMAS INTRARAQUIANOS ESPORÁDICOS

  • Data: 06/03/2020
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  • Background: Schwannomas are benign tumors, with slow growth, generally encapsulated, which originates from nerve’s myelinated sheath. They may occur associated with several genetic disorders, in special the Neurofibromatosis type 2, where the diagnosis of Bilateral Acoustic Schwannoma is a diagnostic criteria. When they occur in the spinal compartment under the Magnum foramen, they are denominated Spinal Schwannomas. Objective: To determine the frequency of gene NF2’s heterozygosity loss in patients with Sporadic Spinal Schwannomas. Method: In this study there were included 39 patients from both genders, attended in Neurosurgery Services located at hospitals in the north of Brazil, with the diagnosis of Spinal Schwannomas, from January 1990 to December 2013. In all patients it was performed Immunohistochemistry Test of S-100 protein. It was realized the extraction and amplification of DNA from paraffin blocks of patients diagnosed with Schwannoma. As a standard technique to evaluate mutational status and also to verify the heterozygosity loss it was done the I- FISH. Results: The average age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 48,82 years; of which 18 were women and 21 were men. The mean time interval from the presentation of first symptoms and the diagnosis was 14,05 months. The patients presented overall survival and progression free survival of 100%. Point mutations and/or loss of alleles were identified in 16/39 samples (41,03%). The LOH highlighted by alleles’ deletion and/or mutation of the other allele, was observed in 7/28 tumors (17, 94%). Two homozygous mutations (with the presence of both alleles) were detected in 4/39 tumors (10, 25%) and the presence of heterozygous mutations, which means in the presence of two alleles, was revealed in 3/39 (7,69%). In 2 tumors it was identified the loss of one NF2’s allele without the presence of mutation. It was detected no aberration in gene NF2 in 23 schwannomas (58,97%).
    Key-words: Spinal Schwannomas; gene; NF2; mutation.

  • ALINE COSTA BASTOS
  • ANÁLISE DA AÇÃO CICATRIZANTE DOS EXTRATOS DA FOLHA, PECÍOLO E CAULE DA Montrichardia linifera (Arruda) Schott IN VITRO

  • Data: 17/02/2020
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  • Chronic injuries affect a large portion of society, treatment for these patients has high financial costs and a result that is not satisfactory. Thus, the objective of this work was to investigate whether ethanolic extracts from the stem, petiole and leaf of Montrichardia linifera (Arruda) Schott have healing activity in vitro. For that, the identification of substance classes of the extracts was carried out by HPTLC, the analyzes of: cytotoxicity, in vitro healing, hematoxylin and eosin morphology and immunomarking for BrdU was also performed. This demonstrated the antioxidant activity and the presence of terpenes in the three extracts, and the presence of flavonoids and phenols in the leaf extract. A serial curve was performed with concentrations of 100 to 0.19 μg / ml of the extracts of the stem, petiole and leaf, in times of 24, 48 and 72h, and it did'n present cytotoxicity. From the cytotoxicity test, the concentrations of 0.78, 0.39; 0.19 μg/ml of the three extracts were chosen for the next tests. Thus, the control group in 6, 12 and 24 hours showed a lesion area of 82.08 ± 12.13, 56.14 ± 15.75, 34.34 ± 10.12%, respectively; while the extract of the stem showed lesion area, in the time of 6h, of 66.108 ± 23.85, 66.10 ± 13.13, 64.81 ± 20.42%, respectively; in 12h, 38.86 ± 20.66, 40.45 ± 14.64, 32.29 ± 16.62, respectively; in 24h, 13.48 ± 11.20, 10.67 ± 7.94, 10.15 ± 7.35%, respectively. The petiole extract showed a lesion area, in 6h, 74.02 ± 15.16%, 80.32 ± 22.50%, 75.56 ± 20.09%, respectively; at 12h, 38.86 ± 20.66, 46.79 ± 12.46, 40.98 ± 5.45%, respectively; in 24h, 13.48 ± 11.21, 27.33 ± 13.86, 12.40 ± 7.72%, respectively. The leaf extract, on the other hand, showed a lesion area, in the time of 6h, 73.08 ± 21.35, 72.91 ± 18.19, 67.84 ± 17.89%, respectively; in 12h, 48.76 ± 21.17, 48.02 ± 17.30, 44.54 ± 18.70%, respectively, in 24h, 24.59 ± 14.58, 26.07 ± 16 , 73, 23.75 ± 15.76%, respectively. There was no significant morphological change in hematoxylin and eosin staining. In the quantification of positive BrdU cells, the control group showed an average of 19.778 ± 3.80, while the groups treated with the extracts at concentrations of 0.78, 0.39, 0.19 μg/ml, for the extract of stem, demonstrated mean of 20.222 ± 1.855, 37.889 ± 7.407, 29.778 ± 4.521 positive BrdU cells, respectively, for petiole extract, mean of 20.222 ± 2.587, 20.444 ± 5.077, 24.889 ± 3.551 positive BrdU cells, respectively; for leaf extract, mean of 20,556 ± 3,504, 23,778 ± 5,974, 22,889 ± 3,1798 positive BrdU cells, respectively. Therefore, Montrichardia linifera stem and petiole extract, in small concentrations, demonstrated wound healing activity in vitro.

    Keywords: Healing; Skin lesion; Montrichardia linifera.

  • STELLA MIRANDA MALCHER
  • DIVERSIDADE CROMOSSÔMICA NO GÊNERO Cerradomys (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE) DEMONSTRADA POR PINTURA CROMOSSÔMICA

  • Data: 14/02/2020
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  • Rodents is an order of mammals highly described with the largest number of species, having extremely varied habitat. It occurs in various types of environments with wide geographic distribution, absent in Antarctica. One of the probable reasons for Rodent's evolutionary success is due to its wide variety of foods. Cricetidae is one of the families of this order, which is inserted in the subfamily Sigmodontinae. This subfamily is mainly represented by rodents from South America, and among them there are species of the genus Cerradomys, grouped in the Oryzomyini tribe, which covers about 35% of sigmodontine rodents. Rodents have a high karyotype diversity, with a number ranging from 2n=10 in Ctenomys steinbachi (Family Ctenomyidae) and Akodon sp. (Family Cricetidae) at 2n=102 in Tympanoctomys barrerae (Family Octodontidae) and 118 in Dactylomys boliviensis (Family Echimyidae). A more recent classification considers that the genus Cerradomys has eight species, all with basic characteristics used. The number varies from 2n=46 in Cerradomys langguthi to 2n=60 in C. akroai, that is, there may be a high number of chromosomal rearrangements. Here we studied by classical cytogenetics (C- and G-banding) and by chromosomal painting with probes of total chromosomes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME; 2n=54), the karyotypes of three species of Cerradomys: C. scotti (2n=58), C subflavus (2n=54) and C. vivoi (2n=50) and compared with C. langguthi, described in the literature, diagnosing the possible chromosomal rearrangements that occur during a karyotype evolution, of the species of this type. A comparative analysis was performed with the Sigmodontina species already mapped with HME probes, or that demonstrated the C. langguthi karyotype, in relation to H. megacephalus, more rearranging when C. scotti, C. subflavus and C. vivoi. In addition, we found that C. vivoi shares more conserved syntheties with C. langguthi than C. scotti and C. subflavus, compared phylogenetically, or that they are reinforced by the presence of four synthetic blocks conserved in the different analyzed, or that they can be executed partly of the ancestral genome of the genus.
    Keyword: Cytogenetics; Synthetic blocks; Chromosomal rearrangements.

  • LUMA CRISTINA FERREIRA GUERREIRO
  • ANÁLISE QUANTITATIVA DE NEURÔNIOS IMUNOMARCADOS PARA PARVALBUMINA NO HIPOCAMPO E NÚCLEO MAGNOCELULAR DO ISTMO EM Actitis macularius NO PERÍODO DE INVERNADA

  • Data: 08/02/2020
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  • It is already known that parvalbumin (PV) neurons have their number modified in face of social, multisensory and cognitive stimuli, both in mammals and birds. However, nothing is known about its plasticity in long-distance migratory shorebirds during wintering period. Here we investigated in four distinct temporal windows of the wintering period, the plasticity of PV neurons of two brain areas of the spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularius) which includes in its migratory journey multiple stopovers for feeding and resting. We used PV as a marker of a subpopulation of inhibitory neurons and count them in the hippocampal formation (HF) and magnocellular nucleus of tectal isthmus (IMC). Based on previous evidence that HF is involved in learning and memory and social interaction, and IMC is essential for control of head and neck and eyes movements, we tested the hypothesis that PV neurons would increase in HF and remain unchanged in IMC. For this, we used the optical fractionator to estimate cell number. Brains were processed for PV immunostaining, followed by estimates of the number of PV neurons of the areas of interest. As compared with migratory rest 1, PV neurons estimates showed significant increase in the hippocampal formation of premigration group. We suggest that parvalbuminergic neurons proliferation is part of the adaptive changes of the hippocampal circuits involved with the migratory process back to the reproductive niches in north hemisphere.

  • EMANUEL RAMOS DA COSTA
  • MUDANÇAS MORFOLÓGICAS NOS ASTRÓCITOS
    HIPOCAMPAIS NO PERÍODO DE INVERNADA EM
    Arenaria interpres

  • Data: 08/02/2020
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  • Astrocytes are essential for lipid neuronal metabolism in long-distance
    uninterrupted migratory flights, when glucose is not available as the main source
    of energy. We previously demonstrated in Calidris pusilla that after uninterrupted
    5 days transatlantic flight, astrocytes shrink and reduce its number in the
    hippocampal formation. Here we shifted our attention to the wintering period and
    tested the hypothesis that as the wintering progresses, hippocampal astrocytes
    morphological changes following Atlantic crossing, would be recovered. To that
    end we used Arenaria interpres, which also crosses the Atlantic Ocean and
    reaches the mangroves of the Amazon River estuary for wintering. Birds were
    captured in September/October (closer to the arrival in the coast of Bragança -
    Pará, Brazil for wintering) and in April/May (closer to the departure towards the
    breeding sites) and had their brains processed for selective GFAP-astrocyte
    immunolabeling. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the immunostained
    astrocytes were performed and morphological classification was done based on
    hierarchical cluster and discriminant analysis of multimodal morphometric
    features. We found two morphological phenotypes of astrocytes exhibiting
    distinct morphological complexities after the long-distance non-stop transatlantic
    flight. Although to a different extent, both morphotypes increased their
    complexities as wintering period progresses towards the pre-migration window.
    Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the long-distance non-stop flight
    and wintering period differentially affected the two astrocytes morphotypes,
    suggesting distinct physiological roles for these cells. We suggest that
    morphological recovering during the wintering period, may be part of the adaptive
    changes of the local hippocampal circuits of A. interpres in preparation for the
    long journey back to their breeding sites in the north hemisphere.

  • BRUNA CASTRO SANTA MARIA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DAS ALTERAÇÕES NO SISTEMA SOMATOSSENSORIAL COMO ESTRATÉGIA PARA O DIAGNÓSTICO PRECOCE E INTERVENÇÃO DE PACIENTES COM TRANSTORNO DO ESPECTRO AUTISTA - TEA

  • Data: 31/01/2020
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  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in communication and social interaction in multiple contexts and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. The most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), presented the addition of "hyper and hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment" as defining diagnostic characteristics of autism. Individuals with autism often report tactile sensitivities, such as stiffness or withdrawal when touched. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify changes in somesthetic sensitivity that may assist in strategies for early diagnosis and intervention of patients with autism. Clinical observations and questionnaires were carried out among the participants, where it was observed that children from control group showed minimal alterations in somesthetic reactivity when compared with the ASD group. It was found that 90% of the participants in the TEA group did not play with different consistencies; 70% do not play with gelatinous objects and materials of different textures, as well as showing an aversion to certain fabrics and / or clothing labels; 62% do not participate in games that get wet or smeared and walk or walked on tiptoe and 50% avoid hugging and / or physical contact, showing that in children with autism it is possible to notice early hypo or somesthetic hyperreactivity, which could support the diagnosis and early intervention strategies.

    KEY WORDS: AUTISM, SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX, TACTILE PERCEPTION, EARLY MEDICAL INTERVENTION

  • THAÍS CRISTINA GALDINO DE OLIVEIRA
  • INFLUÊNCIA DO AMBIENTE NA MEMÓRIA ESPACIAL, APRENDIZAGEM E MORFOLOGIA DAS MICRÓGLIAS NOS TERÇOS EXTERNO E MÉDIO DA CAMADA MOLECULAR DO GIRO DENTEADO.

  • Data: 14/01/2020
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  • We investigated long-term environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and the morphology of the outer and middle thirds of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol), the main targets of perforant pathways, in relation to object recognition and spatial memory. Twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed from weaning in a standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) and tested for object recognition and spatial memories. All mice could distinguish familiar from novel objects. However, SE mice could not distinguish stationary from displaced objects and spent two more training days in the water maze to learn the task. After testing, mice were sacrificed, and hippocampi were sectioned and processed for immunolabeling for IBA1, a selective microglia marker. Random and systematic microglia samples were reconstructed in three dimensions and classified using hierarchical cluster analysis. SE mice showed two morphological phenotypes of microglia in both the outer and middle thirds of DG-Mol. EE mice showed such a reduction in the morphological diversity of microglia that essentially a single morphotype was found. Because EE mouse microglia showed an intermediate morphological complexity between types I and II SE microglia that was associated with higher performance in spatial memory and learning, we infer that morphological complexity might be an accurate indicator of homeostatic microglia. We also suggest that type I and type II microglia in SE mice may have different physiological roles and that the memory benefits of long-term EE may be associated with homeostatic adaptive responses of microglial phenotypes to somatomotor and cognitive stimuli.
    Keywords: environmental enrichment, exercise, microglia morphology, spatial memory, learning, molecular layer, dentate gyrus.

  • KEURI ELEUTERIO RODRIGUES
  • O extrato aquoso de Coriandrum sativum L. promove neuroproteção contra alterações motoras e danos oxidativos na progênie de ratas expostas ao metilmercúrio

  • Data: 08/01/2020
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  • This study aimed to investigate the efects of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract (EACS) on the rat progeny of mothers exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). The presence of bioactive compounds and EACS's antioxidant capacity been evaluated, and the spring were assessed for their total mercury levels, motor behavioral parameters and oxidative stress in the cerebellum. The analysis of the bioactive compounds revealed significant amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as a variety of minerals. A DPPH test showed the EACS had important antioxidant activity. The MeHg + EACS group performed significantly better spontaneous locomotor activity, palmar grip strength, balance, and motor coordination in behavioral tests compared the MeHg group, as well as in the parameters of oxidative stress, with similar results to those of the control group. The MeHg + EACS group alsohad significantly reduced mercury levels in comparison to the MeHg group. Based on the behavioral tests, which detected large locomotor, balance, and coordination improvements, as well as a reduction in oxidative stress, we conclude that EACS had positive functional results in the spring of rats exposed to MeHg.

2019
Descrição
  • RAIANY SOUZA DA SILVA BENDELAQUE
  • DEPRESSÃO E ENVELHECIMENTO CELULAR: UM CAMINHO EM COMUM.

  • Data: 22/11/2019
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  • Since their discovery, telomeres and telomerase have been the subject of intense research, first as a mechanism of cellular aging and later as an indicator of health. By protecting the ends of chromosomes, telomeres play a vital role in preserving information in our genome. Telomeres decrease with age, and their erosion rate of telomeres provides information on the history of cell proliferation in a tissue. The telomerase enzyme restores telomere size and plays an important anti-aging role. Telomere shortening is observed in many human diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, aging syndromes, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia. Major depression (DM) is a serious nosological entity, considered a public health problem and is commonly associated with chronic medical conditions and higher prevalence in senescence, suggesting a strong association with cell aging. Most analyzes published in the literature have shown an association between DM disorder and decreased telomeric function and telomere size, but there are other studies with conflicting results. For this reason, we analyzed telomerase expression and telomere size in peripheral blood leukocytes of 12 DM patients before and after treatment with sertraline antidepressants and / or escitalopram and compared these findings with those found in a control group. negative, composed of healthy individuals, and with a positive control group formed by patients with schizophrenia (ESQ). Analysis of hTERT mRNA expression, the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, was performed by quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Southern Blot methodology was used to analyze telomere length. Pre-treatment DM patients and ESQ patients had significantly lower telomerase expression and telomere length compared to the negative control (p <0.05). After treatment with the aforementioned antidepressants, DM patients had these two telomeric parameters increased and the statistical analysis showed no difference in relation to the negative control (p> 0.05). The recovery of telomeric function after treatment was accompanied by a 50% or more positive response in the clinical condition of DM patients. On the other hand, significance was observed in the difference in telomere size of negative controls and DM patients after treatment in relation to the group of ESQ patients (p <0.05). We can conclude that DM disorder has as a trigger or consequence telomere dysfunction and peripheral blood leukocytes may reveal activation of senescence pathways. Sertraline and / or escitalopram are highly effective in recovering the clinical picture and basal telomeric activity in DM disorder compared to the telomeric responsiveness of specific treatment for ESQ patients, known to have a more severe, chronic and deteriorating mental pathology. The positive outcome of DM patients, who after the beginning of treatment had recovery of telomeric parameters, reveals that telomere analysis is a potential tool for therapy monitoring and follow-up of patients who have their medication suspended due to clinical improvement. Following the patients in this study and increasing the sample number will allow us to see if symptomatic remission will be followed by total telomere recovery and maintenance of its basal function. A very important data not only for the therapeutic plan, but also for the prognosis of those affected by DM.

  • CARLOS AUGUSTO FERREIRA LOBAO
  • TAMANHO DE TUMORES DA REGIÃO SELAR COMO UM PREDITOR DE PERDAS PISCOFÍSICAS E ELETROFISIOLÓGICAS DE CAMPO VISUAL

  • Data: 04/11/2019
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  • Sellar region tumor growth represents an important cause of visual loss due mechanical compression of the optic nerve apparatus. Many investigations have used non-invasive tools to evaluate the visual field consequences of this damage, and good association have been reported between psychophysical and electrophysiological perimetry. Few reports have considered the tumor size as predictor of the visual field loss. Objectives: In the present study, it was evaluated the association between tumor size and visual perimetry alterations measured by a psychophysical method, the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer perimetry, and an electrophysiological method using the multifocal visual evoked cortical potential (mfVECP). Methods: The analyzed sample was composed by 14 patients diagnosed with sellar tumors on magnetic resonance imaging. The number of sectors with negative visual responses for both methods was counted. A simple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the tumor dimensions and the visual field features. Results: Three patients had preserved visual fields, three patients showed hemianopic defects, and eight patients had generalized visual field losses at both evaluations. It was observed that the three maximum diameters of the tumor and total tumor volume had different predictive abilities regarding the extent of visual field loss when using psychophysical and mfVECP data. The maximum craniocaudal diameter of the tumor was the better predictor of the psychophysical measurements, while for mfVECP results, all tumor dimensions and volume had similar value to predict visual field losses. Conclusion: Sellar region tumor size is a predictor of visual loss found on psychophysical and electrophysiological visual perimetry. This correlation has potential to assist in the clinical intervention, and to prevent the irreversible visual impairment caused by these tumors to the patient.

  • MARCIO GONCALVES CORREA
  • INVESTIGAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS BIOQUÍMICOS, PROTEÔMICOS E ESTRUTURAIS DA EXPOSIÇÃO PROLONGADA AO CLORETO DE MERCÚRIO SOBRE A MEDULA ESPINHAL DE RATOS

  • Data: 17/10/2019
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  • Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is a pollutant widely found in the environment. This form of mercury is able to promote several damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS), including changes to the motor cortex, an area related to the planning and execution of motor activity. However, the effects of HgCl2 on the spinal cord, an important pathway for the communication between the CNS and the periphery, are still unknown. We exposed adult rats for 45 days to HgCl2, orally, to investigate the effects on oxidative biochemistry, proteomic profile, and spinal cord structures. Our results showed that exposure to this metal promoted increased levels of Hg in the medullary parenchyma, impaired oxidative biochemistry, changes in antioxidant system proteins, energy metabolism and myelin structure; as well as caused disruption in the myelin sheath and reduction in neuronal density. Thus, we conclude that prolonged exposure to HgCl2 triggers biochemical changes and in the expression of several proteins, resulting in damage to the myelin sheath and reduction of neurons in the spinal cord, which may be related to motor damage.

  • ALEXANDRE MAIA DE FARIAS
  • IMPACTO DO AMBIENTE ENRIQUECIDO EM MODELO DE ENCEFALITE AGUDA INDUZIDA PELO VÍRUS MARABÁ EM MURINO SENIL: ENSAIOS COMPORTAMENTAIS E NEUROPATOLÓGICOS.

  • Data: 11/10/2019
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  • The Amazon is a region that combines favorable conditions for the spread of viruses, which increases the risk of encephalitis, neurodegenerative diseases and death in the senile population. Some studies have shown that enriched environments (EE) promote neuroprotection in animal models of encephalitis, however, studies that investigate the neuroinflammatory responses that EE may promote in senile brains under viral encephalitis conditions are still rare. We tested the hypothesis that EE would promote neuroprotective responses under aging and viral encephalitis conditions. For this, we performed flow cytometry tests, immunohistochemistry and open-field behavioral tests and olfactory discrimination in senile mice maintained in EE or in standard environment (SE) infected by the intranasal route with the Marabá vesiculovirus. The results showed that EE promoted in animals reduced clinical signs of disease, as well as fewer brain areas with the presence of viral antigen, when compared to disease course in animals infected with SE. In addition, it was observed that in EE animals microglia were lower in activation in different brain regions, including fewer brain areas with positive Iba-1 cells with rounded or amoeboid morphology, which may represent macrophage infiltrates. It was also observed that in the EE animals the astrocytic reaction was present in larger number of areas, both 3dpi and 6dpi, when compared to the infected SE animals. The results of cytokine detection tests revealed that SE 6dpi infected animals presented higher MCP-1 levels when compared to all groups and EE 6dpi infected animals presented higher INF-γ production, also compared to all groups. groups. Finally, the results of the behavioral tests showed that the infected animals of the EE 6dpi show reduced exploratory behavior, besides presenting smaller deficits in odor discrimination, when compared to the observed changes in the animals from the SE. Taken together the data show that the EE promoted a decrease in the neuropathological and behavioral results induced by the intense encephalitis induced by the Marabá vesiculovirus in senile animals.

  • AMANDA BRAGA BONA
  • ANÁLISE ANTITUMORAL DA MENADIONA EM CÂNCER GÁSTRICO PELA INIBIÇÃO DA EXPRESSÃO DO GENE CDC25B EM ENSAIOS IN VITRO E IN VIVO

  • Data: 04/10/2019
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  • Gastric cancer is one of the most incident types of cancer worldwide and presents high mortality rates and bad prognosis, especially in developing countries like Brazil. MYC proto-oncogene has been extensively investigated in cancer research due to its essential role in many different cellular activities, especially to those associated with cell cycle control. Its protein is an important transcription factor responsible for regulating the expression of a considerable part of the human genome. Moreover, MYC deregulation is one of the most commonly described phenomena in gastric carcinogenesis. It is well known that MYC positively regulates CDC25B expression which, in turn, regulates the cell division cycle progression inducing the cell to entry into mitosis. Constitutive activation of CDC25B can promote disorderly cell growth and proliferation and has been described in a wide variety of tumors, including gastric cancer. Herewith, specific inhibitors of CDC25B may be valuable in the treatment of stomach tumors. Menadione is a synthetic form of vitamin K that acts to inhibit the CDC25 family of phosphatases expression. Also, recent studies have shown that this compound can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in different types of cancer cell lines. To better understand the menadione mechanism of action in gastric cancer, we evaluated its molecular and cellular effects in AGP01, ACP02, and ACP03 cell lines and in Sapajus apella, nonhuman primates from the new world which had gastric carcinogenesis induced by NMethyl-N-nitrosourea. In our in vitro experiments, we evaluated the menadione capacity of inhibit CDC25B expression, by RT-qPCR and Western blot, and, in addition of the cell cycle analyzes by flow cytometry, we investigated its potential to reduce proliferation, migration and invasion rates. In our in vivo tests, in addition to the CDC25B gene expression analyses, we followed the pre-neoplastic lesions and the tumor progression by ultrasonography, endoscopy, biopsies, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated menadione inhibiting CDC25B expression in vivo and in vitro. It was able to reduce migration, invasion and proliferation rates, and induce cell cycle arrest in the gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our in vivo experiments demonstrated menadione inhibiting tumor development and progression and promoting tumor shrinkage. Therefore, we conclude that CDC25B has proven to be an attractive target for investigation and development of new therapeutic strategies against gastric cancer, and suggest menadione may be an important ally of chemotherapeutics in the treatment of this malignancy. Key Words: Gastric cancer, MYC, CDC25B, menadione, Sapajus apella, N-Metil-Nnitrosourea.

  • ANA CAROLINE CUNHA MESSIAS
  • ANÁLISE DA PRODUÇÃO DE CITOCINAS APÓS EXPOSIÇÃO CELULAR in vitro COM OS ANTÍGENOS ML2478 E ML0840 DO Mycobacterium leprae

  • Data: 26/09/2019
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  • Diagnosis of oligosymptomatic leprosy cases may enable interventions to be performed before the onset of physical disabilities. However, because the diagnosis is still essentially clinical and the disease progresses slowly, there is difficulty in recognizing these cases, since the lesions are discreets and with subtle changes in sensitivity. Most of the time patients are diagnosed when they already have obvious clinical characteristics and/or physical disabilities. Thus, is necessary to develop laboratory tools that help in the early diagnosis of the disease. The cell immunity assay Whole Blood Assay (WBA) is a low-cost, easy-to-perform technique that provides conditions for antigen screening and is favored in areas where leprosy is endemic and may facilitate incorporation of a test into sites with less access to sophisticated laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular immune response after in vitro exposure of peripheral blood to Mycobacterium leprae antigens ML2478 and ML0840. Eighty-seven individuals were selected for quantitation the cytokines of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 after exposure with specific M. leprae antigens by WBA for 24 hours. A total of 47 leprosy cases were evaluated distributed in: 6 tuberculoid and 14 borderline tuberculoid, 13 borderline lepromatous leprosy, 6 lepromatous leprosy; and 8 schoolchildren diagnosed with leprosy during the group active search strategy (oligosymptomatic cases in the clinical forms: 1 primary neural, 1 undetermined, 6 borderline tuberculoid). The remaining 47 individuals corresponded to 20 contacts, 13 healthy schoolchildren and 7 individuals with other skin diseases. The analysis of cytokines suggests the balance between IFN-γ and IL-10 may indicate individuals who are progressing to the Th2 pole. IL-17 and TGF-β1 may be used to follow-up individuals with similar response to leprosy cases. The production of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β1 cytokines by stimulation with proteins ML2478 and ML0840 did not differ between healthy students and case students. And the cytokine IL-17 demonstrated higher production in cases attended at URE than in case students and individuals in control groups.

    Keywords: Leprosy. Recombinant proteins. Cytokines

  • CLAUDIA XIMENA BOBADILLA CHAVEZ
  • PODE EXISTIR UMA DISFUNÇÃO DA SENSIBILIDADE EM PACIENTES COM DESORDENS DEPRESSIVAS?

  • Data: 13/09/2019
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  • Background: Depression is a mental disorder than become important on nowadays and is the most common disease causing disability. This mental disorder typically presents in adolescence or early adult life as well as elderly, where there are clinical reports of possible changes in the somatosensory and neurocognitive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensibility perception in depressive patients compare to healthy participants using the techniques of mechanical, thermal, tactile and pain threshold. The way the study was performed in 25 patients diagnosed with depression (F.33) and 25 healthy controls, were realized the mechanical, thermal, tactile and pain threshold. Data revealed that the mechanical threshold was statistical significantly in the esthesiometer monofilament of 0,2g showing a sensory dysfunction of radial nerve of the left hand compared depressive patients with the healthy controls (1, 36 ± 0,098 vs. 1, 08 ± 0,055). In addition, we observed a sensory dysfunction of fibular nerve and sural nerve of right foot (0, 32 ± 0,478 vs. 0, 61 ± 0,495). Additionally, in the 2g and 4g was significant for a sensory dysfunction of the right foot compared depressive patients with the healthy controls (0, 25 ± 0,452 vs. 0, 58 ± 0, 50) and (0, 29 ± 0,470 vs. 0, 61 ± 0,496), respectively. On the other hand, tactile sensitivity in depressed (36%) and healthy patients (4%). However, for the other test of thermal and painful sensitivity, the results were not significant. These data suggest the occurrence of a dysfunction in peripheral nerves in upper limb of the radial nerve, also a dysfunction of lower limbs in fibular nerve, sural nerve and tibial nerves, which are the main branches of the sciatic nerve.

  • KATIA LAMARAO VIEIRA
  • Atividade neuroprotetora do treinamento físico moderado contra os danos morfofuncionais cerebelares causados pelo consumo de etanol de forma intensa e episódica (Binge drinking) em ratos.

  • Data: 11/09/2019
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  • Ethanol (EtOH) is a psychotropic drug, central nervous system (CNS) depressant, but widely encouraged and consumed by Brazilian society, as well as in much of the world, reflecting on a public health problem. In recent decades, teenagers have been practicing a very common practice, which is binge drinking. The harmful consumption of EtOH promotes, besides biopsychosocial alteration, the homeostatic imbalance that causes neurodegeneration and loss of function with motor disorders. In contrast, the practice of moderate physical training (MPT) has been recommended for the maintenance of physical and mental health, as well as prevention or minimization of the development of some diseases due to motor activity inducing plastic and dynamic changes in the CNS, in order to favor the neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis, besides contributing to the synaptic modulation. In view of the benefits of MPT, it was investigated the neuroprotective effects on motor, tissue and biochemical parameters in the cerebellum of rats exposed to binge-pattern EtOH from adolescence to adulthood. Forty male Wistar rats with 30 days old were used and divided into four groups, the control being sedentary animals and treated with distilled H2O; the trained, composed of animals exercised and treated with distilled H2O; EtOH, formed by sedentary animals and treated with doses of 3 g/kg/day EtOH, 20% (w/v); and Trained + EtOH, with exercised animals and treated with doses of 3 g/kg/day EtOH, 20% (w/v). The MPT protocol was performed on a rodent treadmill for 5 days for 4 weeks and binge-pattern EtOH doses were administered by intragastric gavage in the same weeks as the MPT. After this period, the animals were submitted to open field and beam walking behavioral tests. Then, they were euthanized for cerebellum collection, evaluating immunohistochemistry from the levels of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitrite and lipid peroxidation (LPO); as well as Purkinje cell morphology (PC), the fraction of anti-synaptophysine (SYP) and anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) immunolabeled area. According to the result, EtOH caused severe oxidative stress and motor damage, but the execution of the MPT performed promoted neuroprotective effects in the rat cerebellum, among them, the modulation of oxidative biochemistry by the restoration of GSH levels. decreased LPO levels and increased TEAC, as well as preventing neuronal loss, synaptic vesicle damage (SYP) and myelin components (MBP). Therefore, MPT can be considered as a significant therapeutic strategy for the acquisition of redox homeostasis, avoiding oxidative biochemistry imbalance, as well as tissue and functional damage in the cerebellum of rats treated by binge pattern EtOH.

  • ELINE MESQUITA MELO
  • ACOPLAMENTO DINÂMICO ENTRE OS SISTEMAS NERVOSO CENTRAL E AUTONÔMICO CARDÍACO EM PACIENTES COM EPILEPSIA REFRATÁRIA

  • Data: 06/09/2019
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  • The brain continuously conveys signals to the viscera via interoceptive signals to establish homeostasis. Understanding how these signals are processed, as well as the underlying neurovisceral interaction, may help to elucidate their influence on cognitive and emotional processes under normal and pathological conditions, such as epilepsy. Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by hypersynchronization of neuronal groups. Approximately 30% of individuals with epilepsy are refractory to pharmacological treatment. Even though the mechanisms underlying refractoriness are not yet understood, hypotheses to explain the possible causes have been proposed. According to the neural network hypothesis, the seizure-induced plastic remodeling of neural circuits may contribute to the formation of abnormal neural networks that suppresses the inhibitory effect of the endogenous antiepileptic system and also prevents Anti-Epileptic Drugs from reaching their targets. Therefore, seizures alter the dynamics of cortical neural networks. However, these changes are not restricted to the Central Nervous System, they also modify the activity of the Autonomic Nervous System and compromise cardiac function. The aim of the present study was to verify the interaction between the cerebral cortex and the cardiac autonomic system through the spectral and temporal evaluation of the correlation of electrophysiological activity in individuals with refractory epilepsy and a control group. The measures used were the average power of the cortical electrical signal in different spectral ranges of the EEG, the Heart Rate Variability (characterized by the parameters RMSSD, SD1, SDNN), and the Cardiac Evoked Cortical Potential (HEP). The results showed a significant correlation (p<0.05) between the theta average power and RMSSD, SD1 in the frontal, central, temporal and occipital regions. The theta average power showed a significant correlation with SDNN in all regions in epilepsy patients. HEP analysis indicated differences (p = 0.05) in latency in different time windows between the groups in the channels: Fpz, Fz, F8, F4, F3, Cz, C3, Pz, P4, T3, T4, T6 and O1. Our results show a differentiated dynamic coupling between cortical and cardiac activity in patients with refractory epilepsy.

  • ANA CAROLINA ALVES DE OLIVEIRA
  • ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE CHUMBO POR LONGO TEMPO E EFEITOS SOBRE O HIPOCAMPO DE RATOS WISTAR: AVALIAÇÃO COMPORTAMENTAL, TECIDUAL, PROTEÔMICA E BIOQUÍMICA

  • Data: 19/08/2019
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  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term systemic lead administration (from adolescence to adulthood) on rat hippocampus, looking for possible changes in homeostasis of systemic and hippocampal oxidative biochemistry, proteomic profile and hippocampal neuronal density and memory and related learning in this region. Fifty male Wistar rats, 35 days old, were divided into two groups: control (n = 25, treated with distilled water) and lead (n = 25 treated with 50mg / kg of lead acetate), both via orogastric gavage. The exposure lasted until the 90th day of the mice's life. At the end of the exposure period, the animals were submitted to behavioral tests (object recognition and inhibitory avoidance) to evaluate mnemonic aspects. Afterwards, the animals were euthanized and the peripheral blood and hippocampus were collected for the oxidative biochemistry evaluation by the parameters of total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), glutathione levels (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Part of the hippocampus was destined to lead measurement and protein extraction to evaluate the proteomic profile. Other animals were perfused and the hippocampus processed for immunohistochemistry with the anti-NeuN antibody and evaluated for neuronal density. In this model of lead exposure in rats, we observed increased levels of lead in the hippocampus, associated with functional impairment, with short and long term memory deficits. Biochemical balance was also affected, evidencing in blood oxidative stress with higher levels of TBARS and reduction of TEAC and GSH levels, and in the hippocampus, increased levels of TBARS and GSH. The hippocampal proteome profile identified changes mainly in proteins involved in modulating synaptic transmission, regulating trans-synaptic signaling and regulating exocytosis. Immunohistochemical evaluation with anti-NeuN allowed the identification of reduction in neuronal density in the exposed group when compared to control animals in all hippocampal regions evaluated. We have shown for the first time that long-term exposure to lead is capable of promoting oxidative stress in the blood, associated with increased lead levels, modulation of oxidative homeostasis and alteration of the hippocampal proteomic profile, with greater repercussion on synaptic communication proteins, affecting neuronal death and impairment in cognitive functions.

  • CAMILA MENDES DE LIMA
  • ALTERAÇÃO DIFERENCIAL NOS ASTRÓCITOS RADIAIS DO HIPOCAMPO E NEUROGÊNESE EM AVES MARINHAS COM ROTAS MIGRATÓRIAS CONTRASTANTES

  • Data: 17/08/2019
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  • Little is known about environmental influences on radial glia–like α cells (radial astrocytes) and their relation to neurogenesis. Because radial glia is involved in adult neurogenesis and astrogenesis, we investigated this association in two migratory shorebird species that complete their autumnal migration using contrasting strategies. Before their flights to South America, the birds stop over at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. From there, the semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a non-stop 5-day flight, whereas the semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) flies primarily overland with stopovers for rest and feeding. Using hierarchical cluster and discriminant analysis of morphometric features to classify three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed cells, we identified two morphotypes of radial glia, designated as Type I and Type II. The migratory process affected these cells differentially, with more intense morphological changes in Type I than in Type II morphotypes in both species. We also compared the number of doublecortin (DCX)-immunolabeled neurons with morphometric features of radial glial–like α cells in the hippocampal V region between C. pusilla and C. semipalmatus before and after autumn migration. Compared with migrating birds, the convex hull surface of radial glial–like α cells of wintering birds significantly increased in both C. semipalmatus and C. pusilla. This increase correlated with an increase of the total number of DCX-immunolabeled neurons in wintering birds. The decreased radial astrocyte morphological complexity in the semipalmated sandpiper and its increase in the semipalmated plover, a species that probably relies more on visuospatial information for navigation, may be significant, despite phylogenetic and other differences between these taxa. The migratory flight of the semipalmated plover, with stopovers for feeding and rest, versus the non-stop flight of the semipalmated sandpiper may differentially affect radial astrocyte morphology and neurogenesis.

  • MARTHA DE SOUZA FRANCA
  • RUPTURA DO TENDÃO CALCÂNEO INDUZ ALTERAÇÕES BIOQUÍMICAS E HISTOLÓGICAS NA MEDULA ESPINHAL DE CAMUNDONGOS

  • Data: 08/07/2019
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  • The pathophysiology of the tendons involves release of neuronal mediators that play an active role in regulating tendon pain, inflammation and homeostasis. New directions have pointed out that injury is not restricted to tissue structural changes but indicates a possible involvement of the CNS in the regulation of the lesion. In this way, it is still unknown if the tendon injury affects the CNS, so the present study aims to investigate possible histological and biochemical changes in the spinal cord (L5) caused by the total rupture of the Achilles tendon in murine model. For this, the animals were submitted to tenotomy of the Achilles tendon, and separated in three groups (n = 36): Control; Rupture and Rupture+Suture. The total number cells of the spinal cord gray matter in the L5 vertebral segment was assessed by DAPI labeling. Glial reactivity was assessed by immunohistochemistry for microglia (IBA-1) and astrocytes (GFAP) at 7, 14 and 21 days after tendon rupture. The participation of the nitrergic system was investigated by the quantification of tissue levels of nitrite in lumbar intumescence at 7, 14 and 21 days post-injury and by iNOS (NOS2) immunostaining in L5. Statistical analyzes were performed using the ANOVA-1way test and post-test tukey, considering a significant p <0.05. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The analysis of the number of cells showed that the Rupture group had a lower number of cells in 7 (1408.33 ± 58.59, p <0.05), 14 (1402.7 ± 72.7, p <0.05) and 21 (1374.5 ± 74.2, p <0.01) days post-injury in relation to the Control group (1668 ± 52.3) and in relation to the Rupture + Suture group on days 7 (1655 ± 66.5 , p <0.05) and 21 (1668.3 ± 14.1, p <0.01). The Suture group did not differ from the Control group. The results of glial reactivity showed that at 14 days after injury the microglia were activated at L5 and that astrocytes were activated at 7, 14 and 21 days after injury. The nitrite quantification showed higher levels of nitrite in the group Rupture in 7 (0.0004 ± 10.8x10-5, p <0.01) and 14 days (0.0006 ± 1.06 x10-5, p <0.01) post-injury in relation to the control group (0.0002 ± 3.45x10-5). Immunostaining for iNOS was identified at 14 days after injury in the Rupture group. Our results showed that the rupture of the Achilles tendon induces changes in the spinal cord in terms of total cell number, activation of glial cells and participation of the nitrergic system in a murine experimental model. In this way, it points to possible degenerative, oxidative, inflammatory and neural plasticity events in the spinal cord resulting from the Achilles tendon injury, highlighting the CNS participation in the repair process of this lesion.

  • DANILO DO ROSÁRIO PINHEIRO
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO MOLECULAR DE TUMORES MAMÁRIOS CANINOS: IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE MARCADORES DE DIAGNÓSTICO, PROGNÓSTICO E DE SUSCEPTIBILIDADE

  • Data: 04/07/2019
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  • In canine females, mammary tumors are the most frequently diagnosed, especially in nonspayed animals. They are highly aggressive, multifactorial and heterogeneous, with different histopathological, molecular and clinical characteristics, resulting in different prognoses and response to treatment. Although considered as a model for human breast cancer, little is known about these tumors in canines, and thus they are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and with tumor resection surgery as the preferred option therapy for the species. The aims of the present study were the identification of the different canine mammary tumors subtypes, as well as potential diagnostic, prognostic and susceptibility markers. Canine samples of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mammary tissue were collected at UFRA’s Veterinary Hospital of UFRA. The identification of the molecular subtypes (Luminal-A and -B, HER-2+ and Triple Negative) was performed by the immunohistochemical technique. The identification of diagnostic and prognostic markers was performed by the quantification of gene expression of CCNA2, CCNB2, TTK, CHEK2, TP53, MDM2, PCGF1, PCGF2 and TGF1 genes by real-time PCR. Identification of susceptibility markers was performed on the Affymetrix 700k SNP array platform (Affymetrix Inc.) following the manufacturer's protocols. The correlation between the results obtained was performed by statistical analysis, and results with p<0.05 were considered significant. Immunohistochemistry analyzes showed the presence of all four molecular subtypes previously described for canines, with a higher prevalence of the subtypes that are positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (Luminal-A and-B) and samples with Ki67 above 10%, suggesting that, although most of the samples are responsive to treatment with antiestrogens, they are mostly more aggressive, with a high rate of cellular proliferation. Except for TGF1 and PCGF2, all other genes presented diagnostic value for canine mammary cancer. Regarding the use as prognosis, the correlation between the expression of CCNA2 and Luminal-A and -B subtypes, TTK with Triple Negative, PCGF1 with survival and MDM2 with pseudopregnancy was observed. When comparing the tumor samples in relation to the control samples, several SNPs were identified in seven protein coding genes and considered as potential susceptibility markers of mammary cancer in dogs. The results of the present work have potential applicability in the veterinary routine, allowing an early identification of the tumor, as well as directing the treatment of the animal.

  • RAMON EVERTON FERREIRA DE ARAUJO
  • ANÁLISE CITOGENÉTICA EM MORCEGOS DA FAMÍLIA EMBALLONURIDAE (CHIROPTERA) DA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA ATRAVÉS DE CITOGENÉTICA CLÁSSICA E MOLECULAR

  • Data: 04/07/2019
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  • Emballonuridae is considered by morphological and molecular studies as one of the most ancestors families of living bats. Cytogenetic studies in this group are rare and information for bats from Brazil is almost non-existent. We analyzed six species of Emballonurids from the Brazilian Amazon, Saccopteryx canescens, Saccopteryx gymnura, Saccopteryx bilineata, Saccopteryx leptura and Cormura brevirostris, by classical cytogenetics and FluorescenceIn Situ Hybridization with ribosomal, telomeric DNA probes and whole chromosome probes fromMyotis myotis. The karyotypes analyzed are similar to those found in the literature, indicating that even in geographically distant regions there are no intraspecific variation. The classical bandingagrees with data from the literature. The species Saccopteryx gymnura had its karyotype described for the first time. The probes for 18S ribosomal DNA and human telomeres have accurately identified the Nucleolar Organizer Region and the telomeric regions. Chromosome painting with Myotis myotis probes evidenced several chromosomal syntenies between Emballonuridae and Vespertilionidae. The difference between SBI and SLE karyotypes is only one fission/fusion rearrangement, where SBI chromosome 12 presents as a metacentric and corresponds to two acrocentric chromosomes in SLE, pairs 12 and 13. Between SCA and SGY chromosome pairs 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 are conserved, while pair 5 has a pericentric inversion in the short arm in SGY. Pairs 1, 2 and 3 show mechanisms of Robertsonian translocations between the SGY and SCA chromosome arms. By chromosome painting we were able to identify chromosomal segments in Cormura brevirostris that are involved in the multiple rearrangements of the multivalent structure present in this species. We identified fusions/fissions, Robertsonian translocations, intandem fusions, pericentric and paracentric inversions that are involved in the mechanism of karyotype evolution.

  • ISABELLE CHRISTINE VIEIRA DA SILVA MARTINS
  • EFEITOS DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO COM AÇAÍ CLARIFICADO (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) SOBRE MARCADORES DE ESTRESSE OXIDATIVO EM PACIENTES COM DOENÇA RENAL CRÔNICA EM HEMODIÁLISE

  • Data: 19/06/2019
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  • Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis (HD) present oxidative stress, which is characterized by the reduction of antioxidant enzymes and increased production of free radicals, which has a strong association with cardiovascular complications. Several therapeutic strategies have been used in the sense of reducing oxidative stress in these patients, the Amazonian fruit Euterpe oleracea, known as açai, has shown that the supplementation of this fruit, produces protective effect against oxidative stress, since it is rich in phenolic compounds that are potent antioxidants. However, there are no studies that have evaluated the effect of açai on oxidative stress in chronic renal patients on hemodialysis. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of açai supplementation on oxidative stress markers in hemodialysis (HD) patients compared to the non-supplemented group. Eight HD patients (55.5±4.9 years) were randomized to receive 20 mL of freeze-dried and clarified açai, three times a week for eight weeks and were compared to ten HD patients without supplementation (56.1±3.4 years). Plasma levels of oxidative stress markers – malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, total glutathione (TG), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) – were evaluated before and after supplementation. The statistical analyses were performed using the Stata 14 software, with α=5%, meaning p<0.05 considered as statistically significant. MDA plasma levels were reduced after açai supplementation from 80.2 ± 9.5 to 66.1± 14.5 pg/mL (p= 0.043). This pilot study indicates that açai intake, a very common food in North of Brazil may be an alternative nutritional strategy to reduce the oxidative stress markers in HD patients.

  • ANDERSON VALENTE AMARAL
  • AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCIAL NEUROPROTETOR DO BETA-CARIOFILENO EM MODELO MURINO DE DOENÇA DE PARKINSON INDUZIDO POR 6-HIDROXIDOPAMINA

  • Data: 17/06/2019
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  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) is classified as a motor disturbance characterized by resting tremor, muscular rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia. These symptoms are caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and consequently depletion of dopamine on striatum (STR). The search for new therapeutical approaches that may delay or interrupt the neurodegeneration in PD is essential to promote a better quality of life for patients. Thus, we investigated whether beta-caryophyllene (BCP) has neuroprotective effects in the 6-OHDA murine model of PD. Then, we performed behavioral tests such as apomorphine-induced rotations and exploration in the open field, we measured the optical density from STR fibers, quantified neurons and microglia in the SNpc through stereology and evaluated the total antioxidant capacity from STR and midbrain. Our evidence demonstrates that BCP reduced the degree of neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA, improved motor performance, protected striatal dopaminergic fibers, protected dopaminergic neurons and reduced microglial activation in the SNpc. But did not alter the antioxidant capacity in the STR and midbrain. Hence, BCP treatment has a potential neuroprotective effect in this mouse model of PD, which deserves to be better characterized for translational application.

  • BRUNA PUTY SILVA GOMES
  • ANÁLISE DO EFEITO TÓXICO E ALTERAÇÕES TRANSCRIPTOMICAS DE CÉLULAS NEURONAIS E GLIAIS APÓS EXPOSIÇÃO AO FLUORETO

  • Data: 23/05/2019
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  • Despite being widely used in dentistry for dental carie control, in high amounts fluoride may be associated with side effects of which the best known is dental fluorosis. In addition, studies suggest that even at low concentrations fluoride may exerts toxicity leading to damage on CNS. Functional toxicogenomics analysis of gene profile after exposure to contaminants has been used as a tool for the identification of biomarkers of exposure, as well as for the identification of signaling pathways that may be used for treatment and / or prevention of damage caused by the toxicity of certain compounds. As the molecular mechanism of fluoride toxicity still unknow, analysis of F chronic exposure on gene expression profile of CNS cells are necessary. Here we aimed to show the effect of fluoride exposure of plasma concentration founded on population that used to be exposed to fluoridated drink water, on the main CNS cells. In this way, we have used human cell lineage IMR-32 (neurons) and U87 (glial cells) to analyze parameter of viability, morphology and cell metabolism, ATP-synthesis, oxidative stress, DNA damage and global gene expression profile after 10 days exposure. Our results have shown that fluoride does not induce changes in IMR-32 cells. On the other hand, it induces cell death by necrosis, increased metabolism, decrease in ATP and GSH / GSSG in U87 cells and DNA fragmentation. The U87 gene expression profile is differentially altered after fluoride exposure, decreasing 1735 genes and an increasing expression of 1047 genes after exposure to 0.095μg / mL and decreasing of 1863 gene expression and increasing of 1023 expression after exposure to 0.22μg / mL. We also highlighted the major molecular pathways altered after exposure, such as the signaling pathway TNF-alpha via NFK-B and mitochondrial process. We also showed genes with significant importance biology (hub genes) such as the genes PTGES3, EP300, CYP1B1, RPS27A. Our results suggests that glial cell are affected by fluorides exposure and mitochondria has a major role on the mechanism of fluoride toxicity.

  • DANNILO ROBERTO FERREIRA DA SILVA
  • EFEITOS DA EXPOSIÇÃO AO ACETATO DE CHUMBO A LONGO PRAZO SOBRE A MEDULA ESPINHAL DE RATOS: INVESTIGAÇÃO DE ALTERAÇÕES BIOQUÍMICAS E HISTOLÓGICAS

  • Data: 12/04/2019
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  • Lead (Pb) is a metal naturally found in the earth's crust, it is one of the most used in the industrial sector and presents a great toxic potential. Human exposure to Pb occurs mainly through the gastrointestinal and respiratory system. Once in the bloodstream, Pb is able to diffuse through the body, depositing itself in various organs and tissues. The central nervous system (CNS) is considered one of the most sensitive systems to exposure to Pb. Even with several studies on damage caused by exposures to Pb, there is a gap in the literature regarding the toxic effects of Pb on the spinal cord. In this way, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible biochemical and tissue effects induced by long-term exposure to Pb acetate on the spinal cord of rats. As a methodology, we performed long-term exposure to Pb acetate (50 mg / kg daily for 55 days) in 36 male rats of the species Rattus norvegicus, Wistar line (18 control animals and 18 exposed animals), with body mass between 120 and 150 g and with 30 days of life. After the end of the exposure period, the animals were euthanized for spinal cord collection to measure Pb levels through atomic absorption spectrometry and oxidative biochemical analyzes of pro-oxidant parameters, such as malondialdehyde levels, for the characterization of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite levels (nitric oxide metabolite) and antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP). Other animals were perfused and their spinal marrows destined for histological processing for morphological analysis by morphometry of the regions of white and gray matter, staining in hematoxylin and eosin and subsequent measurement of motor neuron density, as well as immunohistochemistry for the quantification of mature neurons and reactivity of the myelin basic protein in the myelin sheath. We conclude that exposure to Pb acetate in the long term promoted the reduction of total neurons in the anterior horn, as well as the reduction of the myelin sheath in the white matter, with reduction of the antioxidant capacity. Our results suggest that the tissue damage promoted by exposure to lead acetate may be due to mechanisms other than oxidative stress alone.

  • MELQUIZEDEC LUIZ SILVA PINHEIRO
  • CITOGENÉTICA EVOLUTIVA EM TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE AVES SUBOCINES DA ORDEM CHARADRIIFORMES

  • Data: 12/04/2019
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  • The Charadriiformes represent one of the largest orders of Birds, with 19 families and around 370 species. This order is divided into 3 great monophyletic suborders: Charadrii, Scolapaci and Lari. Only three papers using molecular cytogenetics were performed in the Order Charadriiformes to date, indicating the need for many studies in this order to understand the karyotype evolution of these families. Data from the literature demonstrate that, using GGA probes, a fusion of GGA 7 and GGA 8 in Vanellus chilensis was identified, apparently a common feature in the Charadrii suborder. In this dissertation, Charadrius collaris (CCO), Vanellus chilensis (VCH) and Actitis macularius (AMA), belonging to the family Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, were analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics using whole chromosome probes from Burhinus oedicnemus (BOE) to detect possible chromosomal rearrangements. Zoo-FISH showed a high degree of conservation in the first seven pairs of CCO and VCH. It can be said that some pericentric inversions occurred in CCO3, CCO6 and CCO8 and many autosomes probes hybridized in the long arm of the CCO-W chromosome due to repetitive sequences. The study suggests that the fusion of two small pairs in CCO and VCH formed a metacentric pair of BOE (BOE 8), perhaps a common feature of species with a low diploid number in the suborder Charadrii and Lari, and thus a character derivative. A bird from the family Scolapacidae was also analyzed for the first time by classic and molecular cytogenetics (Zoo-FISH). The karyotype of Actitis macularius (AMA) presents high 2n (92), common to Scolapacidae and larger than the PAK karyotype, suggesting specific fission-type rearrangements for the Suborder Scolapacii, leading to medium to small macrochromosomes. The Zoo-FISH using BOE probes detected AMA fissions in all 14 pairs, as well as the remainder of microchromosomes. Inversions were observed for AMA1-4 and AMA pairs 11-14. In contrast to what was observed in the W chromosome of other species analyzed in the family, of metacentric and submetacentric morphology, in Actitis macularius this chromosome is acrocentric, suggesting that there have been inversion events for this bird.

  • JESSICA COSTA TEIXEIRA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DA RECUPERAÇÃO FUNCIONAL APÓS DEGRADAÇÃO DA CICATRIZ GLIAL EM MODELO DE ISQUEMIA FOCAL DO TRATO CORTICOESPINHAL

  • Data: 01/04/2019
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  • The motor and somatosensory functions require the integrity functional and structural of the spinal cord and of their structures. Among these structures, we highlight the corticospinal tract that is responsible for conducting information from the motor cortex secondary motoneurons into the gray matter in the spinal cord and from it to muscles that will produce effective movement in the upper and lower limbs. There are growing interests in experimental models of spinal cord injury that simulate the clinical condition what happens in humans aim to understand the morphological, cellular and molecular mechanism, acute and chronic clinical phases, resulting from the process of spinal cord injury and the consequent development of new therapies. Here, we propose a new model of focal spinal cord injury in the nerve tissue of the corticospinal tract by ischemia. The advantage of this model is given to be restricted to the corticospinal tract, changing the motor performance of the forepaw. We use specific behavioral tests, vermicelli test and staircase test, to evaluate the loss of motor skill of the forelimbs after the focal ischemic procedure. The results of the behavioral tests showed that the animals developed motor compensatory adjustments to manipulate food, and demonstrating the effectiveness of the experimental injury model by measuring the reduction of motor skill after experimental spinal cord injury. The model proved to be effective as an experimental model of spinal cord injury, allowing the analysis of the specific damage caused to the corticospinal tract.

  • RAFAEL OLIVEIRA DA SILVA
  • O TEMPO DE CATIVEIRO E O ENRIQUECIMENTO AMBIENTAL
    AFETAM A NEUROGÊNESE HIPOCAMPAL DE
    BROW-HEADED COWBIRDS (Molothrus ater) FÊMEAS

  • Data: 30/03/2019
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  • Nesting Birds (Brown-headed cowbirds – Molothrus ater) provide us with a good
    model of cognitive abilities research, since they are obligatory parasitic birds, in
    which only females search for ideal nests and therefore have greater
    hippocampal volume than males, as well as, higher rates of hippocampal
    neurogenesis. It is also reported that captivity decreases rates of neurogenesis
    and hippocampal volume. For the verification of neurogenesis rates several
    studies use endogenous markers and one of them is duplacortin, a marker of
    new neurons. Thus, we tested the hypothesis of how environmental conditions
    (enriched and standard) and captivity time (20 days and 24 months) affect
    Molothrus ater hippocampal neurogenesis. We quantified, by stereological
    method, the number and volume of the sum of immunocompromised
    hippocampal neurons (DCX) of 21 female Cowbirds. We also verified the
    hippocampal and telencephalic volume of sections immunolabulated by NeuN
    and evaluated the neuronal recruitment of the caudate-hippocampus. Our
    results revealed that environmental enrichment increased the neurogenesis in
    the hippocampal V and triangular region of captive birds for a short captivity (20
    days) and that the rate of neuronal recruitment occurs in the caudal portion of
    the hippocampus. The telencephalic volume decreased in birds that were kept
    for a long period of captivity, and the hippocampal volume did not change and
    the somatic volume was affected by the long captivity. Our results suggest that
    captivity time influences hippocampal neurogenesis and that there is activation
    of different sub-regions of the hippocampus, especially the caudalportion.
    Key words: new neurons, nest parasite, V-hippocampal; stereology.

  • SILVIA CAROLINNE PEREIRA RIBEIRO
  • TENDÊNCIAS EPIDEMIOLÓGICAS EM PARTOS PREMATUROS MODERADOS A TARDIOS NA REGIÃO NORTE DO BRASIL

  • Data: 29/03/2019
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  • Premature birth is characterized as occurring before 37 weeks of gestation or less than 259 days from the first day of last menstruation. Brazil is among the 10 countries with the highest rate of preterm birth, which approximately 10% are preterm birth. The north region of Brazil has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the country. Prematurity is a public health problem that can lead to problems in all systems, as well as sensory and cognitive disorders. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological trends in moderate to late preterm deliveries in the North Region of Brazil. This is an ecological study of the time series of births recorded in the SINASC for residents of the North Region of Brazil between 2011 and 2016. A total of 3,549,525 births were analyzed, of which 433,907 (12.22%) were preterm birth, and the polynomial regression model was used to analyze trends in preterm births: <37 (y = -9.6 + 36.19x - 21.43x² + 6.01x³ - 0.81x4 + 0.04x5); 32 to <37 (y = -9.5 + 34.18x - 20.81x² + 6.01x³ - 0.83x4 + 0.04x5). The analysis of trends revealed a 36.19% increase in preterm births per year (r² = 1, p = <0.05) and moderate to late prematurity, from 32 to <37 weeks, increased by 34.18% (r² = 1, p <0.05). It was observed that there was an increase in the tendency of prematurity in the north region of Brazil, especially moderate to late prematurity (from 32 to <37 weeks), and greater attention is needed to prevent them, since prematurity is the largest cause of mortality in the first month of life and add considerable costs to the public coffers.
    Key-words: Premature; Pregnancy; Heath Profile.

  • ANGELITA SILVA DE MIRANDA CORREA
  • O IMPACTO DA IMPLANTAÇÃO DO TESTE NAT-HBV NA FUNDAÇÃO CENTRO DE HEMOTERAPIA E HEMATOLOGIA DO ESTADO DO PARÁ (HEMOPA), REGIÃO NORTE DO BRASIL

  • Data: 21/03/2019
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  • Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for virus detection during blood screening has helped to prevent transfusion-transmitted infections worldwide. In northern Brazil, NAT was implemented in 2012 for HIV and HCV and more recently, in January 2015, the screening for HBV was included and currently used concomitant with serological tests (HBsAg and anti-HBc). This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and the incidence of HBV infection among voluntary blood donors at ten regional blood centers of HEMOPA Foundation in Pará state and to compare the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection before and after the Brazilian HBV-NAT implementation. The prevalence (restricted to FT donors) and incidence (restricted to RP donors) of HBV were calculated based on rates of confirmed positive samples. Residual risk was based on the incidence and WP model described by Schreiber and coauthors. Logistic and Poisson regression were used in the statistical analysis by SPSS v20.0. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. HBV prevalence in the periods before and after the implementation of HBV-NAT were 247 and 251 per 100,000 donations, respectively. Seroconversion rates were 114 and 122 per 100,000 donations in the two periods, respectively. The residual risk (RR) for HBV decreased significantly in the period after the implementation of HBV-NAT, with a reduction of 1: 144.92 to 1: 294.11 donations (p <0.001), significantly increasing transfusion safety at HEMOP Foundation, in the Northern Region of Brazil.

  • BERTHA RUTH ZELADA MARILUZ
  • The molecular basis of the visual adaptations in the opsin genes from Anableps anableps and Phreatobius cisternarum through transcriptome analysis

  • Data: 14/03/2019
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  • Although vertebrate eyes share the same general organization, many species have developed specializations that improve their visual perception of the environment. These specializations are often reflected in a variety of visual adaptations that involve changes in visual sensitivity, which in turn can be modulated by the variation on the photoreceptors number, by altering the visual pigments or by combining both mechanisms. In the case of adaptive changes in the pigments, these may occur due to structural differences in the pattern of expression and the repertoire amount of the opsin genes family. However, there is no much information regarding adaptive changes on visual pigments over different luminosity on aquatic environments. This research aims to evaluate the molecular basis of the visual adaptations in the opsin genes from Anableps anableps and Phreatobius cisternarum, species present in environments with different light conditions, the first one from a surface environment and the second one from an underground habitat, through transcriptome analysis. This investigation comprises two chapters. The first chapter comprises the studies of the Anableps anableps specie. We combined the analysis of RNA-Seq and in situ hybridization of the eye tissue of this specie aiming to understand them visual adaptations to the aerial-aquatic environment. RNA-Seq data from the eye exhibited a repertoire of 20 non-visual opsin genes, which reflects the environmental heterogeneity these species lives. Likewise, comparative analyzes in protein coding sequences of the opsins allowed the identification of six opsins presenting the typical amino acid motifs of C-type and nine of Group 4, conserved among themselves. In situ hybridization studies on the retina showed asymmetric expression of these non-visual opsins at different stages, as well as during the ocular development. The second chapter presents the studies of the Phreatobius cisternarum specie. We combine histological, molecular and RNA-Seq analyzes to understand the visual and sensorial adaptations of P. cisternarum to the phreatic environment. RNA-Seq data from P. cisternarum head revealed a repertoire of eleven opsin genes, three visual opsins and eight non-visual opsins. Two visual opsins, rh1 and lws, presented amino acid substitutions that potentially contributed to the red and blue shift, respectively. Our histological analysis showed the presence of a rudimentary retina, while the RNA-Seq analysis identified the expression of 38 genes related to the lens fiber cells and 51 genes related to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), indicating that the reduced eyes of P. cisternarum retained some lens structures. The extra-retinal expression of opn4m3 is possibly associated with the peripheral clock regulation. Furthermore, the presence of potential opsin pseudogenes would be regulated by a small retina exposed to a low-light environment. The chapters introduce and provide an overview of the investigation on opsins amino acid substitutions, changes on expression patterns and opsin repertoire size (duplication and pseudogenization), and how these could contribute to the shift in spectral sensitivity and finally visual adaptation of A. anableps and P. cisternarum to their peculiar environment. The present study provides fundamental evidence for the understanding of the adaptive molecular basis in the opsin genes to subterranean and aerial-aquatic environments, in the species P. cisternarum and A. anableps.

  • JERSEY HEITOR DA SILVA MAUES
  • PERFIL DE EXPRESSÃO DIFERENCIAL DE MicroRNAs DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO PROLONGADO DE CONCENTRADOS DE PLAQUETAS COMO FERRAMENTA DE MEDIÇÃO DE QUALIDADE EM BANCOS DE SANGUE

  • Data: 28/02/2019
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  • Platelet concentrate (PC) is a key blood component, which even in good storage conditions, susceptible to cellular damage over time. Hence, blood banks discard unused PC bags after 5 days of storage. Biomarkers of PC quality are therefore highly sought after in blood bank governance. We used the data (Gene Expression Omnibus: GSE61856) generated with next-generation sequencing to examine the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from PCs that were stored for 6 days in a blood bank, that is, 1 day longer than is normally stored PC. We identified the 14 most differentially expressed miRNAs by comparing a control PC on the first day of storage with the PCs on each of the subsequent 5 days of storage from day 1 to 6. In all, we identified nine miRNAs with the downregulated profile (miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-183-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-331-3p, miR-338-5p, miR-451a, miR-501-3p, and miR-99b-5p) and five upregulated miRNAs (miR-1304-3p, miR-411-5p, miR-432-5p, miR-668-3p, and miR-939-5p). These miRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR in 100 PC units. As each PC unit is composed of platelets of five individuals, the validation was thus performed in 500 individuals (250 men and 250 women, comprised 18–40 years old adults). The data were analyzed with hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis, which revealed the variation of mean relative expression and the instability of miRNAs half-life on the fourth day of PC storage, which coincides with time of onset of platelet storage lesions. These new observations can usefully inform future decision-making and governance in blood banks concerning PC quality.

  • MIGUEL ÁNGEL CÁCERES DURÁN
  • AVALIAÇÃO DE POLIMORFISMOS DOS GENES TIMIDILATO SINTASE, METILENO-TETRAHIDROFOLATO REDUTASE E METIONINA SINTASE EM TUMORES DA MAMA

  • Data: 22/02/2019
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  • Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women in the world and Brazil, after nonmelanoma skin cancer. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the folate pathway have been associated as possible etiological factors of this disease. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) codes for the thymidylate synthase, responsible for the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). TYMS has a polymorphic tandem repeat in the 5'-UTR region (TSER), which generally contains a triple (3R) or double (2R) repeat of a 28 bp sequence. It is thought that the TSER variants are functionally relevant and are associated with BC risk. Another polymorphism in TYMS is 1494del6 and consists of the variation of a 6 bp sequence (TTAAAG) at position 1494 of the 3'-UTR region. These allelic variants are closely related to the level of expression of the enzyme. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase codes for the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which regulates the balance between cell methylation and nucleic acid synthesis, providing methyl groups for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Within the polymorphisms of MTHFR, the SNPs C677T and A1298C generate a reduced enzymatic activity, affecting the synthesis of nucleic acids and the availability of methyl groups for biochemical processes, which could increase BC risk. Methionine synthase (MTR) codes for the methionine synthase, which catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, an essential amino acid and precursor of S-adenosylmethionine, which is a universal donor of methyl groups involved in methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The role of this polymorphism in cancer risk is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine if the polymorphisms of the TYMS, MTHFR and MTR genes increase the BC risk. We worked with 61 samples of patients and 35 controls, it was carried out DNA extraction and purification, PCR amplification of DNA fragments including polymorphisms and their subsequent analysis directly through gel visualization, by PCR-RFLP and/or by automatic sequencing. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined and were related to the clinical characteristics of the patients and the molecular type of tumor. An analysis of statistical significance was carried out to evaluate the associations of all the polymorphisms with the risk of developing BC and the clinical characteristics of the patients. It was found that 3R allele of TSER and T and C alleles of C677T and A1298C could be associated to BC, although without statistical significance, and TSER and 1494del6 polymorphisms of TYMS could be related to the risk of developing more aggressive breast tumors, although the association is not statistically significant.

  • KELLY CORREA LIMA
  • EFEITOS ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS E NEUROPROTETORES DO EXTRATO DE CIPÓ-PUCÁ (Cissus verticillata) APÓS LESÃO AGUDA DA MEDULA ESPINHAL DE RATOS ADULTOS

  • Data: 15/02/2019
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  • Acute spinal cord injury (aSCI) is a serious pathological condition that affects several individuals in different regions of the world and may cause physical and/or psychological sequelae. The available treatment is ineffective, which demands on development of new therapeutic approaches. The development of neuroprotective agents is of fundamental importance for the tissue preservation after aSCI. In the Amazon rain forests there are a multitude of medicinal plants, whose potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects have not been investigated. Cipó-pucá (Cissus verticillata) is used for treatment of stroke in folk medicine, but its effects are not scientifically proven and have not been investigated after aSCI. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the supercritical extract of cipó-pucá in an experimental model of aSCI in adult rats. The extracts of leaves of cipó-pucá were obtained by extraction with supercritical fluid. The animals underwent partial hemisection surgery of the spinal cord and were treated with extract of cipó-pucá (50 mg / kg) or vehicle. They were perfused at 24 hours postinjury. The gross histopathology was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical analysis for visualization of neurons, microglia, astrocytes and neutrophils were performed using antibodies against NeuN, CD68, caspase-3 and MBS-1, respectively. The quantitative analysis showed neuronal preservation and, reduction of the apoptotic cells, activated microglia and inflammatory infiltrate (neutrophils) in treated animals compared to the control group, suggesting a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect of the supercritical extract of cipó-pucá in the aSCI model.

  • PAULO RODRIGO OLIVEIRA DA SILVA
  • EFEITOS NEUROPROTETORES E ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS DO ÓLEO DE COPAÍBA (Copaifera reticulata DUCKE) EM RATOS ADULTOS SUBMETIDOS A ISQUEMIA FOCAL DO CÓRTEX MOTOR POR MICROINJEÇÕES DE ENDOTELINA-1

  • Data: 15/02/2019
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  • Stroke is a neural disorder caused by interruption of blood flow in vessels that irrigate the brain (ischemic stroke) or rupture of these (hemorrhagic stroke), causing cognitive, sensory and / or motor deficits. With the exception of thrombolytic use, which has a very narrow therapeutic window and is little used, there are no other pharmacological treatments or cellular therapy available for this pathological condition. Thus, it is necessary to search for new treatments, such as the development of neuroprotective agents. The Amazon is a rich source of natural products, but its therapeutic actions for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) have been little investigated. In this work, we have investigated the neuroprotective and antiinflammatory actions of copaiba oil-resin (COR). Adult Wistar rats were submitted to focal ischemia by microinjections (80pMol/μl) of endothelin-1 (ET-1) directly into the motor cortex and were treated with daily doses of COR (400mg / kg) or 5% tween. The animals were perfused at 7 days after the injury. The histopathological analysis was performed by Nissl staining (brain) and hematoxylin-eosin (liver and kidneys). Immunohistochemistry was performed for labeling of neurons (anti-NeuN), astrocytes (anti-S100) and caspase (anti-caspase-3). Morphometry showed a reduction in the lesion size area (copaiba-treated animals (15.96 ± 1.53 mm2); control animals (28.82 ± 2.65 mm2). Histopathological examination of the liver and kidneys did not find changes indicative of toxicity. In the quantitative analysis, neuronal preservation was observed, but no statistical difference was noticed between the groups regarding astrocytes analysis (S100+ cells). The COR-treated group showed an increase in caspase-3 expression. It is concluded that COR may play a neuroprotective role, contributing to neuronal survival in the area of ischemic penumbra, but future work is needed to find out the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  • FABÍOLA DE CARVALHO CHAVES DE SIQUEIRA MENDES
  • INFLUÊNCIA DA ATIVIDADE MASTIGATÓRIA E DO AMBIENTE SOBRE O APRENDIZADO ESPACIAL E A ORFOMETRIA DOS ASTRÓCITOS DO GIRO DENTEADO EM MODELO MURINO SENIL

  • Data: 13/02/2019
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  • To measure possible influences of masticatory changes and sedentary lifestyle on spatial learning and on the morphology of the dentate gyrus astrocytes in an aged murine model, we imposed one of three diet regimens on different experimental groups, from the 21st postnatal day onwards until 6 or 18 months of life. To that end the control group with normal masticatory activity received a pellet-type hard diet; the group with reduced masticatory activity received a pellet diet followed by a powdered diet; and the group with rehabilitated masticatory activity received pelletized diet, followed by powder and pellet again. The changing intervals were proportional and the same for each diet. To mimic the sedentary or active lifestyle, the animals were maintained until the end of behavioral tests, in either standard cages (impoverished environment) or in enriched cages (enriched environment) and then, sacrificed for perfusion with saline and aldehyde fixatives. To measure the effects of diet, environment and age on learning and spatial memory, we measured the individuals performance on the Morris water maze task and found that masticatory activity reduction, regardless of environment, decreased the average rate of spatial learning, and its rehabilitation recovered associated losses in young animals. Masticatory rehabilitation combined with enriched environment increased the learning rate in old animals. No correlation was found between the learning rate and swimming speed, suggesting that deficits and their recovery reflect cognitive performance. For the morphological studies we used selective astrocyte immunolabeling directed to glial acid fibrillar protein (GFAP), reconstructing microscopically in three dimensions, those located in the outer one-third of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. 1800 cells were digitally reconstructed and the morphological study using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two morphological phenotypes, designated type I and II that were differentially affected by the studied variables. Aging reduced the complexity morphology of astrocytic trees while masticatory change reduced only in young animals, increasing the complexity of the branches in old animals. In opposition to that, enriched environment seems to minimize these morphological changes. We conclude that reduction of masticatory activity and aging in mice impairs spatial learning in Morris water maze, with a reduction in complexity of astrocytic branches. The rehabilitation of masticatory activity seems to recover these losses and a combination of enriched environment and rehabilitation offers significant benefits for both young and old mice. Although not linearly, morphological complexities increased as a function of spatial learning and memory performances.

  • TEREZINHA MEDEIROS GONÇALVES DE LOUREIRO
  • MASCARAMENTO POR RUÍDO DE LUMINÂNCIA SOBRE A DISCRIMINAÇÃO DE COR E LUMINÂNCIA

  • Data: 08/02/2019
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  • Several psychophysical experiments were developed using pseudoisochromatics stimuli to evaluate color vision. It was observed that the color perception depends on the characteristics of the luminance noise present in the stimulus. In this thesis were developed two sets of experiments that study how the effects of spatial noise of luminance influence in the visual perception. In the first experiment we investigated the effect of the change in luminance noise amplitude in color discrimination. Eighteen trichromates and ten congenital discromatopics had their color vision evaluated by stimuli adapted from the Cambridge Colour Test and were genetically tested to diagnose mutations associated with congenital color vision deficiency. The stimuli were composed of mosaics of circles in a circular field of 5 ° of visual angle. A subset of the circles differed from the remaining field by chromaticity. The color discrimination was estimated in 4 stimulus conditions that differed in the amplitude of the luminance noise: (i) between 6-20 cd/m²; (ii) between 8 and 18 cd/m²; (iii) between 10 and 16 cd/m²; and (iv) between 12 and 14 cd/m². Six equidistant luminance values were used between the luminance noise limits and the mean luminance of the stimulus maintained in all four conditions. The color discrimination thresholds were estimated through a staircase procedure in 8 different chromatic axes. An ellipse function was fitted to the chromaticity data. The indicators of color discrimination were the area of the ellipse and the values of the eight thresholds of color discrimination. The rate of change of these indicators as a function of the luminance noise amplitude values was calculated as the value of the derivative of the linear function that best fit the function. In the second experiment, a subset of the circles differed from the remaining field by the luminance noise difference, forming the perception of a letter C. In this experiment we tried to evaluate the luminance discrimination in different luminance noise conditions (levels of 2, 4, 6, 10 and 14). Thirty healthy subjects were tested. A ladder procedure was used to control the average luminance of the luminance noise of the target. The luminance discrimination ranges between the mean luminance of the target and the background were the visual functional indicators. The results of the first experiment showed that the rate of variation of the ellipse area as a function of the luminance amplitude in dichromates was higher than in trichromates (p <0.05). It was observed that the low amplitude of the luminance noise (condition of 2 cd/m²) improves the color discrimination of the trichrome and dichromate subjects. Regarding chromatic axes, it was observed that there was a significant difference between the rates of variation of the threshold vector size as a function of the amplitude of the luminance noise of trichromates and dichromates in the axes 0º, 45º, 90º and 135º. The results of the second experiment showed that at lower luminance levels, noise significantly impaired the luminance discrimination (p <0.05) compared to the conditions of higher levels of luminance noise. It was also observed that the higher the luminance contrast present within the noise the worse the luminance discrimination. It is concluded that the modification of luminance noise can lead to significant modifications of the luminance discrimination for color discrimination.

  • CRISTIAN ARIEL NEIRA ESPEJO
  • EFECTOS DE LA OBESIDAD Y DE LA CIRUGÍA BARIÁTRICA SOBRE PATRONES COGNITIVOS Y PERCEPTUALES DE LOS HUMANOS

  • Data: 28/01/2019
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  • Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that can be harmful to health and has been considered epidemic, since it is a disease with high prevalence in most countries of the world. Currently there is the idea that deficiencies in cognitive functions associated with the frontal lobe, contribute to the maintenance of obesity, however, there are investigations that contradict this postulate. On the other hand, the patterns of visual perception, measured with the Rorschach test, have been linked to weight gain and obesity, the results that determined this relationship are not conclusive. The main objective of this study was to determine if obesity or bariatric surgery generate differences in the patterns of visual perception and humans cognitive functioning. Additionally, we sought to relate the neuropsychological functions of the cortex occito-temporo-parietal, which participate in the perception of visual stimuli, with the neuropsychological functions of the prefrontal cortex. The research included the participation of 48 subjects, divided into 3 groups (diagnosed with obesity, undergoing bariatric surgery and a control group), which were evaluated with the Rorscahch test and the Stroop and MCSTneuropsychological tests. Our results showed similar values for the three groups in the measurements made with the neuropsychological tests and with the visual perception test. In addition, three indicators of the visual perception test were correlated with indicators of sustained attention, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. Our main conclusion is that the obese or bariatric subjects do not present differences in cognitive functioning or visual perception patterns. We also conclude that there are indicators of the Rorschach test that present a potential to be considered neuropsychological indicators.

2018
Descrição
  • IVANIRA AMARAL DIAS
  • PLASTICIDADE DE MODALIDADE CRUZADA EM CÓRTICES SENSORIAIS ADULTO

  • Data: 21/12/2018
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  • The central nervous system (CNS) neural circuitry is highly dynamic and is continuously modified by sensory experience, in a process we call neuroplasticity, which gives the CNS the ability to adapt to changes in the sensory periphery and / or in response to environmental stimuli . This ability of the CNS remains lifelong, although it is more intense during early stages of development, especially during the critical plasticity period. The main goal of the present work was to evaluate the effects of bilateral sensory deprivation on cross modal neuroplasticity in the visual, somatosensory, and auditory primary cortices od adult rats. Animals (Rattus novergicus) (authorization CEUA/UFPA: 141-13) were divided into three experimental groups: a control group (CTL), an unimodal deprivation group (DEP), in which the animals were subjected to visual deprivation by bilateral enucleation, and a bimodal deprivation group (DDEP), whose animals were submitted to both visual and whisker deprivation bilaterallly. After 60 days of sensory deprivation, the rats were perfused and the brains were sectioned in the coronal plane for immunohistochemistry procedures aimed at revealing the activation of immediate early genes (c-Fos). The results showed that after bilateral visual deprivation the number of c-Fos+ neurons decreased in the visual cortex (** p < 0.0056), increased in the auditory cortex (** p <0.0099), and had no effect in the somatosensory cortex. Bilateral visual and whisker deprivation decreased the number of c-Fos+ neurons in the visual cortex (* p <0.0268) but did not have any effect in the somatosensory and auditory cortices.

  • DINAIR PAMPLONA DOS SANTOS TEMBRA
  • INVESTIGAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DO EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO SOBRE PARÂMETROS COGNITIVOS E BIOQUÍMICOS EM RATOS EXPOSTOS AO ETANOL DE FORMA INTENSA E EPISÓDICA (BINGE DRINKING)

  • Data: 21/12/2018
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  • The heavy and episodic EtOH drinking pattern, equivalent to weekend consumption, characterize the binge-drinking pattern and promotes a misbalance of encephalic metabolic functions, concurring to neurodegeneration and cerebral dysfunction. And for being a legal drug, it has a global public health and social relevance. In this way, we aimed to investigate the effects of physical training, in treadmill over the EtOH deleterious effects on hippocampal functions, related to memory and learning. For this, we used 80 Wistar rats, divided into four groups: Control, Trained group (trained animals with doses of distilled water); EtOH group (non-trained animals with doses of 3g/kg/day of EtOH, 20% w/v); and EtOH+Trained group (trained animals exposed to EtOH). The physical exercise was performed on running treadmill for 5 days a week for 4 weeks and all doses of EtOH were administered through intragastric gavage in four repeated cycles of EtOH in binge. After the experimental period, the animals were submitted to object recognition task and Morris’ water maze test, and after euthanized, the blood and hippocampus were collected to Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Reduced Glutathione Content (GSH), Nitrite and Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) levels measurement. Our results showed that EtOH caused marked oxidative stress and mnemonic damage, and the physical exercise promoted neuroprotective effects, among them, the modulation of oxidative biochemistry in plasm (by restoring GSH levels) and in hippocampus (by reducing LPO levels and increasing antioxidant parameters) and cognitive function improvement. Therefore, physical exercise can be an important prophylactic and therapeutic tool in order to ameliorate and even prevent the deleterious effects of EtOH on cognitive functions.

  • GISELY DA SILVA NASCIMENTO
  • Evaluation of the influence of chronic vitamin C treatment on stress in adolescent Wistar rats in a model of inflammatory pain induced by acetic acid

  • Data: 21/12/2018
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  • Stress in adolescence may be linked to consequences that may persist throughout life. The injuries suffered in the brain, due to exposure to stress factors, contribute to the development of pathologies related to behavior and emotionality, such as anxiety and depression. These two pathologies have been taking on increasingly frightening proportions these days, especially among adolescents and young people, due to brain plasticity in this phase. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic vitamin C treatment on stress in adolescent animals in a model of inflammatory pain induced by acetic acid. Using the open field test, vitamin C was shown to significantly reduce anxiety-related behavior. This treatment also satisfactorily reversed memory and learning deficits in Morris water maze. In conclusion, the chronic treatment with vitamin C has beneficial effects on the emotionality and behaviors of adolescent animals submitted to acetic acid injections. And, in addition to that the acetic acid injection model, has been shown to be efficient in inducing an anxious state of the animals.

  • JONABETO VASCONCELOS COSTA
  • EFEITOS ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS E NEUROPROTETORES DO EXTRATO DE CIPÓ-PUCÁ (Cissus verticillata) APÓS ISQUEMIA FOCAL INDUZIDA POR MICROINJEÇÕES DE ENDOTELINA-1 (ET-1) NO CÓRTEX MOTOR DE RATOS ADULTOS.

  • Data: 19/12/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The inflammatory response may exacerbate the damaging process after acute neural disorders such as in stroke. Alternatives to obtain a decrease in the inflammatory response in the encephalic cell accident have been widely studied with the use of herbal compounds, in this hypothesis the pucá cucó (Cissus verticillata), an Amazonian medicinal plant popularly used as anti-inflammatory and antihyperglycemic used by folk medicine in the treatment of acute inflammatory diseases. However, there are no investigations into the possible anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of plant extract in experimental models of acute neural disorders. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of plant extract by supercritical extraction in adult rats submitted to acute injury induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the motor cortex. Two experimental groups were delineated: the first with animals of the control group with a survival time of twenty-four hours and seven days (Group N = 3 for each survival time), submitted to focal ischemia with ET-1, but injected 5% tween intraperitoneal (ip), and the second group of animals treated with doses of 100 mg / kg (ip) of plant extract after surgery with the same survival times (Group N = 5 for each survival time). Then perfused twenty four hours and seven days after induction of ischemic injury. General histopathological analysis was performed in sections stained by cresyl violet and hematoxylin. Neutrophils and macrophages were identified by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies (anti-MBS1 and IBA-1, respectively), astrocytes labeled with anti-GFAP antibody. Activated microglia/ macrophages and neuronal bodies were counted in the mentioned experimental groups and the astrocyte activity after the lesion was evaluated. Treatment with Cissus verticillata extract induced anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in treated animals, as well as decreased tissue cavitation, astrocyte activation at the center of the lesion and decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear and/or microglia/ macrophage inflammatory cells.

  • RAFAEL MONTEIRO FERNANDES
  • AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DECORRENTES DA EXPOSIÇÃO AO CLORETO DE ALUMÍNIO SOBRE PARÂMETROS MOTORES, COGNITIVOS E DE ESTRESSE OXIDATIVO EM RATOS.

  • Data: 18/12/2018
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  • Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust, being present in large amounts in soil and water, its high bioavailability makes it an important environmental contaminant. Al is considered a neurotoxic agent and accumulates in the nervous system, being this behavior associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about its effects at doses similar to human consumption in the nervous and biochemical systems. Thus, this study investigated the effects of chronic exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on cognition, motor behavior and oxidative stress. For this, adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Al1 (8.3 mg / kg / day), Al2 (5.2 mg / kg / day) and Control (Distilled water) being exposed orally for 60 days. After the exposure period, behavioral, histological, oxidative stress parameters and quantification of aluminum levels in the blood were performed. There were no changes in motor behavior, there was change in only one exploratory parameter and in cognition. No differences were found in the population of the purkinje neurons between the experimental groups. Exposure to Al increased levels of this metal in the blood, also altering the parameters of oxidative biochemistry. Thus, we can affirm that exposure to Al in rats, at doses equivalent to urban exposure and in potentially safe doses are capable of promoting breakage of blood homeostasis, altering hippocampal biochemical balance, generating a state of oxidative stress and cognitive damage, not being able to promote significant changes in the cerebellum and motor parameters.

  • LUANA KETLEN REIS LEÃO DA PENHA
  • EXPOSIÇÃO SUBCRÔNICA DE RATOS WISTAR JOVENS A DOSE BAIXA DE CHUMBO INDUZ DÉFICITS LOCOMOTORES E ALTERAÇÕES MORFOLÓGICAS ASSOCIADOS A ESTRESSE OXIDATIVO E DISFUNÇÃO SINÁPTICA

  • Data: 18/12/2018
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  • Lead (PB) is a heavy metal, which can be utilized in the production of several compounds. The main route of human exposure is through the consumption of contaminated food or water, and once absorbed, about 99% of the circulating lead spreads to soft tissues, teeth, bones and brain. In the Central nervous system (CNS), several studies have demonstrated deficits in learning capacity, cognition and intellectual development in humans exposed to lead during a given period of life. However, it is poorly understood the mechanisms of action involved with the toxicity of Pb. From this, this study aimed to evaluate the exploratory, motor and tissue effects induced by the subchronic exposure of young wistar rats to 50 mg/Kg of lead, associated with possible mechanisms of action. Male Wistar rats were exposed for 55 days at a dose of 50mg/Kg of Pb per gavage, and the control animals received distilled water. The open field, inclined plane and route-rod tests were performed for locomotor evaluation. Staining was performed with Hematoxylin and Eosin, as well as immunohistochemistry for the quantification of mature neurons, myelin sheath and synaptic vesicles. To evaluate the protein expression, the Proteomic profile was performed. The statistical analysis was performed by Student's T-Test, being considered significant p < 0.05. After we observed lead deposition only in the cerebellum, it was possible to characterize exploratory and motor deficits in the rats exposed to lead, and we observed a decrease in the number of Purkinje cells, as well as mature neurons, reduction of vesicles synaptic and decreased myelin sheath. In the evaluation of oxidative stress induction, it was possible to evaluate the increase of MDA and nitrite only in the motor cortex. And in the evaluation of protein expression, both regions presented alterations in proteins responsible for the release process of neurotransmitters, as well as receptors and second messengers, and also proteins involved in the process of apoptose. Thus, we conclude that the subchronic exposure to low Pb dose of young Wistar rats promoted locomotor and histological tracings, associated with induction of oxidative stress, alterations in the process of cell signaling, as well as death by apoptosis.

  • ELDRA CARVALHO DA SILVA
  • AVALIAÇÃO COGNITIVA DE ALUNOS DO ENSINO MÉDIO EXPOSTOS AO MÉTODO DE ENSINO PIRAMIDAL MULTIVETORIAL

  • Data: 15/12/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • This study aims to characterize the teaching-learning relationship and its efficacy relative to the cognitive performance of students of scientific initiation at the secondary level exposed to the pyramid of university academic formation (undergraduates, masters and doctoral students) for vectorization and popularization of science in schools A method of education in science and technology for all levels of academic formation, developed in the Program of Interdisciplinary Action (PAI), Campus of Oriximiná, Federal University of the West of Pará, Para State. The characterization of didactic instruments as pedagogical practice and their educational contextualization beyond the school experience are qualitative objects of this study, as well as the quantitative of temporal and spatial mnemonic performance; short and long term care and calculation; recall memory; language and praxia, as a form of validation of the intended teaching-learning relationship. The Mental State Mini-Exam (MINIMENTAL) and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (REY) were applied to students from two high schools, participating or not in the MYP. Qualitative research was developed to characterize the different teaching-learning methodologies in the middle school and in the MYP working group. The results showed the characterization and interview of the educators of the basic education that work with the students studied in the schools A, B and C of High School, reveals that the same ones, although still based on traditional teaching methodologies, are already attentive to differentiated methodologies , seek continuous training. It is important to note that a part of these teachers were undergraduate students from UFOPA, Campus of Oriximiná and were part of the PAI. In the items souvenirs, attention and calculation; language and praxia, the students of the PAI group excelled significantly over the students in the control group, highlighting that these items, according to the literature studied, are the most influenced by the educational process. Students in the PAI group obtained the same cognitive performance for immediate memory suggesting a change in the learning strategy in the students exposed to the pyramidal model of formation. The students of the PAI group, in addition to the immediate memorization of contents, are involved in practices and situations that lead them to question these contents, to know more deeply, to seek solutions to problems, to read scientific articles, which makes us infer that this student therefore, exceeds the capacity of mere memorization of information, this may justify their better cognitive performance in the MEEM test and not very satisfactory performance in the De Rey test. When we evaluate the cognitive performance of the PAI students in relation to the formation of the academic pyramid, we can affirm that the best cognitive performance of the students was in the period when the pyramid was complete, including graduate students in monitoring, which we can say that this collective has more effect on Sudents' cognitive performance.

  • BRUNO ALEXANDRE QUADROS GOMES
  • ALTERAÇÕES OXIDATIVAS E INFLAMATÓRIAS INDUZIDAS
    PELA DAPSONA NO SANGUE E NO CÓRTEX PRÉ-FRONTAL DE
    CAMUNDONGOS: EFEITOS DO ÁCIDO ALFA-LIPÓICO

  • Data: 14/12/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Dapsone (DDS), a drug used in leprosy multidrug therapy, can cause many adverse reactions and intoxications, inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and imbalance in the redox state, increase methemoglobin (MetHb) formation, hemolysis and release of heme and iron free, which may interfere with redox homeostasis in more vulnerable regions, such as prefrontal cortex (PFC), causing neurotoxicity and even neuroinflammation. In this sense, antioxidant compounds with chelating properties such as α-lipoic acid (ALA) may play a key role in combating or preventing these alterations. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the effect of DDS on MetHb formation, hematological changes and peripheral oxidative stress, as well as oxidative changes and neuroinflammation in PFC. For this, was induced MetHb formation in Swiss mice with DDS 40mg/kg ip for 5 days. Two hours after DDS administration, ALA was given at two concentrations (12.5 and 25 mg/kg). Besides MetHb percentage, total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and iron concentrations in blood and PFC were evaluated, as well as, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-4 cytokine concentrations, and de F4/80+, GFAP, and BDNF expression in PFC. Our results show that DDS induces the MetHb formation in red blood cells of mice, however, ALA was able to prevent or reverse the oxidation of hemoglobin induced by DDS at two used concentrationns. DDS reduced antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in plasma and red blood cells; decreased erythrocyte GSH, CAT, and SOD; and increased TBARS and plasma iron; however, ALA at two concentrations increased or reestablished TEAC in plasma and red blood cells at baseline levels. In addition to increasing or reestablishing GSH levels, SOD, and CAT in red blood cells, and decreased TBARS and iron levels, mainly in euthanized animals 4h after treatment. Curiously ALA 50mg/kg increased plasma iron concentrations. The treatment with DDS 40mg/kg also reduced TEAC, GSH, SOD e CAT in the PFC of the mice and increased TBARS and iron, characterizing oxidative stress, mainly in euthanized animals in 24h after treatment. Treatment with ALA increased or restored TEAC and GSH; and increased SOD and CAT in 12,5mg/kg concentration in euthanized animals 4h after treatment, as well as reducing TBARS levels and decreasing or preventing iron overload, mainly in euthanized animals 24h after treatment. DDS also promoting microglial and astrocyte activation in PFC, through F4/80+ e GFAP expression., with increased IL-1β and IL-4 production, and BDNF reduction, on the other hand, ALA 25mg/kg reduced GFAP and IL-1β expression, besides increased BDNF, suggesting that DDS also can cause neuroinflammation, and ALA can antioxidante and anti-inflammatory properties against toxicity caused by DDS. This results suggest that ALA is promising and plays an important role in the prevention and/or formation of MetHb, reestablishment of redox balance and iron concentrations in both blood and PFC. Thus, ALA may be a usefull adjuvant therapy in DDS-induced toxicity, with lower toxicity and facilitating adherence to treatment of leprosy patients.

  • MARCUS AUGUSTO DE OLIVEIRA
  • EM DIREÇÃO À COSTA BRASILEIRA FUGINDO DO INVERNO: ROTAS MIGRATÓRIAS CONTRASTANTES E PLASTICIDADE DIFERENCIAL DOS ASTRÓCITOS HIPOCAMPAIS

  • Data: 04/12/2018
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  • One of the largest seasonal events on the planet is the migration of birds from the Arctic to the southern hemisphere fleeing from winter and returning to the Arctic during the spring to the breeding season. Billions of individuals need to remember the routes learned during this epic journey and find the same places to rest and feeding. These birds can navigate thousands of miles with great accuracy, utilizing their spatial and temporal memories associated with the hippocampus, a key area for accomplishing this task. Recently, we have shown that the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, after crossing the Atlantic towards the coast of South America, revealed significant changes in its hippocampal astrocytes. In fact, the hippocampal astrocytes of birds captured on the coast of Bragança in Brazil, compared with those of the hippocampus of individuals caught in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, were less numerous and exhibited shrunken branches. In the present work, we used another semipalmated shorebird, Charadrius semipalmatus, which, although having the same start and end points of C. pusilla migration, uses a different migratory strategy, performing a flight over the continent with stops for rest and feeding. Taking advantage of the opportunity offered by contrasting migratory flights, we tested the hypothesis that wintering bird species of the C. semipalmatus caught on the coast of Bragança (Brazil) would show greater morphological complexities than the hippocampal astrocytes of these migratory birds captured in the Bay of Fundy (Canada). Since the stands for food and rest, as well as the constant change in the landscape would constitute an enriched environment of multisensory stimuli, we expected to find in the individuals of C. semipalmatus captured in Bragança, an increase of the complexity, in opposition to the reduction in complexity previously found in C. pusilla. To test this hypothesis, we compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological characteristics of the adult C. semipalmatus astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 265 cells) with those of wintering birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, (n = 242 cells), and compared with the results obtained with C. pusilla. The Neurolucida program was used for three-dimensional reconstructions and the hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) was used to classify cells. This analysis showed two families of astrocytes, which we designated Type I and Type II, based on several morphological characteristics. Contrary to our expectations, Type I and Type II phenotypes showed, on average, independently of the species, lower morphological complexity after migration, and this reduction was significantly higher in Type I than in Type II. The magnitudes of these changes were significantly higher in C. pusilla than in C. semipalmatus. Taken together, these findings suggest that contrasting long-distance migratory flight strategies may differentially affect the astrocyte morphology and that distinct astrocyte morphologies may be associated with different functional roles during migration.

  • REGIANNE MACIEL DOS SANTOS CORREA
  • AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DOS EFEITOS CITOTÓXICOS E GENOTÓXICOS DO ANTIFÚNGICO FLUCONAZOL EM LINHAGEM DE RIM DE MACACO VERDE AFRICANO (VERO)

  • Data: 26/11/2018
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  • Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal that is well-established as the first-line
    treatment for Candida albicans infections. Despite its extensive use, reports on its
    genotoxic/mutagenic effects are controversial; therefore, further studies are needed to better
    clarify such effects. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line were exposed in vitro to
    different concentrations of Fluconazole and were then evaluated for different parameters, such
    as cytotoxicity (MTT/cell death by fluorescent dyes), genotoxicity/mutagenicity (comet
    assay/micronucleus test), and induction of oxidative stress (DCFH-DA assay). Fluconazole was
    used at concentrations of 81.6, 163.2, 326.5, 653, 1306, and 2612.1μM for the MTT assay and
    81.6, 326.5, and 1306μM for the remaining assays. MTT results showed that cell viability
    reduced upon exposure to Fluconazole concentration of 1306μM (85.93%), being statistically
    significant (P<0.05) at Fluconazole concentration of 2612.1μM (35.25%), as compared with
    the control (100%). Fluconazole also induced necrosis (P<0.05) in Vero cell line when cells
    were exposed to all concentrations (81.6, 326.5, and 1306μM) for both tested harvest times (24
    and 48 h) as compared with the negative control. Regarding genotoxicity/mutagenicity, results
    showed Fluconazole to increase significantly (P<0.05) DNA damage index, as assessed by
    comet assay, at 1306μM versus the negative control (DI=1.17 vs DI=0.28, respectively).
    Micronucleus frequency also increased until reaching statistical significance (P<0.05) at
    1306μM Fluconazole (with 42MN/1000 binucleated cells) as compared to the negative control
    (13MN/1000 binucleated cells). Finally, significant formation of reactive oxygen species
    (P<0.05) was observed at 1306μM Fluconazole vs the negative control (OD=40.9 vs OD=32.3,
    respectively). Our experiments showed that Fluconazole is cytotoxic and genotoxic in the
    assessed conditions. It is likely that such effects may be due to the oxidative properties of
    Fluconazole and/or the presence of FMO (flavin-containing monooxygenase) in Vero cells.

  • DAISY SILVA MIRANDA
  • MARCADORES FUNCIONAIS DA ATIVIDADE ELÉTRICA DO CÓRTEX CEREBRAL PARA IDENTIFICAR ATRASOS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FUNÇÕES EXECUTIVAS NO CÓRTEX PRÉ-FRONTAL EM ADOLESCENTES

  • Data: 30/10/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Human cognition results from the interaction among genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Several studies have shown that the prefrontal cortex (CPF) is a critical region for human intelligence. This region has a long maturation period that ends in early adulthood. Previous studies have shown that the amplitude of high frequency waves recorded by resting-EEG correlates inversely with the degree of maturation of cortical circuits. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the power of different EEG frequency bands with the performance on the WISC-IV scale (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), which measures intellectual capacity, in adolescents. Subjects (N = 23) aged 12-16 years and 11 months underwent resting-EEG recordings for 5-10 minutes and were subsequently tested with the WISC-IV scale. Our results show that alpha power correlates negatively with IMO in parietal (RH and LH), occipital (RH and LH), and central (RH) regions. The IQ correlates negatively with alpha power in the temporal (RH), parietal (RH and LH), occipital (RH and LH), and central (RH) regions. Theta power correlates negatively with WM and IQ in temporal (LH), parietal (RH and LH), and occipital (RH and LH) regions. In genre analysis we observed that the correlation between power in the alpha and theta bands and cognitive indices occurs in both hemispheres for females, but not males

  • WALLAX AUGUSTO SILVA FERREIRA
  • ANÁLISE DO PERFIL DO NÚMERO DE CÓPIAS E TRANSCRIPTOMA DE PACIENTES COM GLIOMAS E EM LINHAGENS DE GLIOBLASTOMAS TRATADAS COM PISOSTEROL

  • Data: 17/10/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Central Nervous System Tumors (CNS) account for approximately 2% of all cancers. Although the incidence of CNS tumors is small, compared to other neoplasms, these tumors are among the most serious human malignancies because they affect the organ responsible for the coordination and integration of all organic activities. Gliomas represent approximately 80% of all intracranial tumors, typically affecting adults, with a high incidence between 40 and 65 years of age. Although numerous anti-glioma drugs have already been developed, they induce adverse reactions and their therapeutic effects are not satisfactory. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the profile of Copy Number Variation (CNV) and gene expression of patients diagnosed with gliomas and in glioblastomas cell lines (U87-MG, U343, AHOL1 and 1321N1) treated with pisoterol. For rhe experiments done with the cell lines treated with pisoterol, we demonstrated that they were highly sensitive to pisoterol treatment. This drug reduced the number of live cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that after 48h of exposure to pisoterol, all cell lines were blocked in G2/M. Finally, we demonstrate that the pisosterol can modulate the expression of several genes of ATM/ATR pathway, promoting apoptosis. We demonstrated on genomic scale that all the cell lines had more genes that were significantly down-regulated than up-regulated after the treatment with pisosterol. For the experiments done with the gliomas biopsies, we demonstrated that only 11 genes (TNFRSF1A, SNAPC2, CASP8, IRAK3, GPX3, FZD9, TFAP2C, CDH1, RPRM, POU4F3 and MGMT) exhibited changes in the pattern of methylation in all grades analyzed. In addition, the methylation pattern of these 11 genes had correlations with some clinicopathological characteristics, such as age, sex and histological grade. And finally, we made a molecular characterization describing the CNVs of the gliomas originating from Belém-PA.

  • FERNANDA FARIAS DE ALCANTARA MARCHESAN
  • HOMOCYSTEIN VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID AS BIOCARDANTS OF TRIAL IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND MONITORING OF GASTRIC CANCER

  • Data: 11/10/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Gastric cancer in the last decades has shown a decrease in the number of cases, which is much due to the progress in sanitary health, and the greater access of the population to educational policies. However, it remains the third leading cause of death worldwide between men and women. Such deaths are usually linked to late diagnosis. The present study intends to establish a profile of screening biomarkers by the homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid
    dosages, which can be inserted in the routine routine of examinations, aiming the rapid diagnosis of the disease. A total of 207 control and 207 cases of gastric cancer patients were analyzed, both of which were biochemical measurements of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12, matched in relation to age, tumor location, subtype, tumor classification, EBV (EpsteinBarr Virus), and Helicobacter pylori. For the triad dosage, chemiluminescence techniques were used, and the other variables were obtained by hospital information. As results, significant differences were found between the means of the triad of cancer patients in relation to the control, in all paired variables. In conclusion, our study showed that the triad analysis (homocysteine, vitamin b12 and folic acid) has its value in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, and may in the future be an effective marker of screening for this type of cancer.

  • MIGUEL ANGELO DE OLIVEIRA CANTO
  • ESTUDO SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO DO TAMBAQUI (COLOSSOMA MACROPOMOM) SUBMETIDO À DIETA SUPLEMENTADA COM CAMU CAMU (MYRCIARIA DUBIA) EM ÁGUA CORRENTE E AQUECIDA

  • Data: 24/09/2018
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • This study investigated the growth of the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) (Cm), an caracid teleost in the Amazon region, in the laboratory. Juvenile fish were submitted to the simulation of the natural conditions of feeding, climate and running water, corresponding to the flood and dry periods of the Amazonian hydrological cycle. In the flood, its diet is predominant of fruits and seeds, the environment is mild (28 ± 2°C) and the current is higher (0.2 to 0.3 m/s). In drought, the feed is based on animal protein, there is no current and the average temperature rises (34 ± 2°C). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Myrciaria dubia (Md) on the growth of Cm in the drought or flood simulations with respect to the mild (28 ° C) or heated (34 ° C), standing or running water (0,2 or 0.3m/s), and diet with higher (45%) or lower (32%) crude protein (CP) content. For this, juveniles of Cm were acclimatized (70 or 126 days) in tanks of (310 or 500 liters)
    according to the experimental protocol. Protocol I: diet with fractioned daily supply (3x/day) and supplemented with Md; crude protein (45 or 32%); running water (0.2 m/s) or stopped at 28 or 34°C; analysis of muscle contents of IGF1 and total lipids. protocol II: single or fractioned offer (3x / day); standing or running water (0.3 m/s), intercalated, (12 hours) or continuous; quantification of the cavity fat mass. The results are presented on average plus or minus the standard error of the mean and compared by ANOVA plus Bonferrone post-test. Correlation test for weight, length or cavity fat versus running water; in the conditions of single or fractional supply was performed to verify interrelations between the phenomena studied. A potentiation of body mass expansion rather than length occurred by the diet supplemented with Md in standing and heated water. In contrast similar potentiation occurred for running and heated water in the 45% CP diet. In turn, lower growth performance (weight and length) was observed in the group submitted to a 32% CP diet. The running water also
    potentiated the accumulation of cavitary and muscular fat of total lipids, suggesting that the swimming effort demands accumulation of potential energy possibly related to the preservation of protein anabolism, since the protein content in the muscle tissue was not altered. On the other hand, the single daily supply of food was not enough to maintain the resulting growth performance to sustained swimming (running water). In the fractioned supply, the group submitted to continuous running water showed the best performance, suggesting that sustained swimming in running water may be a determinant factor for the growth of Cm if it is offered a diet with high protein content, considering the warm environment as the most favorable. Finally, the increased IGF-1 content in the muscle confirms the participation of this growth factor as the final pathway of humoral regulation of muscle hypertrophy. Hypertrophy results in increased swimming effort, and, surprisingly, in response to diet supplemented by Md.

  • NARRERY SILVA DOS SANTOS
  • ANÁLISE CINEMÁTICA DO MECANISMO AÇÃO-PERCEPÇÃO EM SERES HUMANOS

  • Data: 31/08/2018
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  • We used a manifold reaching paradigm, in two experiments, to evaluate the lateralization of motor control of arm movements. In the first experiment, we compared the kinematics of reaching movements in a manifold reaching paradigm towards a vertical bar performed with the right and left arm. Capture of kinematic data was performed with a Microsoft Kinect camera while the participants remained seated during the task. In a second experiment, participants estimated the endpoint of a third-person’s arm trajectory performing the same reaching task, but with last one-third of the movement trajectory occluded. This study included 14 individuals of both sexes with a mean age of 24.6 ± 3.9 years. The results corroborate the theory of hemispheric specialization of control of upper limb movements, with the left hemisphere being associated with precision movements and the right hemisphere with supporting movements and being more sensitive to the influence of gravity. Importantly, this difference is also reflected in the mental simulation of arm movement.

  • ALINE BARRAL TAKAHASHI
  • Avaliação in vitro da suscetibilidade antifúngica de conidíos e células muriformes de Fonsecaea spp

  • Data: 14/08/2018
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  • Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a fungal disease characterized by chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, due to the previous transcutaneous implantation of different black fungi, belonging to the family Herpotrichiellaceae, the main agent belonging to the genus Fonsecaea. The Amazon region is the main endemic area of Brazil and our state is the main endemic area in the country and second in the world. There is no standardization of treatment, drug therapy is used, with different regimens, mainly itraconazole. New azolics such as posaconazole and voriconazole began to be used, but with limitations due to the high cost, the use of physical methods such as cryosurgery, thermotherapy, laser therapy and both. The low cure rates and high rates of relapse of the disease may be related to the different treatment methods employed and the lack of a standardized regimen itself. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of conidia and in vitro induced muriform cells of Fonsecaea spp. in the presence of different antifungal agents, to date there are no studies evaluating the action of drugs using the pathogenic form of the fungus, reinforcing the importance of this study, following the method established in the standard M38-A2, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentration for each drug was obtained after 5 days of interaction, posaconazole showed better in vitro inhibitory activity for conidia (CIMMG = 0.632μg / ml) and muriform cells (CIMMG = 1μg / ml). In the analysis of the fungicidal concentration, in both conidia and muriform cells, posaconazole presented lower value (CFMMG = 6.72μg / ml, in both). The fungus samples presented distinct times to differentiate their conidia in muriform cells, therefore we believe that although they belong to the same genus the fungi present physiological peculiarities still unknown. In the in vitro susceptibility tests PCZ had the lowest inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations in both conidia and muriform cells, thus investing in susceptibility testing was important to identify sensitive or resistant strains.

  • ERIKA BAPTISTA LUIZ BADARANE
  • REGISTRO DO PERFIL DE SUCÇÃO EM LACTENTES COM E SEM ANQUILOGLOSSIA POR DISPOSITIVO MICROCONTROLADO

  • Data: 06/08/2018
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  • In the first months of life, suction is the necessary function for oral feeding (VO) and adequate oral motor development. For this, it must be coordinated and harmonic, being necessary, among other factors: reflex of search and suction; lip sealing; adequate movement of the tongue and jaw; suction rhythm, sucking hatchings alternating with pauses; coordination between suction-swallowing-breathing. The adequate movement of the tongue has the function of performing the anterior (attached around the nipple) and posterior (attached to the soft palate and pharynx), nipple compression, and the organization and propulsion of the bolus. Considering that in the literature there is no consensus on the direct relationship between ankyloglossia and difficulty in breastfeeding or early weaning, the objective of this study is to evaluate the suckling profile in infants with and without ankyloglossia through a microcontroller device. For infants with and without ankyloglossia, a sterile silicone pacifier was attached to the suction device for two minutes. The device reads pressure variations from a sensor connected to a pacifier. The pressure data were processed using Kalman filters and neural network. The results showed that infants with and without ankyloglossia, when classified with a multilayer neural network - Perceptron Multilayer, with a topology of 5, 10 and 20 neurons in the hidden layer, did not present any segregation in the classified groups, that is, it was not found difference between them, with R (0.98) indicating a strong correlation between the groups. With this, we conclude that it is not possible to relate the presence of ankyloglossia with breastfeeding difficulty, emphasizing that this study used a more objective method of evaluation when compared to other studies in the literature.

  • TAMIRYS SIMÃO PIMENTA
  • ANÁLISE GENÔMICA COMPARATIVA E OS POLIMORFISMOS NOS GENES TNFA, IFNG, IL6 e IL10 ASSOCIADOS À EXPRESSÃO DE CITOCINAS NA INFECÇÃO POR Plasmodium vivax NO MUNICÍPIO DO ITAITUBA, ESTADO DO PARÁ

  • Data: 19/07/2018
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  • In endemic areas of Asia, Oceania, Central and South America and in the horn of Africa P. vivax malaria is a major cause of morbidity with 35 million cases annually. In Brazil, the Amazon region concentrates almost all cases and infections registered countrywide, with more than three hundred thousand cases per year. Several evidences suggest that an exacerbated inflammatory response associated to density parasite is likely to aggravate the malaria symptoms. We assessed the haematological and immunological aspects, genetic alterations related to CNVs that could lead to phenotypic alterations, conferring resistance or susceptibility to malaria, as well the presence of polymorphisms in cytokine genes and their association with the infection in patients living in a gold-mining area in a gold-mining in the Brazilian Amazon Region, establishing patterns of immune response characteristic of primary malaria, recurrent malaria and endemic control. Six SNPs (TNFA-308G/A, IFNG+874T/A, IL6-174G/C, IL10-1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A) in four genes were determined; blood cell count was conducted on automatic analyzer; plasmatic cytokines IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were quantified by flow cytometry and density parasite was estimated by thick blood films with confirmation by nested-PCR; the CNV was estimated by aCGH and association between copy number and phenotypes (parasite load, mean number of clinical infections of malaria and gender) was assessed. The statistical analyzes were performed by Graph-pad prism 6.0 and Bioestat 5.0. No significant association was found between SNPs and malaria infection; cytokine levels were higher in malaria group when compared to endemic control; production of IL-10 was higher in the presence of GCC/GCC haplotype; IFN-γ levels were correlated with previous malaria episodes; malaria patients showed lower platelet numbers, reduction on white blood cells count and an increased monocyte percentage; significant increase in the IL-6 and IL-10 plasmatic levels in both malaria groups; the primary malaria patients displayed the highest significant plasmatic IFN-γ levels; recurrent malaria patients displayed the highest significant plasmatic TNF-α; malaria infection demonstrated correlation between parasite density and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels; a total of 112 amplified genes and 12 deleted genes were observed and the CNVs found did not include any gene related to receptors or vivax malaria resistance factors. There were no
    xx
    statistically significant correlations between the clinical and pathological data (parasite load, mean number of clinical infections of malaria and gender) and the presence of CNVs in the patients studied. This study provides additional data on Plasmodium-host immune response and describes the quantitative changes in the human genome in P. vivax infection in an endemic area of garimpo.

  • NATHALYA INGRID CARDOSO DO NASCIMENTO
  • DISPOSITIVO PARA AVALIAÇÃO POSTURAL EM AMBIENTE TRIDIMENSIONAL

  • Data: 17/07/2018
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  • The human posture can be defined as the balance between bone and muscle structures of the human body, through which it is possible to diagnose and treat various pathologies, so that science is in search of quantitative and precise methods for its analysis. A correct upright posture is considered a good health marker, making evaluation essential for a favorable therapeutic prognosis. As a result, it is necessary to develop new tools for postural evaluation with less mathematical and methodological errors to obtain accurate and reliable results for the clinic and research. The objective of this research is to present a new tool for postural evaluation, based on an electromechanical arm that allows measuring points in the three dimensional universe. The prototype was developed and improved in order to reduce errors at the time of data collection, for which a Hall effect sensor was used. The program allows to evaluate 24 relations between the points, in addition to the vertebral column analyzing the distance in millimeters and the angle in degrees between an anatomical accident and another in the anterior views, lateral right, posterior and left lateral. The initial tests were performed on the X and Y axes in an angular model, drawn at 10-degree angles and obtained low variability in their measurements, emphasizing the high accuracy of the prototype measuring system. Thus, it was possible to develop a new method of postural evaluation with low cost, high accuracy in its results for use in clinical practice, research and later insertion in the single health system. 

  • WALDO LUCAS LUZ DA SILVA
  • VARIAÇÃO TEMPORAL DOS NÍVEIS DE GABA E GLUTAMATO NO CÉREBRO DE Danio rerio (ZEBRAFISH) SUBMETIDOS A AMBIENTES ANSIOGÊNICOS

  • Data: 13/07/2018
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  • Anxiety-like behavior can be defined as a state of apprehension where the danger is imminent and may occur from exposure to new environments or uncontrollable aversive stimuli. Many neurotransmission systems may be involved in the modulation of anxiety states in mammals as well as in teleosts. Among these, the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems are the main modulation pathways of anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, the present work aims to evaluate the extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate throughout the process of anxiety generation in Danio rerio exposed in Dark/light Preference (DLP) and Novel Tank (NT) tests. Sixty animals (Danio rerio, (wild type, longfinn) were used, which were exposed to DLP and NT at times 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The parameters analyzed for DLP were: time in the white compartment, number of quadrants crossed in the white compartment and transitions between compartments; for the NT, the parameters were: Time in the upper half, number of squares crossed, entrances at the top, maximum speed, average speed and total distance traveled. Then, the brains were dissected and incubated with Hank/Na+ for further quantification of GABA and Glutamate by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All tests were filmed and videos evaluated using Zebtrack software. One-way ANOVA test with Tukey post-test was applied, considering significant values p<0.05. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error mean and all experiments were previously approved by the local ethics committee (CEPAE UFPA 213-14). Our results demonstrate exploration of the white compartment in the LDT test, with no difference between the times (F [3, 20] = 17.10) and no change in the number of midleline crossings between the compartments between minutes 5 and 10 (F [3,20] = 6.28, p <0.05). There was an increase in the number of squares crossed in the time of 15 minutes in relation to the other exploration times (F [3, 20] = 13.04, p <0.03).In addition, there was an increase in extracellular glutamate content during the test (F [4, 10] = 8.98) and decrease of GABA in the last minutes compared to animals not exposed to the test (F [4,9] = 20,83; <0.05). The behavioral patterns of the animals exposed to the NT test also vary according to the time of exposure, where, as time increases, there is an increase in the time of the top exploration (F [3, 28] = 15.99, p <0.01), (F [3, 22] = 16.86 p <0.05), increase in the number of squares crossed (F [3, 21] = 38.70, p <0.01), increase in the total distance traveled [3, 27] = 61.44, p <0.01), with no change in maximum speed (F [3, 28] = 19.73, p <0.01) and mean speed at all times. Glutamate levels increase on exposure to the test (F [4, 10] = 24.62) and GABA levels remain unchanged (F [4,9] = 1.76). We conclude, therefore, that glutamatergic and gabaergic systems modulate the anxiety-like behavior in Danio rerio differently.

  • NAINA YUKI VIEIRA JARDIM
  • PREVENÇÃO DAS ALTERAÇÕES FUNCIONAIS E COGNITIVAS DO ENVELHECIMENTO: A INFLUÊNCIA DO EXERCÍCIO E DA ESTIMULAÇÃO COGNITIVA EM DUPLA TAREFA

  • Data: 05/07/2018
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  • In face of the worldwide aging rate and the silent epidemic cognitive decline and dementia in elderly, the need for intervention strategies to protect and/or improve the functionality and cognitive performance on aging increased. Recent studies suggested that as compared with single stimulation protocols, dual task interventions involving physical exercise and cognitive tasks are more efficient by improving cognitive performance and ability in functional tasks. Although preliminary results in the literature are promising, there are few research using dual-task stimulation protocols. In the present report we aim to investigate the effects of a dual-task intervention program (multimodal physical exercise and multisensory stimulation) on cognitive performances, functionality and quality of life of healthy old adults. To that end 28 community-dwelling old adults (66.14 ± 1.00 years old) underwent cognitive, physical and quality of life assessments at baseline and post-intervention. Cognition was evaluated through Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for screening, Semantic and Phonological Verbal Fluency, CERAD word list and automated neuropsychological tests (CANTAB); physical assessments included cardiorespiratory fitness (Six-Minute Walk Test), functional mobility (Timed-up and go Test), muscle strength of lower limbs (30-seconds Chair Stand Test) and upper (dynamometer Jamar®) limbs muscle strength; Dual task functional test were performed by Walking While Talking test and quality of life questionnaire (SF36) were also applied. Subjects participated in dual-task intervention program composed by physical exercise (aerobic and strength training) and multisensory stimuli, composed by 24 sessions, conducted twice a week for 75 minutes each. Outliers values were excluded, and T-test was applied to investigate possible differences between baseline and post-invention assessment. After intervention, subjects showed increased cognitive performance (MMSE, verbal fluency, short-term memory, sustained visual attention, learning, short-term visual recognition memory), better physical and functional parameters (upper limb strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, functional mobility), improved performance in the dual task functional test and personal perception about improved physical function and diminished limitations due to physical problems (SF36). Thus, 24-session dual task intervention program, based on aerobic and strength exercises and multisensory stimulation, improves cognition, functional exercise capacity, quality of life and ability to perform dual task activities, as normally required in the daily routine of the old adults.

  • PEDRO PHILIPE MOREIRA MATTA
  • EXPOSIÇÃO SUBCRÔNICA AO METILMERCÚRIO INDUZ DANOS TECIDUAIS, BIOQUÍMICOS E PROTEÔMICOS EM CEREBELOS DE RATOS

  • Data: 04/07/2018
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  • Methylmercury (MeHg) represents the most toxic form of mercury, which in chronic intoxications induces motor and cognitive impairment in adult rats. Studies suggest that this metal has a tropistic effect on the cerebellum, however few researches aim to elucidate the mechanisms associated with low-dose MeHg-induced damage in a subchronic exposure model. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify motor, tissue, oxidative and proteomic biochemical alterations induced by subchronic exposure to low doses of MeHg. Fifty six male Wistar rats, 90 days old, were divided into two groups: control group (distilled water) and exposed group (0.04 mg / kg / day of MeHg), both administered via intragastric gavage for 60 days. After the exposure period, the open field and rotarod behavioral tests were performed. Subsequently, the cerebellum from these animals were collected for biochemical analysis, proteomics, mercury tissue deposits, and immunohistochemistry evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test, considering a significant value of p <0.05. The proteomic profile was analyzed by the ProteinLynx Global SERVER ™ software (PLGS). Proteins with p <0.05 were considered super-regulated proteins and those with p <0.95 were considered as sub-regulated proteins. The test used was Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction. Our results demonstrated a decrease in the motor tests of the animals exposed to MeHg. Open field test showed a decrease in total distance covered and the number of rearing in comparison to the control group with p <0.05. Rotarod test presented a decrease in the time for the first latency to fall and an increase in the number of falls in the MeHg group in comparison to the control with p <0.05. The biochemical evaluation showed an increase in nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels and a reductions of Antioxidant Capacity Against Peroxils radicals (ACAP) with p <0.05. Considering the proteomic profile of these animals, among the 1220 proteins identified, 436 proteins were found exclusively in the control group and 311 proteins exclusively in the MeHg group. Also, 358 proteins were found overexpressed and 115 subexpressed proteins. All proteins interactions were depicted on 3 interactions networks to perform proteomic alterations analysis. In addition, the tissue evaluation showed a decrease in Purkinje cells and NeuN + cells and a smaller amount of IBA1+ cells. Area fraction analysis showed a smaller number of GFAP positive cells, synaptophysins and MBP +. Thus, our results suggest that MeHg intoxication provoked cellular and proteomic damage probably related to induced oxidative stress and also reflecting on motor deficit in behavioral tests.

  • SYMARA RODRIGUES
  • ALTERAÇÕES MITOCONDRIAIS E TUMORIGÊNESE DE
    CÂNCER GÁSTRICO EM Sapajus apella.

  • Data: 15/06/2018
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  • Cancer is the name given to a variety of diseases that can occur in different regions
    of the body, which is characterized primarily by the deregulated proliferation of cells.
    A very important organelle in both normal and mutated cells is mitochondria,
    responsible for most of the ATP production in the cell. Mutations in mitochondrial
    DNA can lead to apoptosis or influence the efficiency of ATP formation. Considering
    several different estimates, gastric cancer still in the five most incidental in world
    population, as well as in Brazilian and local population. In this way, understanding
    tumor behavior becomes important for fight against this pathology. With this, the
    objective of the present work was to analyze presence of mitochondrial DNA
    alterations of gastric carcinoma lines implanted in an animal model. Four
    mitochondrial genes (COI, ATPase 8, ND1 and ND3) from four gastric cancer strains
    (AGP01, ACP02, ACP03 and PG100) and one control (Carcinossarcoma 256 from
    Walker) were analyzed to evaluate possible mitochondrial DNA mutations. These
    strains were inoculated in non-human primates of the Sapajus apella species, and
    some animals received the carcinogenic substance N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU)
    concomitantly with the strains. The gastric tumors that developed in the animals
    were surgically removed, after which DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing
    of the sequences of interest were done. Changes were observed in the ND1 and
    ND3 genes. The two transitions found in ND1, one at position 3594 (CT) and 3693
    (GA) of mitochondrial DNA, had no associated pathological record and were
    related to population markers. The AG transition at position 10398 of the ND3
    gene resulted in the change from one threonine to alanine in the resulting amino
    acid, only in lines with more aggressive behavior or after MNU administration. Two
    heteroplasms were also identified in the ND1 gene at positions 3594 (C / T) and
    3693 (A / G) only in the PG100 line after MNU, suggesting a difference in the DNA
    repair system of this line compared to the others. The results suggest that changes
    in the genes encoding proteins that participate in Complex I of the respiratory chain
    are more frequent than in other portions of the mtDNA in the analyzed gastric
    carcinoma strains.

  • CAROLINE DANTAS BRASIL SFAIR
  • PROTÓTIPO DE UM SUSTENTADOR DE CABEÇA REMOTAMENTE
    CONTROLADO PARA CRIANÇAS COM HIPOTONIA CERVICAL

  • Data: 15/06/2018
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  • Hypotonia is considered a movement disorder and as a consequence it has reduced
    motor activity, a pathological condition which muscle tone is extremely reduced causing
    limb weakness and flaccidity, associated with decreased muscles resistance and
    passive stretching. Hypotonia is most commonly seen in the trunk and neck
    musculature, causing a lack of head support. The exact incidence of hypotonia is
    difficult to determine because it haven’t a specific diagnosis. However, the causes of
    this disorder have many origins and may be derived neurodegenerative, neuromuscular,
    lesions, chromosomal and metabolic disorders, those that affect the central nervous
    system have greater prevalence, besides being involved in more than 500 different
    genetic deseases, among others of unknown origin. Thus, biomechanics of the neck
    and head including its components (cervical spine, muscles and nerves) are directly
    affected by the pathological posture of the affected individuals, as well breathing,
    feeding and interaction with the environment in which they are inserted. Currently there
    are assistive technologies that benefit hypotonic, but are simple cervical supports that
    do not offer any type of mobility for the user. For this purpose, the present project
    proposes the construction of a head and neck support apparatus with low relative cost
    that promotes some mobility to the individual, either in a passive (control-dependent)
    way, through an application developed by the research group that will be controlled
    remotely through Bluetooth®-type communication, It will also require supervision of the
    therapist, allowing training in many environments, facilitating postural control in different
    magnitudes, promoting the improvement of the quality of life of the user.

  • LETICIA MIQUILINI DE ARRUDA FARIAS
  • O EFEITO DO RUÍDO ESPACIAL DE COR SOBRE A DISCRIMINAÇÃO
    LIMIAR DE LUMINÂNCIA: INVESTIGAÇÃO BÁSICA E APLICADA EM
    POPULAÇÕES EXPOSTAS AO MERCÚRIO

  • Data: 22/05/2018
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  • Natural images are a complex set of color and luminance contrast that when combined in
    visual scene helps to create the discrimination of objects from the surrounding visual
    environment. A series of neural streams transmits the color and luminance information
    from the retina to the higher cortical centers. Several proposals have been made to study
    how the visual system processes the stimuli that combining color and luminance
    contrasts. This thesis has as main proposal to introduce a new stimulus to be used
    luminance discrimination task under chromatic noise masking. Thus, five experiments
    were carried out with focus this new paradigm to explore basic and applied questions
    about its use. Study 1 investigated the effect of color noise saturation on the threshold
    discrimination of luminance contrast. Study 2 investigated how the mosaic arrangement
    contributed to the contrast values of luminance contrast thresholds under the chromatic
    noise masking. Study 3 investigated the influence of the color content of the noise on the
    threshold discrimination of the luminance contrast. Study 4 investigated the influence of
    the polarity of the luminance contrast under the chromatic noise masking on the estimated
    threshold contrasts. Study 5 compared the values of threshold luminance contrasts under
    chromatic noise masking of two riverine populations of different Amazonian regions of
    the Pará State and exposed to different levels of mercury by feeding. The main finding of
    this thesis was that the luminance contrast thresholds varied as a function of the vector
    length of the chromatic noise values. The higher chromatic noise length, the higher
    luminance contrast threshold. The contrast threshold estimated by the non-mosaic
    stimulus exhibited significantly lower values than those estimated with mosaic stimuli (p
    <0.01). No statistical difference was observed between the contrasts threshold estimated
    around the five reference chromaticities at different saturation conditions (p> 0.05). The
    luminance contrasts thresholds estimated in the luminance decrement protocol were
    xiii
    significantly lower at all saturation levels than those estimated using the luminance
    increase protocol (p <0.05). There is no statistical difference between the thresholds of
    estimated luminance discrimination among riverine communities that were differently
    exposed to mercury (p> 0.05). The luminance contrasts threshold estimated by the new
    stimulus, described in this thesis, were influenced by chromatic and spatial noise, and by
    the polarity of the stimulus of luminance contrast. However, the different chromatic noise
    compositions did not exhibit any influence on the luminance discrimination. The presence
    of one or more color-sensitive visual pathways and luminance may be the physiological
    substrate of the mechanism underlying the luminance contrast perception of this new
    stimulus.

  • MARJORIE LUJAN MARQUES TORRES
  • EFEITO PROTETOR DA RAÇÃO ENRIQUECIDA COM AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea) NO QUADRO DE MALÁRIA CEREBRAL EXPERIMENTAL

  • Data: 17/05/2018
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  • Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe complications attributed to protozoal infection by Plasmodium falciparum, gaining prominence in infant mortality rates in endemic areas. It´s a complex pathogenesis and still little elucidated, being associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor changes. Aiming to broaden the knowledge about this pathology and looking for the benefits attributed to the daily consumption of antioxidants, the objective of this work is to evaluate the possible protective effect of Euterpe oleracea fruit (açaí) during evolution of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced in murine model by means of inoculation of Plasmodium berghei (PbA), ANKA stain. For this, we used the Swiss line, which were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10⁶ of parasited erythrocytes. The animals (females and males between 4 and 6 weeks) were divided into four groups, among which Açaí and PbA+Açaí groups were maintained on a ration-exclusive diet enriched with açaí and the Control and PbA groups were given only standard ration during 22 days of experiment. To characterize the ECM framework, several parameters were evaluated such as the appearence of clinical signs, survival curve, parasitemia, body mass gain and vascular permeability. The SHIRPA protocol was used to evaluate the behavioral and locomotor changes in animals. We observed an extension of survival of the infected animals and treated with a diet enriched with acai berry, and decreased the neurological changes arising from the exposure of the cerebral parenchyma. This work allowed us to validate the development of the experimental brain malaria framework in murine model and evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Acai (Euterpe oleracea) in the course of the disease.

  • ANANDA MARQUES PETY
  • NOVAS ABORDAGENS EVOLUTIVAS EM PEIXES DA AMAZÔNIA: MAPEAMENTO DE ELEMENTOS REPETITIVOS COMO MARCADORES PARA ESTUDOS EM ESPÉCIES DO CLADO PECKOLTIA (SILURIFORMES, LORICARIIDAE)

  • Data: 30/04/2018
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  • Cytogenetic data provide important information on the diversity of Loricariidae, as they corroborate the classification analyzes of the species not described and help in the understanding of inter-intraspecific diversity. However, among the species of the Peckoltia clade, the determination of the number of chromosomes alone does not resolve these questions, since most species exhibit a stable diploid (2n) number. Thus, the use of other chromosomal markers is necessary to clarify the genomic organization of these species and to understand their diversity. The physical mapping of repetitive DNA has been widely used as an important tool in the study of taxonomic and evolutionary problems in fish, as well as to understand the processes of genomic organization and diversification. The objective of the present work was to map ribosomal sites (rDNA) 5S and 18S in Ancistomus feldbergae and five species of Peckoltia: P. cavatica; P. multispinis; P. oligospila; P. sabaji and P.vittata, and discuss the mechanisms of organization and diversification of these sequences. The results of the present study demonstrate that all six species analyzed have a karyotype composed of 52 chromosomes but have divergent karyotype formulas. Nucleolus Organizing Regions (NOR) of the single type were observed in Ancistomus feldbergae, P. cavatica, P. multispinis and P.vittata, while multiple NORs were found in P. oligospila and P. sabaji. Extensive variations in the number and location of 5S and 18S rDNA sites among species were observed. These data indicate that inversions are not the only most important events in karyotype evolution in this group and should be useful in identifying the species studied here. In addition to inversions, transpositions are important evolutionary events involved, at least in rDNA clusters that spread in Peckoltia and probably in other species of Hypostominae.

  • IVETE FURTADO RIBEIRO CALDAS
  • WHAT THE EYES DO NOT SEE THE HEART DOES NOT FEEL: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE OPINION ON THE REDUCTION OF CRIMINAL MAJORITY

  • Data: 27/04/2018
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  • Introduction: The increase in urban violence has led society to charge the State with more severe and punitive measures to solve the problem of juvenile crime. One of the proposals is the reduction of the criminal majority from 18 to 16 years. Discussions on this proposal have been ideologically polarized and instances where the debate is based on reliable scientific evidence are rare. In this research, we try to contribute to identify the implicit social and moral constraints associated with the issue of criminal majority. For this, we designed two experiments to evaluate how socioeconomic factors, sociodemographic factors and the moral development of the individual influence the opinion on the topic. Objective: To verify the relationship between socioeconomic factors, sociodemographic factors and moral development in the opinion about the reduction of the penal majority. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative and quantitative research with a cross-sectional design that consisted of two experiments: Belem Experiment and Regional Experiment. In the Belém Experiment the data were collected in two public places of the municipality of Belém, Pará, Praça Batista Campos and the Court of Justice of the State of Pará. In the Regional Experiment an on line tool was used with the aim of achieving people from different regions of the Brazilian territory. The sample consisted of individuals older than 18 years of both sex. The instruments used were: (1) Socioeconomic and sociodemographic questionnaire and (2) Dilemma of the adolescent in conflict with the law. Pearson's Chi-square test (χ2) and data mining were used for data analysis. Results: Juvenile court workers display preference for lower stages (stage 1) and a lower level of moral competence (average c-index) (3.97), with a strong adherence to the law, different from the general public that prefers higher stages (stage 6) and c-index (14.29). There was a significant relationship between the stage preference and the opinion of the subjects, only in the juvenile court workers (χ2 = 20,665, df = 10, p = 0.024). However, the former is less in accordance with lowering the age of criminal responsibility than the latter. Conclusion: The accuracy of opinion is greater at the extremes of psychological distance, that is, when the individual is very distant or very close to the reality of this adolescent.

  • RAISSA MELO DE SOUSA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO PADRÃO DE EXPRESSÃO E METILAÇÃO DO GENE P21CDKN1A/CIP1 EM TUMORES MAMÁRIOS CANINOS

  • Data: 20/04/2018
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  • The most of canine mammary tumors are malignant and associated with the animal death. One of the factors involved in this pathogenesis is the change in the expression level of the gene P21, which in turn encodes a protein that can inhibit tumor initiation and tumor progression. The methylation profile of gene can affect the cellular level of p21 and lead gene silencing or overexpression. Whereas the functional importance of the P21 gene, this study aimed to evalu-ate the methylation profile and expression in mammary tumors of dogs, in order to identify molecular markers of early diagnosis, survival and prognosis. Therefore, 83 tumor and non-tumor tissue samples were collected from dogs, undergoing surgery at the Veterinary Hospital "Mário Dias Teixeira”, in Belém -Pará. the DNA and RNA from each sample were submitted to extraction using a commercial kit. For the methylation analyzes, the obtained DNA was sub-mitted to the modification process, with a subsequent technique of Bisulfite Sequencing PCR, using region-specific primers and subsequent visualization in 2% agarose gel. The sequencing results were analyzed in BiQ Analyzer software in order to evaluate the methylation pattern. For gene expression analysis, the target gene mRNA was quantified using the real-time PCR technique using the GAPDH and HPRT1 genes as constitutive controls. Statistical data was performed using the Fisher Exact, Odds Ratio and Mann-Whitney tests in the GraphPad Prism program, considering the significant results when p ≤0.05, with a 95% confidence inter-val. In order to evaluate the methylation profile, the CpG islands of the P21 gene were characterized. The island 1 is located in an intron with 34 CGs, while an island 2 was identified in the exon, with 22 CGs. Both amplified generating a fragment of ~ 300bp. At island 1 no methylation was detected, whereas island 2 was methylated, but the island methylation profile was not different between the tumor, non-tumor and control samples. With these results was impossible compare the methylation values with clinical and expression data, suggesting that these regions are not altered. The expression levels of the tumor samples were low when compared to the non-tumor samples and control, with p (0.0001), show that the role of p21 in these tumors may be altered but not statistically significant when correlated with clinical histopathological data of patients. However, a reduced expression in the survival of animals> 1 year of age was observed, and a high expression in animals with survival <1 year of age, suggesting the influence of p21 as a marker of prognosis. More detailed studies of the P21 gene are still needed to see if these changes could be used as molecular markers, and thus aid on the prognosis and detection of cancer in the species.

  • FELIPE ANDRE DA COSTA BRITO
  • MOSAICO: DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM PROGRAMA GERADOR DE ESTÍMULOS VISUAIS DE MOSAICO.

  • Data: 17/04/2018
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  • The color vision and the luminance vision are of great importance in the diverse activities of the human being and therefore deficiencies in these visual functions can greatly compromise the work power and life quality of a person. Several visual assessment proposals have been developed in computerized and non-computerized platforms. The tools for evaluating color and luminance vision, using variegated mosaic type stimuli, currently present on the market, have little or no user control over stimulus parameters. This dissertation aims to present the development of a program that allows the user to control most of the parameters of the mosaic stimuli. For the development of this program was used the unified modeling language (UML) that allows the specification, documentation and visualization of program objects through standardized diagrams. The program was written in MATLAB language and an executable was created to use the program by the user. The final program was called MOSAIC and allows the creation of a wide variety of variegated mosaic stimuli. The program has a greater number of advantages than other proposals of generators of this type of stimulus and could contribute with the visual scientists interested in the study of color and luminance discrimination.

  • ANA PAULA SIROTHEAU CORREA RODRIGUES
  • REABILITAÇÃO DE PACIENTES COM IMPLANTE COCLEAR UTILIZANDO UMA NOVA ABORDAGEM NA ANÁLISE DA PERCEPÇÃO AUDITIVA

  • Data: 28/03/2018
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  • Communication is the way we have to interact with the world, this communication can be verbal or nonverbal. For the satisfactory progress of oral communication, it is necessary that the auditory pathway, from the central portion to the peripheral portion, is functioning properly. When there is a change in the auditory pathway, it is necessary to use devices that aid the perception of sound, among these instruments we highlight the cochlear implant, but for the proper use of this resource, an efficient rehabilitation is essential. Objective: To develop a cochlear implant simulator with the purpose of enabling the rehabilitator to identify the stimulus received by the hearing impaired, and thus to act in the schedules of the rehabilitation sessions, so that the sounds can be detected correctly, favoring the development or maintenance of the oral communication. Methods: For the development of the study, 3 groups of individuals were formed: the first group consisted of 6 implanted patients who received as pure sound stimulus. Groups 2 and 3 were composed of normo-listeners who received the sounds filtered by the cochlear implant simulator; group 2 with 22 individuals received filtered sounds for 22 activated channels (100%) and group 3 perceived filtered sounds with 17 channels activated (77%), corresponding to the number of channels activated in a cochlear implant. All participants were submitted to sessions with audiovisual stimuli in software running on a computer with a touch screen. The stimuli are 124 words extracted from a list used in the logoaudiometry exam, being 16 trisyllables, 46 disyllables and 62 monosyllables. The trisyllables words were generated synthetically and the others recorded in female voice of speech therapist. Results: It was observed that all groups presented greater difficulty in the detection of monosyllables, where the latency period was increased, and more errors occurred for sound perception, this is due to the reduction of the auditory track. Therefore, if there is an individualized rehabilitation treatment, it is believed that the development of the implanted hearing impaired is more efficient.
    Key words: audition, deafness, cochlear implant, stimulation, rehabilitation.

  • LORENA DUARTE FERNANDES
  • ANÁLISE DE ALTERAÇÕES MOLECULARES NOS GENES ND1 E ND3 EM CÂNCER DE PULMÃO NÃO PEQUENAS CÉLULAS NA POPULAÇÃO PARAENSE

  • Data: 09/03/2018
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  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoma is the most frequent in the world, being one of the most aggressive neoplasms, with a mortality / incidence ratio of around 90%, with overall survival in five years low, about 10 to 15%, in most populations of the world. In the Northern Region of Brazil, this pathology is the third most frequent among men and the fourth among women. From the anatomopathological point of view, lung cancer is classified into two main types: small cells and non-small cells, the latter being the most incident, accounting for 75% of cases. Currently, the distinction between subtypes is based on histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular differences. In this context, it is important to emphasize that molecular information influences not only diagnosis, prognosis, but also therapeutic behavior. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations of the nuclear genome are related to the pathogenesis of this tumor. However, changes in oxidative phosphorylation resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction have long been suggested as involved in the process of tumorigenesis. Thus, the present study analyzed two mitochondrial DNA (ND1 and ND3) genes belonging to the I complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in 66 lung tissue samples from patients with and without non-small cell lung cancer in the population of the state of Pará. the sequencing analysis identified four alterations in the ND1 gene: C3553T, T3552A, C3595ins and G3666A and only two changes in the ND3 gene: A10398G and C10400T. Among the alterations found in the ND1 gene, no statistical significance was observed in relation to the development of lung cancer. However, a structural alteration in the ND1 gene was found in the presence of C3595ins, not yet described in the literature. Whereas, the presence of the A allele, observed in T3552A in the ND1 gene, was significantly associated with a protective effect on the development of lung cancer. Already changes in the ND3 gene (G10398A and T10400C) were significantly associated with lung cancer, these changes in ND3 being potential for use as markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer
    Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer, mitochondrial DNA, ND1, ND3, Diagnostic value and prognostic markers.

  • LAIS TEIXEIRA BONFIM
  • Avaliação do efeito citoprotetor do composto homeopático Canova®
    em linhagem celular de rim de macaco verde africano (VERO) exposta
    ao fármaco dipirona sódica.

  • Data: 01/03/2018
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  • Paracetamol, sodium dipyrone and ibuprofen are among the main medicines exempt from medical prescription available in pharmacies in Brazil. Sodium dipyrone is highlighted in the literature as one of the most commonly used drugs. Despite its wide use, our research group demonstrated that sodium dipyrone exerts genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Therefore, studies with medicines that may provide protection or that ameliorate the possible damages caused by sodium dipyrone are very important. The homeopathic compound Canova® (CA) seems to be a good candidate for such purpose, since in combination with other drugs it seems to soften the side effects of such drugs. Therefore, the present work aims to evaluate the possible cytoprotective effect of CA on African green monkey kidney cell line (VERO) exposed to the drug sodium dipyrone using the comet, micronucleus, apoptosis and immunocytochemistry assays. Results obtained by the comet test showed that sodium dipyrone induces an increase in DNA damage index of the VERO line. However, when such cells were co-treated with CA at the three concentrations studied, a significant reduction in the ID was observed, indicating a possible antigenotoxic effect of CA. We observed in the apoptosis and necrosis assays that dipyrone induced an increase in the percentage of apoptosis in both 24 hours and 48 hours. However when the drug was associated with CA, a significant reduction in this effect was observed in the three concentrations of CA + dipyrone. Results on immunocytochemistry showed an increase in the expression of caspase 8 and cytochrome C when cells were exposed to dipyrone. On the other hand, co-treatment significantly reduced such effect. Expression of caspase 9 was also observed after dipyrone tratament, however, co-treatment did not reduce such effect. Therefore, in our experimental conditions CA acted as a cytoprotect agent against the damages induced by dipyrone.
    Keywords: Cytoprotection. Dipyrone. Canova. Antigenotoxicity.

  • SILVIA MARIA MACHADO DA ROCHA
  • PERFIL CITOPATOLÓGICO DE PACIENTES ATENDIDAS NA CASA DA MULHER E AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE DO ÁCIDO CAURENOICO CONTRA LINHAGENS DE CÂNCER CERVICAL

  • Data: 28/02/2018
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  • Cervical cancer (CC), which is of great importance for public health, is considered to be the 4th most common type of cancer in the world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the main risk factor. Approximately 70% of women with CC are in less developed regions, demonstrating a socioeconomic relationship. Papillomavirus belong to the family Papillomaviridae, with more than 40 genera, of which five are composed of HPVs, with at least 200 species already described associated with human infections. These virus are enveloped, spherical and have a double-stranded DNA genome. HPVs have tropism by epithelial cells and persistent infections can lead to progressive intraepithelial transformations with evolution to precursor lesions of cervical cancer, and finally cancer. HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world, and most sexually active people, men and women, will have contact with the virus at some point in their lives. In the present study, the cytopathological profile of patients treated at a Secondary Reference Unit in Gynecological Cancer of the city of Belém / PA and the activity of caurenoic acid against cervical cancer lines were analyzed. The profile of the microbiological and cytopathological findings was verified in the examinations carried out by the Casa da Mulher laboratory during a period of one year, using data from 2,202 cervical cancer preventive exams (PCCU), showing a weak correlation between age range and frequency of microbiological findings and pathological alterations. The microbiological findings were the presence of three species: Gardnerella vaginalis (23.48%), Candida sp. (12.44%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (0.68%). The prevalence of cytologic abnormalities corresponded to 5.72%. Atypia cells of undetermined significance corresponded to 2.679%, and the total proportion of potentially malignant neoplastic lesions was 1.09%. The increase in PCCU coverage in the female population needs to be achieved and health promotion must be effected through intersectoral partnerships, popular participation, and collective accountability for quality of life. On the other hand, the evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic effect of caurenoic acid (CA) in cervical cancer lines was performed using HeLa (HPV18-positive), CaSki (HPV16-positive) and C33A (HPV-negative). AC showed a strong positive correlation with the genotoxicity indicators evaluated. At high concentrations, it inhibited the expression of E6 and E7 HPV genes, which interfere with cell cycle regulation. Although genotoxic effects were observed, the assays pointed to the possibility of using CA as feedstock for therapeutic agents against cervical cancer with HPV, as well as future research on E6 and E7 functions.

  • LOUISE BOGEA RIBEIRO
  • COMPLEXIDADE SEMÂNTICA E HABILIDADE DE DECODIFICAÇÃO: UM MODELO QUANTITATIVO DA COMPREENSÃO DE TEXTOS DENOTATIVOS EM LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA BASEADO NA TEORIA DA INFORMAÇÃO.

  • Data: 26/02/2018
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  • Based on the principles of cognitive neuroscience and information theory, with emphasis on the work of Claude Shannon, a statistical analysis of 33,101 words was done from the collection of scientific texts of the Brazilian Digital Library Of Thesis And Dissertation and the Digital Library of USP, using the C # programming language and Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 as a code complement, including SQL Server Management Studio 2012 for database management, for the development of the information processing program titled CalcuLetra, with the purpose of measuring the difficulty of textual comprehension in Portuguese Language. From the premises that the learning of the meanings of letters, words and other symbols provides the development of the central nervous system of humans; that the reader's metacognitive behavior allows the response to stimuli coming from the reading process; And that the words of greatest occurrence in the bank represent those best known by their authors, the algorithm thus determines the degree of familiarity of the words according to the mathematical and statistical parameters of the bank. Therefore, when comparing non-literary or denotative texts with the probabilistic values found, it shows how comprehensible is the text inserted in the program, considering neurotypical readers and that its content has the necessary elements of textual cohesion, according to the grammatical rules of the language. Our results reveal groups of words that cause misunderstanding or make reading easier. Additionally, we show gaps in vocabulary and dictionary usage. Despite the preliminary findings, this study was more a proof of concept for the method employed, and demonstrated its potential for future research. The quantification model’s methodology presented in the present study can be adapted to other languages, and we hope it contributes to the development of objective evaluation of behavioral disorders (e.g., dyslexia), by quantitative classification of written incomprehension; and helps in the analysis of dissertations of vestibular, ENEM and other public examinations, whose evaluation is still of a subjective form.

  • CLEBSON PANTOJA PIMENTEL
  • INVESTIGAÇÃO DE OCORRÊNCIA DE ALTERAÇÕES MOLECULARES NOS GENES KRAS, HRAS, NRAS E BRAF EM CARCINOMA PAPILÍFERO DA TIREOIDE

  • Data: 25/01/2018
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  • The most common cancer of the thyroid is the papillary carcinoma (PTC), which represents 80% of the cases of cancer affecting this gland. PTC is a malignant tumor, with slow evolution, found in any age, but with a higher occurrence in patients between 30-40 years old. The metabolic pathway MAPK is the most associated with PTC. Among the several proteins which have a role in this pathway, we highlight the ones encoded by the genes belonging to families RAS and BRAF. Considering that there are few clinical and genetic studies focusing on thyroid cancer from Brazilian Amazonian region, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of alterations in genes HRAS, NRAS, KRAS and BRAF in patients with PTC treated in a public hospitals, from Belém (PA), seeking to make an association between the mutations found and the biochemical and clinical findings. To achieve this goal, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct automatic sequencing were used. Statistical analyses were performed using the software SPSS version 21.0. Continuous data were expressed as means and standard deviation and categorical data were described in terms of percentages. Student t Test was used to evaluate the continuous variables, while Fisher exact test and Chi-square were used to analyze categorical variables. We considered p<0.05 as significant value in all the analyses. Our results showed that, among the analyzed genes, only BRAF showed a mutation, BRAFV600E, in 21 out of the 53 patients (16 female and 5 males, 39.6%). Additionally, a new mutation in codon 38 of gene K-RAS was found (p.D38E). Considering clinical data, we found a significant association between the BRAFV600E mutation and hoarseness, as well as between this mutation and lymph node metastasis. In addition, the observation of a new mutation in the K-RAS gene indicates that the number of gene changes involving the MAPK pathway is still incomplete. The data obtained can be used for a better pre-surgical evaluation of thyroid tumors, in order to increase the sensitivity for the detection of cancer and avoid unnecessary surgeries of lesions erroneously identified as malignant.

2017
Descrição
  • ALODIA BRASIL COSTA
  • ESTUDO ELETRORRETINOGRÁFICO DA ADAPTAÇAO À LUZ DE VIAS DE PROCESSAMENTO ESPECÍFICAS DE CONE E DE OPONÊNCIA EM COR E LUMINÂNCIA

  • Data: 15/12/2017
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  • Visual system has an essential function called light adaptation or photopic adaptation, which consists in the regulation of light sensitivity allowing visual adaptation to a wide range of illumination levels. This phenomenon is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the magnitude and temporal pattern of the variation of retinal electrical responses for L cone and M cone selective stimuli and for luminance pathway and red-green color pathway specific stimuli, making possible the evaluation of the red-green parvocellular (P pathway) and magnocellular (M pathway) visual pathways activity, during the photopic adaptation. For such purpose, 6 healthy subjects underwent 30 minutes of dark adaptation and then were exposed a light steady background for 16 min. The stimuli were given every 2 min and the electrical retinal response was recorded by full field electroretinogram (ffERG) over 16 min. The triple silent substitution method was used to isolate the responses of pathways originating from the L or M cone. We also used specific stimuli of luminance (Lum) and redgreen color (Crom). For each stimulation type was used intermediate (12 Hz, which reflects the activity of the red-green parvocellular pathway - P pathway) and high (36 Hz, which reflects the activity of the magnocellular pathway - M pathway) temporal frequency, resulting in 8 stimulation conditions. Amplitude and phase of the first (F), second (2F) and third (3F) harmonic components were extracted by Fast Fourier Transform. It was observed that amplitude and phase increased over light adaptation time with simple sine wave form in the most of components and stimulation conditions. The relative increases in F amplitude from the M-cone driven responses during the light adaptation were higher than those L-cone driven ERGs at both temporal frequencies, 12 Hz (M = 1.21, L = 0.33) and 36 Hz ( M = 1.94, L = 0.55), as well as they were higher at 36 Hz than at 12 Hz for the two cones. In general, there was slight F phase increase during the light adaptation time (<30 degrees), slightly higher at 36 Hz. Regarding the light adaptation kinetics, F amplitude and phase that seem reflect the activity of the P pathway presented a faster adaptation (L-cone 12 Hz, M-cone 12 Hz, Crom 12 Hz, Lum 12, with a mean of 1.4 min) and those that probably reflect activity of the M-pathway had slower adaptation (Lum 36 Hz, L-cone 36 Hz, M-cone 36 Hz, with a mean of 4.9 min). Thefore, M and P pathways presented different magnitude and kinetics of light adaptation, being the M pathway the pathway of greatest increase and slower adaptation.

  • GISELLE CRISTINA BRASIL CARVALHO
  • CITOPROTECTION OF KOJIC ACID (AK) IN LPS-INDUCED DEATHS IN MÜLLER CELLS OF CHICKEN EMBRYO RETINA

  • Data: 07/12/2017
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  • 5-Hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-γ-pyrone (AK), a known inhibitor of tyrosinase, an enzyme important for melanin synthesis and therefore used for pigmentation disorders. AK also promotes significant activation of macrophages and promotes cytoplasmic accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting its role as a potentiator of the immune system and microbicide. There is no work in literature that shows the action of AK in the central nervous system (CNS) as a cellular activator and its possible protective role against infections. To test this hypothesis, it use retinal Muller glia which have similar properties to those of macrophages. Therefore, the present work evaluates the action of AK as a possible protective role in LPS-induced cell death in culture of glial cells from chicken embryos. Cultures enriched with glial cells were treated with AK (10, 25, 50 and 100 μM) and LPS (0.1, 10, 100, and 500 ng / ml) for 24 hours. After treatment, the cells did not show AK-treated cytotoxicity; however, treated with LPS, cell death occurred in a dose-dependent manner. We verified the accumulation of EROs in groups treated with AK (100 μM) and LPS (100 and 500 ng / ml). Cultures co-treated with AK and LPS in the same concentrations there was a reduction of accumulation of EROs. AK was also able to inhibit the activity of antioxidant enzymes, (catalase and Superoxide dismutase) and glutathione levels, while LPS produces an increase in the activity of these antixodants. AK was able to inhibit the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione from the increase induced by LPS. These data show that AK promotes the modulation of oxidative and antioxidative balance as a possible protective mechanism in the cell death produced by LPS in Müller's Glia enriched cells.
    Key Words: RETINA, GLIA CULTURE, AK, LPS

  • NELISSON CLEI FERREIRA ALVES
  • PREVALÊNCIA E ASSOCIAÇÃO DA INFECÇÃO GÁSTRICA POR HELICOBACTER PYLORI E DO VÍRUS EPSTEIN-BARR EM CASOS DE GASTRITE NA POPULAÇÃO DO AMAPÁ

  • Data: 03/11/2017
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  • The epidemiology of HP and of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is worldwide. The prevalence of both carcinogenic agents, in the world human population is about 45%. A recent study suggests that EBV coinfection with HP cagA positive increases the oncogenic potential of this bacterium. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of the bacterium HP and of the virus EBV and the association of those pathogens and of the cagA gene in patients with gastritis in the population of Amapá. A descriptive study was accomplished, of the traversal type, where 292 samples of gastric mucous of the patients were analyzed with gastritis submitted to the endoscopy, age group between 14 and 83 years. For detection of HP, Urease test and Polymerase Chain reaction were used; this methodology was also useful to reveal the positive cagA of the bacterium. Additionally, the technique of in situ hybridization was used for detection of EBV and the microscopic analysis that determined the histopathological characteristics of the gastric mucous. Results: The study showed high prevalence of cases of HP in patients with gastritis with a relative frequency of 87,67% of the 292 analyzed cases, a higher incidence, of HP positive cases, in female, 88,27%. The incidence of the cagA gene in samples of positive patients for HP was 72,66%, higher prevalence in female, 75,32%. In the present study 8,59% of the patients were found with viral infection caused by EBV in positive samples for HP with bigger prevalence in male, 9,18%. According to the age group, the study showed higher prevalence of the gene cagA and of EBV in positive patient for HP in the age group between 44 and 54 years, with 23,12% and 36,37%, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the findings of this study are similar to the reports from the literature, however, it is necessary other studies in order to explain if there is or there is no correlation between the infection for HP and EBV in the north of Brazil.

  • FABIO DA SILVA WAN-MEYL
  • CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE MEDIDAS QUANTITATIVAS DE ESPESSURA RETINIANA, CONCENTRAÇÃO DE METABÓLITOS ENCEFÁLICOS E FUNÇÕES NEUROPSICOLÓGICAS DE PACIENTES COM TRANSTORNOS NEUROCOGNITIVOS

  • Data: 18/10/2017
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  • Currently, with the increase in life expectancy of human populations, neurodegenerative diseases, commonly occurring with the advancing age, have become a source of serious concern. Thus, research into new ways of early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as the improvement of the understanding of currently available clinical neurological diagnostic methods, has been promoted throughout the world. In this sense, this work proposes to investigate the existence of possible correlations between the results of exams used in clinical neurological investigation of patients diagnosed with neurocognitive disorder associated with these important neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases). The results show that the measurement of the thickness of the nerve fiber layer of the perimacular retina, performed by optical coherence tomography, is a parameter that may not differ significantly between groups of patients and healthy subjects. On the other hand, the measurement of the amplitude of the spectroscopic signals generated by encephalic metabolites, performed by magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy, reveals encephalic changes that vary from region to region. In addition, the neuropsychological measure of cognitive functions, performed by the automated CANTAB battery, reveals that several aspects of these functions are impaired in these patients. Finally, Principal Component Analysis shows that, considering the set of variables obtained by tomographic and neuropsychological measurements, it is possible to observe a correlation between several of these variables. Thus, it is concluded that correlating the results obtained by different approaches may add potential in the interpretation of this casuistry, which would not be possible if we consider such data in an isolated way.

  • CAROLINA DOS SANTOS ARAUJO
  • Estudo de mecanismos cromáticos e acromáticos para o potencial cortical provocado visual (VECP) e multifocal (mfVEP)

  • Data: 06/10/2017
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  • Visual evoked potentials (VECPs) and multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEPs) are being widely used to investigate cortical information processing in response to stimuli at different sites of the visual field and present the potential for complement information to conventional VEPs on chromatic and achromatic mechanisms of human vision. The objective of this work was to investigate the contribution of chromatic and achromatic mechanisms to VECP and mfVEP from two experiments: in the first, 9 healthy trichromates subjects with normal or corrected to 20/20 visual acuity were submitted to a visual stimulation of 8º of size, formed by achromatic sinusoidal gratings in 7 spatial frequencies (from 0.4 to 10 cpd) and in six contrast levels (from 3.12% to 99%); in the second, a multifocal dartboard with 60 sectors covering 40° of visual angle was shown for 14 healthy subjects (12 trichromates, 1 protan and 1 deutan discromatopsic type) in 7 different ratios of red-green luminance (R/R+G) and in one achromatic condition (99%). The two stimuli were presented as a reverse pattern, temporally controlled by m-sequences. The first slice (K2.1) and the second slice (K2.2) of the second order kernel were extracted. In experiment 1, were analyzed the main components of the waveforms recorded and in experiment 2 the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the waveforms was analyzed to classify them as reliable (SNR> 1.35) or unreliable (SNR <1.35) and the number of reliable waveforms in 6 different rings with the same visual eccentricity (R1 being the central ring and R6 the most peripheral ring) was quantified. The results of experiment 1 indicated that responses in K2.1 were dominated by M pathway, and responses in K2.2 reflected the contribution of P pathway. The results of experiment 2 were similar for K2.1 and K2.2. In the R1-R4 rings, all red-green luminance ratios showed a similar number of reliable waveforms. In the R5-R6 rings, there are more reliable waveforms in the red-green luminance ratios with high luminance contrast, while the equiluminant condition has the fewest reliable responses. Protan and deutan subjects showed inverted results: stimulus conditions with green brighter than red generated more reliable waveforms in the protan subject (0.2-0.4), while the opposite combination generated more reliable waveforms in the deutan subject. The two second-order kernel slices are useful for studying the chromatic and achromatic mfVEP mechanisms. The results in R1-R4 indicated a similar contribution of chromatic and achromatic mechanisms for mfVEP, while R5-R6 show the most pronounced contribution of the achromatic mechanism to mfVEP. The method used allowed to identificate specific characteristics of protan and deutan discromatopsic type from obtained data. 

  • MILENA SILVA DE FREITAS
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO VOCAL DE PACIENTES PORTADORES DE LÚPUS ERITEMATOSO SISTÊMICO (LES)

  • Data: 18/09/2017
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  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease characterized by progressive tissuedamage. In recent decades, novel treatments have greatly extended the life span of SLE patients. This creates a high demand for identifying the overarching symptoms associated with SLE and developing therapies that improve their life quality under chronic care. We hypothesized that SLE patients would present dysphonic symptoms. Given that voice disorders can reduce life quality, identifying a potential SLE-related dysphonia could be relevant for the appraisal and management of this disease. We measured objective vocal parameters and perceived vocal quality with the GRBAS (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain) scale in SLE patients and compared them to matched healthy controls. SLE patients also filled a questionnaire reporting perceived vocal deficits. SLE patients had significantly lower vocal intensity and harmonics to noise ratio, as well as increased jitter and shimmer. All subjective parameters of the GRBAS scale were significantly abnormal in SLE patients. Additionally, the vast majority of SLE patients (29/36) reported at least one perceived vocal deficit, with the most prevalent deficits being vocal fatigue (19/36) and hoarseness (17/36). Self-reported voice deficits were highly correlated with altered GRBAS scores. Additionally, tissue damage scores in different organ systems correlated with dysphonic symptoms, suggesting that some features of SLE-related dysphonia are due to tissue damage. Our results show that a large fraction of SLE patients suffers from perceivable dysphonia and may benefit from voice therapy in order to improve quality of life

  • NARA GYZELY DE MORAIS MAGALHÃES
  • ALTERAÇÕES DA FORMAÇÃO HIPOCAMPAL DO Calidris pusilla ASSOCIADAS À MIGRAÇÃO OUTONAL DE LONGA DISTÂNCIA

  • Data: 31/08/2017
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  • After breeding in the upper Arctic tundra, shorebirds affected by migratory restlessness trace an inherited preliminary route and use compasses, maps and visual landmarks, until they reach, in the northern hemisphere, stopover sites that have the necessary nutritional resources for fast and high gain of energy reserves for migratory journey, as in the Bay of Fundy-Canada. Following this stopover site that is used by 75% of the population of Calidris pusilla, the long-distance autumn migratory experience continues with uninterrupted 6-day non-stop flights over the Atlantic until these birds reach South America and then the island of Canela-Brazil. To test the hypothesis that the longdistance migratory process would influence neurogenesis, astrogenesis and activation of earlierexpression genes, we captured 12 individuals in full migratory activity in the Bay of Fundy and 9 individuals in the Island of Canela in Brazil. After selective immunostaining for mature neurons (NeuN), immature neurons (Dcx), astrocytes (GFAP), and neuronal activation by early genes (c-Fos), we quantified these markers in the hippocampal formation and compared the results of this quantification of the individuals in migration (Bay of Fundy) with those of wintering birds (Canela Island). We used quantitative stereological analyzes to estimate the total number of cells of hippocampal formation, number of active cells, total number of astrocytes and young and mature neurons. To verify if the differences found were statistically significant, we used the Student t test. Our results confirmed that autumnal migration alone, caused hippocampal changes in Calidris pusilla. After migration, we detected that the hippocampal formation has fewer activated cells and fewer astrocytes, more new neurons and greater relative volume in the quantified hemisphere (left hemisphere). However, this process did not influence the number of total cells and mature neurons. We suggest that the difference found between the volume and number of new neurons, of the full migration and wintering individuals, possibly occurred due to the migratory process in combination with local conditions found during the beginning of the wintering period. Taken together our findings demonstrate long-distance migratory shorebirds offer a unique opportunity to investigate many issues related to the cellular neurobiology of migration in general, and, on the neural plasticity associated with hippocampal neuronal and neurogenesis in adult birds.

  • NAILA FERREIRA DA CRUZ
  • AVALIAÇÃO in vitro DA ATIVIDADE ANTIFÚNGICA DA Malpighia glabra Linn. EM AGENTES DA CROMOBLASTOMICOSE

  • Data: 31/08/2017
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  • Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a mycosis by implantation, chronic, with a cosmopolitan distribution, caused by melanized fungi. After transcutaneous implantation, the propagules of the CBM agents present a unique cellular and morphological plasticity. The cellular differentiation results in the appearance of muriform cells. The treatment of this mycosis is a challenge due to the absence of a standard antifungal, resulting in several therapy methods (physical and pharmacological), used isolated or associated, with little clinical cure success. Amazon region has a vast biodiversity of vegetables that need to be better characterized as to their chemical composition and applicability in the treatment of different diseases. In this variety of plants, the fruit of Malpighia glabra Linn. (acerola) has a high content of vitamin C, also presenting vitamins of the complex B, A, anthocyanins and flavonoids, which stand out for having different biological and therapeutic actions already demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. A major interest is currently focused on the biological activities of quercetin, belonging to the class of flavonoids, as it exerts multiple pharmacological activities, presenting unique biological properties that can improve mental and/or physical performance and reduce the risk of different infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of M. glabra extract in conidia and muriform cells of Fonsecaea spp. The extract of M. glabra presented antifungal activity in both, conidia and muriform cells, of the evaluated strains. Much interest is now centered on biological activities of the flavonoid quercetin. In addition to the crude extract, the conidia of different strains were also sensitive to different dilutions of the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were evaluated. The geometric mean of the quercetin MIC for the conidia was 4.75 μg/mL and the geometric mean of the CFM was 11.31 μg/mL. Further study is needed so that M. glabra or quercetin, isolated or associated with another isolated component of the extract, may be used for the treatment of CBM in the future.

  • AMIR SAMER ZAHLAN
  • SISTEMA ROBOTIZADO PARA REABILITAÇÃO DE ACOMETIDOS PELO ACIDENTE VASCULAR ENCEFÁLICO – AVE

  • Data: 03/08/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Stroke is in the fifth place among the diseases that kill the most in the United States and is also one of the most leading causes of neurological disability in the world. Recently, robotic therapy has been more often used in the rehabilitation of individuals affected by stroke. In some cases, it proves more efficient than conventional therapy. There are few studies about the rehabilitation of the trunk and the equilibrium reactions with seated patient in individuals affected by stroke despite many daily activities are performed in this position. Robotic systems are used on stroke rehabilitation due it is possible to provide a high dosage and intensity of repetitive training aimed at specific activities. We propose a new platform to evaluate the reactions of individuals affected by stroke using robotic technologies. A model was constructed to simulate the movements of the system using pieces machined in plastic. A graphic control interface was developed to generate movement protocols where the physiotherapist can insert the parameters of these movements as commands, such as: angulation, speed and axis of the movement. It was possible to show that the platform moves accordingly to the programmed from repetitive tests of accelerometers data using moving average filter, expecting a precision of up to 1°. It is expected that this device may serve a large number of patients as an alternative in the rehabilitation of the stroke providing a safe and conducive environment for the rehabilitation.

  • DEYVSON DIEGO DE LIMA REIS
  • INDEL POLYMORPHISMS: THE ROLE OF GENETIC VULNERABILITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROINFLAMMATION AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

  • Data: 26/07/2017
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  • The pathophysiology of depression still remains not fully understood. And despite the contributions of the monoaminergic hypothesis to the understanding of neurobiological aspects of this disorder, studies have been carried out to investigate the role of neuroinflammation, polymorphisms in genes that influence inflammatory activity and monoaminergic receptor functions in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have analyzed the role of upstream inflammatory pathways (such as the role of NFKB1 and PAR1 genes, which are capable of influencing transcription of proinflammatory cytokines) and of the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor encoding gene's polymorphism (ADRA2B gene) in individuals diagnosed with depression. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the role of the INDEL type polymorphisms of NFKB1 (rs28362491), PAR1 (rs11267092) e ADRA2B (rs34667759) genes in the development of major depressive disorder. Twelve patients diagnosed with MDD and 145 healthy controls had blood samples collected and the INDEL polymorphisms of these 3 genes were genotyped by a single multiplex reaction. The multiplex PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis and the data analyzed in GeneMapper 3.7 software (Applied Biosystems). This research found a statistically significant association between depression and Del/Del genotype of the ADRA2B gene (p = 0.002): these individuals presented a 6.41 times greater chance of developing depression when compared to Del/Ins and Ins/Ins genotypes. There was no statistical significance between the INDEL polymorphisms of NFKB1 and PAR1 genes and depressive phenotype. Our results suggest that the INDEL marker of the ADRA2B gene (rs34667759), specifically the deletion allele, is a possible genetic biomarker of vulnerability for the development of MDD.

  • WALTHER AUGUSTO DE CARVALHO
  • AJUSTES MOTORES COMPENSATÓRIOS APÓS LESÃO ISQUÊMICA FOCAL UNILATERAL DO TRATO CORTICOESPINHAL

  • Data: 30/06/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The aim of this work was to develop a new model of spinal cord injury caused by focal and unilateral transient ischemia after ET-1 microinjection in the dorsal funiculus and to evaluate the sensorimotor alterations of the anterior paw of rats (Wistar). Fifty (n = 50) animals (CEPAE / UFPA protocol BIO007912), who were trained, thirty-three (n = 33) were selected to compose control (n = 15), sham (n = 6) and injury (n = 12) groups. By using a micropipette, we injected the volume of 250 nL of saline (sham) or endothelin-1 (lesion) near the medial dorsal artery of the cervical segment C4 at a depth of 1 mm from the pial surface of the spinal cord. ET-1 induced cystic cavity formation of 0.421 mm2 (± 0.035 mm2, n = 3) on the corticospinal tract and suprajacent white matter, ipsilateral to the microinjection site that can be measured in cross-sections (50 μm) stained by the Nissl technique. The motor functions of the forepaw were evaluated by specific sensorimotor tests before and after injury at 3, 7 and 14 days. The results were evaluated by the ANOVA statistical test with Tukey post-hoc analysis (α = 0.05). Our results show in pasta test that after injury there is a compensatory motor behavior in which the non-preferential forepaw assumes the functions of the preferential forepaw. The Staircase test revealed a decrease in the ability to grasp the object with the preferred paw and the Contact test showed a decrease in sensitivity of the preferred paw.

  • CAMILA LORENA RODRIGUES MACHADO
  • ESTADO NUTRICIONAL DE POPULAÇÕES EXPOSTAS AO MERCÚRIO: ESTUDO OBSERVACIONAL DE COORTE NAS REGIÕES DO RIO TAPAJÓS E TUCURUÍ.

  • Data: 19/06/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The riverside communities of the Amazon are vulnerable populations exposed to factors that are difficult to find in the populations of the rest of the country (from the bioavailability of Amazonian natural wealth to geographic isolation). However, little is known about the anthropometric characteristics and eating habits of these communities. The objective of this study was to conduct a study of the nutritional status and dietary intake of riparian communities in the Tapajós and Tucuruí regions, through the analysis of anthropometric parameters (Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio and Neck Circumference) , As well as food profile analysis. A total of 234 adult subjects were included in this study (143 from Tapajós and 91 from Tucuruí). The results showed that 77% and 65% of the Tapajós and Tucuruí populations, respectively, present 2 or more altered anthropometric parameters, showing the predominance of pre-obesity and obesity in these populations. Women had a higher risk of developing obesity-related diseases. The consumption of fruits in the Tapajós region (87.3%) and in the Tucuruí region (89%), as well as the consumption of fish (Tapajós 97.9% and Tucuruí 95.6%), And flour (Tapajos 86.6% and Tucuruí 86.8%). We also observed that the populations present healthy eating habits, but consume certain foods that would be influencing the current nutritional status, as well as the way of preparation. Studies that include these populations are scarce, and educational and public health measures are necessary to raise awareness of the improvement of eating habits, the importance of practicing physical activity, and to avoid behaviors such as Consumption of alcohol and smoking to avoid problems related to obesity.

     

  • GABRIEL CARDOSO DE QUEIROZ SANTOS
  • EVALUATION OF INDOMETACIN TREATMENT INFLUENCE IN LEARNING AND SPACE MEMORY IN A MURINE MODEL OF DIABETES TYPE 1

  • Data: 25/05/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the group of metabolic disorders that has as a common characteristic the disregulation of blood glucose levels, invariably leading to hyperglycemia. This disease has become the most frequent in the adult population, mainly in developing countries, causing several serious consequences such as cardiovascular and renal diseases, factors responsible for a high mortality rate of the individuals affected. In addition that consequences, which are better investigated and described in the literature, other types of complications are observed. Clinical and experimental studies demonstrate that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus may contribute to the development of cognitive deficits and dementias. However, the mechanisms that lead to such disorders are not yet fully understood. A study using the non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, indomethacin, has shown that aspects related to impaired neuronal plasticity in diabetes can be reversed, demonstrating that these disorders may be modulated by neuroinflammatory changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of chronic treatment with indomethacin on memory and learning in a murine model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Using the open field test, Y-maze test and Morris water maze test we investigated the indomethacin effects on behaviors changes after aloxan inducing T1DM. Indomethacin significantly decrease related behaviors to the anxious state in Open field test. This treatment also reversed space work memory deficits in the Y-maze test, and learning and spatial memory deficits in the Morris Water Maze. Thus, it can be concluded that chronic treatment with indomethacin has beneficial effects on the cognition of mice submitted to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  • MAURICIO FERREIRA GOMES
  • POTENTIAL HEALING OF THE CACTUS EXTRACT OF Pentaclethara macroloba NO PROCESS OF REPAIR OF EXCISIONAL INJURIES IN THE SKIN OF DIABETIC MICE

  • Data: 25/05/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a disease that awake the interest of many health professionals. It is a chronic disease on a world scale, and over the years has become a matter of concern for public health. The disease is divided into diabetes type 1 and type 2, which causes a dysfunction in insulin / glucose physiology. This deregulation causes significant alterations in some biological events, among them, the cicatrization process.The appearance of an injury to a normal person triggers a cascade of cellular and biochemical reactions in order to repair the injured tissue. In patients with diabetes, the repair is slower. Several mechanisms are described as important factors in the delay of the healing process in diabetics, among them, excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO), reduction of the response to growth factors (GFs) and the insulin signaling pathway proteins. The search for therapeutical forms that can help the tissue repair process is in great demand, since the number of people with diabetes is increasing over the years. The Pracaxi seed extract is powerful dermatological healing, helps in hydration and cell renewal, important processes in healing, thus demonstrating positive perspectives in its use in diabetic patients' injuries. The objective of this project is to analyze the pharmacological effect of the topical application of the ketone extract of the Pentaclethra macroloba Wild (Pracaxi) seed in the process of tissue regeneration in diabetic animals. To evaluate the potential of the plant, a clinical picture of diabetes was initially induced in the animals through the alloxan drug, cytotoxic beta - pancreatic cells, then a skin lesion with the biopsy punch was generated in the dorsal region of the animals and subsequently the lesions Were treated with the pracaxi extract. After treatment, the effects and benefits of using the extract on skin lesions in diabetics will be evaluated.

  • DARIO CARVALHO PAULO
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ASTRÓCITOS DA FORMAÇÃO HIPOCAMPAL DE MAÇARICOS DA ESPÉCIE Calidris pusilla DURANTE A MIGRAÇÃO E EM PERÍODO DE INVERNADA.

  • Data: 12/04/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla (C. pusilla) is a long-distance migrant shorebird that leaves every year, its breeding habitats in the southern tundra in Canada and Alaska, escaping from winter, towards the coastal line in South America. Before they cross the Atlantic Ocean, they stopover Bay of Fundy on the Atlantic coast of North America, where they increase triglycerides in adipose tissue, to attend the vigorous energetic demands of the 5,300-kilometer non-stop flight over the ocean. Because bioenergetic and redox activity of astrocytes would be under intense demand to sustain neuronal activity and survival during long-distance transatlantic migration, we hypothesize that astrocytes morphological changes may become readily visible in the wintering birds. To test this hypothesis, GFAP immunolabeled astrocytes were selected from sections of the hippocampal formation, an area that has been proposed to play a central role in the integration of multisensory spatial information for navigation. We quantified and compared hippocampal three-dimensional morphological features of astrocytes of adult migrating, captured on the Bay of Fundy, Canada, with hippocampal astrocytes from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period. To select astrocytes for microscopic 3D reconstructions we used a random and systematic unbiased sampling approach. Using hierarchical cluster and discriminant analysis of 3D morphometric features to classify astrocytes, we found two morphological phenotypes (designated types I and II) both in migrating and wintering individuals. Although in remarkable different extent, the morphological complexities of both types of astrocytes were reduced after long-distance non-stop flight. Indeed, birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period, showed less complex astrocytic morphology than individuals captured in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, during fall migration. Because the reduction in complexity was much more intense in type I than in type II astrocytes, we suggest that these distinct morphological phenotypes may be associated with different physiological roles during migration. Indeed, as compared to type I, most type II astrocytes did not change significantly their morphology after the long-distance flight and many of them (72.5%) revealed unequivocally connection with blood vessels, whereas type I revealed only 27.5%.

  • CELICE CORDEIRO DE SOUZA
  • EFEITOS DO TRANSPLANTE AUTÓLOGO DE CÉLULAS MONONUCLEARES DA
    MEDULA ÓSSEA APÓS LESÃO INCOMPLETA DA MEDULA ESPINHAL DE
    RATOS ADULTOS

  • Data: 30/03/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent loss of neurological function below the level
    of injury, generating social and psychological physical consequences in patients. The
    pathophysiology of SCI involves complex processes, such as hemorrhage,
    excitotoxicity and inflammation, mainly generated by microglial cells. Despite
    advanced knowledge of pathological mechanisms, effective and approved therapeutic
    strategies for the treatment of lesions and their consequences are still lacking without
    serious adverse effects. Cell therapy may represent a good therapeutic strategy
    because it demonstrates good results in the modulation of the inflammatory
    environment of the lesion and by probable mechanisms of differentiation. In the present
    study, we investigated the action of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in
    incomplete lesions (hemisection to the right of the spinal cord, T8-T9 segment) after
    42 days of injury (chronic lesion). The cells were from the injured animal itself
    (autologous transplantation) and the transplantation was intramedullary, i.e. the cells
    were inserted near the site of the lesion. In the present study, the functional effects of
    transplantation were investigated through the BBB scale (Basso, Beatie and
    Bresnahan), which allows the motor function of the hind legs of the animals to be
    graded. The anti-inflammatory effects of BMMC were also investigated. Histological
    and immunohistochemical techniques using Cresila Violet staining and anti-ED-1
    (microglial marker / activated macrophages) and anti-GFAP (fibrillar astrocyte marker)
    antibodies were used. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes were performed. For
    quantitative analysis, the number of field activated astrocytes and macrophages /
    microglia were counted using binocular microscope with counting gradient
    (0.0625mm2) in a 40x objective. The counting averages and the standard deviations
    obtained were plotted in Cartesian coordinates. The counting was as follows: on the
    right side of the spinal cord (lesion side) and three fields per medullary region (ventral
    funiculus - FV, dorsal funiculus - FD, lateral funiculus - FL, dorsal horn - CD, ventral
    horn - CV and intermediate gray matter-SCI), totaling 18 counting fields per section.
    Treatment with BMMC was not effective in improving the motor function of the injured
    animals when we compared the treated and untreated animals (means and standard
    deviations of the groups: false operated, n = 4, 21 ± 0, control, n = 4, 13,57 ± 3.88,
    treated, n = 5, 15.07 ± 3.46). In the qualitative analysis by means of the staining of
    Cresila Violet, treated animals presented better tissue preservation when compared to
    the untreated animals. In the quantitative analysis of microglial activation, we observed
    that treatment with BMMC reduced the activation of these inflammatory cells (control:
    19.52 ± 7.79, treated: 10.04 ± 2.37), but did not significantly reduce the activation of
    the astrocytes (Mean of the groups: control 17.74 ± 2.757, treated 14.46 ± 5.283). The
    results suggest that further studies are needed to come up with an effective strategy
    for patients with SCI. A possible combined treatment with other strategies may turn out
    to be promising for patients' functionality.

  • ALDANETE SANTOS ROSARIO
  • AÇÃO DA HIDROXICLOROQUINA SOBRE NEURÔNIOS DA RETINA DE EMBRIÃO DE GALINHA

  • Data: 22/03/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently used in the treatment of malaria and autoimmune diseases and others therapeutic purposes. However, this drug is known to cause side effects, including producing visual disturbances, which may be irreversible. The mechanisms that produce these visual disorders are not completely known. HCQ - related retinal toxicity may be due to high metabolic rate, being very susceptible to the action of xenobiotics and oxidative damages. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the effects of the HCQ on retinal cells, as well as their possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity. The model used in this work was of cultures of retina cells from chicken embryo. To evaluate cell viability, mitochondrial activity was measured by MTT. The lysosomal function was evaluated by the incorporation rate of the neutral red dye. The levels of reactive species of general oxygen and superoxide anion were evaluated by the CellROX probe and by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) and total glutathione levels were quantified using the Ellman reagent. Viability was tested in mixed cultures (glia and neurons) or enriched cultures of neurons and glia after treatment with HCQ and compared with chloroquine (CQ). Cells were exposed to concentrations of 25μM, 50μM and 75μM for 24 hours. The results show that mixed cultures treated with CQ presented a reduction in viability of 36 and 61% at concentrations of 50μM and 75μM, respectively, whereas HCQ did not alter viability at any of the concentrations tested. However, when cultures enriched with glial cells were exposed to HCQ for 24 hours, the concentration of 75μM had a small reduction in cell viability, while that the reduction in neuronal cells was of 20, 33 and 56% at the concentrations of 25μM, 50μM and 75μM, respectively. Even a shorter treatment time (6 hours) there was loss of viability in retinal neurons. The incorporation of neutral red supravital dye was also altered in neuronal cultures treated with HCQ for 24 hours, with reduction of 19 and 32%, compared to the control for the concentrations of 50μM and 75μM, respectively. HCQ significantly reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species produced by the neuronal cells, mainly superoxide anion, 43, 52 and 61% for the concentrations of 25μM, 50μM and 75μM of HCQ in 24 hours of treatment, respectively. In concentrations of 50μM and 75μM of HCQ for 24 for hours, the levels of total glutathione in neuronal cells presented a reduction of 37 and 53%, respectively. When the glial cell conditioned medium was used in neuronal cells for 6 hours after treatment with HCQ, it completely reversed the drug-induced cytotoxicity. When total glutathione levels were measured in culture of glia treated with HCQ for 24 hours no changes were observed. These results suggest cytotoxic action of CQ in mixed culture of chicken embryo retina cells which is not observed in HCQ treatment. However, HCQ showed cytotoxic action when cells are cultured separately, mainly on neurons, which is reversed by some factor released by glial cells in the extracellular environment, and glutathione is a possible candidate to exert this neuroprotective function.

  • NAYARA CRISTINA LIMA DE OLIVEIRA
  • AVALIAÇÃO SERIADA DO PERFIL HEMATOLÓGICO E BIOQUÍMICO DE PRIMATAS NÃO HUMANOS DA ESPÉCIE Sapajus apella TRATADOS COM LDE-OLEATO DE PACLITAXEL COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA A TERAPÊUTICA DO CÂNCER

  • Data: 24/02/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Study of a chemotherapy delivery system, called LDE, with lipid composition similar to the natural low density lipoproteins of the body, denominated by the acronym LDL. LDEs have advantages over commercial chemical forms, since it is able to concentrate in the neoplastic tissues after injection into the circulatory chain, thus being able to target the tumors. LDE can be used as a "carrier" of paclitaxel (PTX) for possible reduction of toxicity and increase of its therapeutic action. The use of non-human primates as in vivo experimental models are of great importance in human health applications due to their anatomical, biochemical and phylogenetic similarities with human primates, generating results that can be interpreted more closely and safely to The phenomena in humans. The aim of the project was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of nanoparticles associated with to chemotherapy Paclitaxel (LDE-PTX) in individuals of the Sapajus apella species, based on the determination of hematological and biochemical parameters and their possible alterations. During the research 15 animals were used, divided into groups: Negative control (CN); Experimental (EXP1 and EXP2) where the animals received LDE-PTX intravenously two different doses of 175 mg / m2 and 250 mg / m2 respectively; and positive control (CP1 and CP2) where the animals intravenously received the drug in commercial form at the same doses used in the experimental group, respectively. Primates were accompanied for 6 cycles of chemotherapy, with interval of 3 weeks. Hematological and biochemical analysis was performed at each cycle through erythrogram and leukogram, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin and globulin, total bilirubin and fractions, glycemia, amylase and serum lipase. E of the sodium and potassium eletrolytes were carried out in the serum of the animals during the collection days. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and submitted to analysis of variance ANOVA, with Bonferroni post-test with significance for p <0.05, through BioEstat®5.3. The obtained results demonstrated advantages of the use of LDE-PTX, since the hematological tests demonstrate that there was a lower toxicity in all the chemotherapeutic cycles and the non-alteration of the majority of the biochemical parameters, demonstrate that the toxicity of the tested drug associated to LDE present smaller Effect toxic than its commercial version. It was concluded from the analysis of the results that hematological and biochemical toxicity was lower in treatment with PTX associated with LDE than treatment of PTX in its commercial form.

  • FRANCISCO CANINDE FERREIRA DE LUNA
  • PERFIL DE EXPRESSÃO E DE METILAÇÃO DE GENES DOS COMPLEXOS POLYCOMB 1 E 2 EM TUMORES MAMÁRIOS CANINOS

  • Data: 17/02/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The Polycomb complex (PcG) consists of multiprotein factors that mediate the repression of various genes in the body. PcG proteins are divided into two distinct complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, with PRC1 having E3 ligase activity, catalyzing the mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine residues at position 119 (H2AK119ub), while PRC2 has methyltransferase activity, mediating mono, di, and trimethylation on histone H3 at lysine residues at position 27 (H3K27me2 / 3). It is known that PRC1 is subdivided into non-canonical and canonical complexes, the latter being composed of CBX proteins (CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 or CBX8). Already PRC2, it comprises three central proteins: SUZ12, EED and EZH1 or EZH2, which is the methyltransferase protein responsible for conferring the main enzymatic activity to the PRC2 complex. It is known that deregulation of PcG proteins may alter developmental pathways, causing a disordered increase in cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and increase of tumor cells. Among the tumors with altered expression of PcG are mammary tumors. In canines, this type of tumor is the most frequent neoplasm in bitches. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the methylation and expression pattern of the CBX2 and CBX7 (PRC1), and EED, EZH2 and SUZ12 (PRC2) genes in breast tumors in dogs from the state of Pará. Samples of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue from 40 animals collected at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Amazônia. For the analysis of the methylation pattern, the samples were converted by sodium bisulfite and submitted to the Bissulfite sequence PCR technique to detect possible methylated areas. For analysis of RNA expression, cDNA conversion and subsequent quantification of transcripts were performed using Taqman probe detection. Fluorescence emission was captured with the aid of the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System. Statistical analyzes were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitnae test to evaluate the associations of methylation patterns with expression levels, and those with tumor progression and other clinicopathological characteristics. The results were considered significant when p <0, 05.

  • HECTOR ANDRES PAEZ ARDILA
  • EFEITO DO GANHAR OU PERDER NOS NIVEIS DE RAIVA E ANSIEDADE EM
    LUTADORES DE JUDÔ

  • Data: 17/02/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Aggression is a behavior that involves a simultaneous activation of physiological,
    biochemical, neurological and behavioral components and emotions, such as anxiety
    and anger. In humans, sports can be considered as a form of display because they
    allow aggression to be expressed with a low probability of permanent damage to
    subjects. The competitions have been used as models to evaluate the activation
    produced by the different stages of competition, such as the outcome of the combat.
    Judo has been used as a model of competitive aggression to evaluate the different
    body responses in agonistic behaviors in humans, since it offers a context like those
    studied in animal fights. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of win / lose
    in the levels of anger and anxiety in regional judo fighters, male, linked to the Pará
    Federation of Judo, Using the STAXI and IDATE psychometric scales, as well as
    comparing these results with the Brazilian general population and a correlation
    analysis to know the differences between the different components with the number
    of strokes, using a pre/post fight evaluation and the filming of the fights. Differences
    were found between winners and losers, as well as between fighters and the Brazilian
    population; The losers presented higher levels of anger, while the anxiety was greater
    for the winners.

  • ITALO SERGIO LOPES CAMPOS
  • DETERMINANTES DO GANHAR OU PERDER EM HUMANOS: UM ESTUDO COM ATLETAS DE JUDÔ

  • Data: 17/02/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • In the sports environment experiences of success or failure are often experienced by different individuals in the most varied environments. Attempting to explain how an individual deals with victory or defeat in behavioral terms will depend on a number of factors, including athlete's history, status (environment), fitness (ability to perform), and athletic maturity). The general objective of the thesis was to systematize a theoretical model about the determinants of winning and losing in judo. For this purpose, we sought to verify (through documentary analysis) if results of previous fights are decisive for the maintenance of subsequent victories and / or defeats; in sequence the study analyzed judo from a competition situation seeking to describe in real time, possible quantitative and qualitative interactions of the fight. According to the design of this study, it was evidenced that the ability (performance related to fight), allied to athlete's athletic maturity (experience in the modality) were the factors that most potentiated the process of winning or losing. This assertion is based on the results of articles published from the construction of the thesis, that is, sports determine and condition morphofunctional characteristics that are related to the demands of the sports environment; Athletes' previous experiences (victory or defeat) can determine subsequent results even in a short space of time; The training time and the morphofunctional factors are strong determinants for the outcome of the fights. These data corroborate and signal that the trainability seems to be one of the factors that differentiates winners and losers in the results obtained in this study.

  • THAYSSA FERREIRA DOS SANTOS
  • NEUROPROTEÇÃO, DIMINUIÇÃO DO INFILTRADO DE NEUTRÓFILOS E MICROGLIOSE APÓS TRATAMENTO COM ÓLEO-RESINA DE COPAIFERA RETICULATA DUCKE EM UM MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE LESÃO AGUDA DA MEDULA ESPINHAL

  • Data: 25/01/2017
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Most central nervous system (CNS) diseases are incurable and extremely debilitating, acute spinal cord injury (LAME) causes permanent loss of neurological function below the level of the injury, causing severe physical consequences to patients. Trauma, falls and gunshot or joint weapon damage together make up almost 100% of the main mechanisms that cause LAME, as well as contribute to the high costs of the public health system. The pathophysiology of LAME involves complex processes such as vascular changes, excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and neuroinflammation, generated mainly by microglial cells. Despite the knowledge of pathophysiology, there is still no effective treatment for LAME. Thus, there is a mobilization of the scientific community to find a substance capable of promoting neuroprotection and, consequently, to reduce the sequelae of LAME below the level of the lesion. In this context, the Copaíba Resin Oil may represent a good therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of copaiba resin oil after hemisection of the spinal cord of rats. The animals were divided into experimental and control groups. Immunohistochemical techniques using anti-MBS-1 (neutrophil marker), anti-Iba-1 (microglial marker) antibodies, as well as staining with Cresila Violet were used. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes were performed. Copaiba resin oil proved effective in decreasing the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the area of spinal cord injury and promoted better preservation of the tissue area compared to the control group. As in the lowest neutrophil recruitment in treated rats compared to the control group (Treated group: 8.33 ± 0.66 (N = 3); Control group: 12.27 ± 0.28 (N = 3)) . Copaíba resin oil also promoted a reduction in the number of microglia in the area of spinal cord injury at different times (Treated group on day 1: 8.59 ± 1.72 (N = 3), Control Group on day 1: 35, (N = 3), Control Group on the 7th day: 65.77 ± 6.19 (N = 3)). These results suggest the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of copaiba resin oil after LAME, revealing a promising strategy for the patient after LAME.

2016
Descrição
  • MICHELLE NERISSA COELHO DIAS
  • FENÓTIPOS MICROGLIAIS E TRATAMENTO COM MINOCICLINA APÓS
    ISQUEMIA FOCAL INDUZIDA POR MICROINJEÇÕES DE ENDOTELINA-1 NO
    CÓRTEX MOTOR DE RATOS ADULTOS

  • Data: 23/12/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Microglial cells are fundamental components of the innate immune system that
    continually make a complete scan of the neural parenchyma in search of subtle
    tissue changes for the preservation of tissue integrity. These resident macrophages
    of the central nervous system (CNS) correspond to about 20% of the encephalic cell
    population. In acute and chronic neural disorders, including brain and spinal cord
    injury, experimental stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease,
    microglial cells are activated, which is reflected in morphological and biochemical
    changes. In these diseases, it is believed that microglial activation contributes to both
    neuroprotection and exacerbation of the injury process. Several experimental
    evidences suggest that excessive microglial activation may contribute to the increase
    of the injury process after experimental stroke. However, our previous studies
    suggest that microglial cells may release trophic factors after experimental stroke in
    anatomically distinct regions of the microglial population with deleterious phenotypes.
    There are no studies that have described the reactivity patterns of the different
    microglial phenotypes after experimental ischemia. In the present project, we will
    investigate the patterns of activation of microglial cells presenting beneficial and
    harmful phenotypes, evaluating which microglial populations are inhibited by
    tetracycline minocycline after focal cortical ischemia. The animals were submitted to
    focal ischemia in the motor cortex by microinjections of 80 pMol of endothelin-1 (ET-
    1). They were sacrificed 7, 14 and 30 days after ischemic induction. The
    immunohistochemistry technique for the observation of neuronal loss (NeuN +) and
    double immunofluorescence to evaluate the density of M1 and M2 microglial cells in
    the lesioned area was used. Statistical analysis of NeuN+ cell density was performed
    by the Student's t-test from the 7-day of control and treated groups while the analysis
    of the M1 and M2 microglial cells were done by the analysis of variance in the 07, 14
    and 30 control groups, adopting in all tests the level of significance P <0.05. A
    preservation in the number of neurons in the injured parenchyma of the animals
    treated with minocycline was confirmed. A decrease in the number of M1 microglial
    cells in minocycline-treated animals was observed, suggesting that the drug may
    present effects on expression pathways of M1 microglial phenotypes. However, when
    the animals of the control group of 07, 14 and 30 are compared, there is an increase
    in the number of this M1 phenotype that extends from day 7 to day 30. We conclude
    that there is a neuroprotective effect of the drug minocycline when associated to
    stroke, suggesting that this drug may be involved in the modulation of microglial
    phenotypes requiring further studies on its function in the pathways of expression of
    these phenotypes.

  • LUANA DE NAZARE DA SILVA SANTANA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA INJÚRIA NO CÓRTEX MOTOR DE RATOS EM UM MODELO DE EXPOSIÇÃO CRÔNICA AO METILMERCÚRIO (MeHg)

  • Data: 21/12/2016
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  • The mercury is an environmental contaminant which poses a great risk to human health. Exposure to this toxic metal occurs mainly through a diet contaminated by methylmercury (MeHg) in low concentrations and over a long period of time. Thus, in this study we propose an assessment of the effects of MeHg on the motor cortex in an animal model of chronic exposure and low dose, similar to dietary exposure in areas of high environmental toxicity of mercury. Adult rats were exposed to MeHg for 60 days with a dose of 0.04 mg/kg/day, while the control group received only the vehicle. After this period, they were subjected to behavioral testing in order to evaluate the motor performance after mercury exposure, and then sacrificed and evaluated for oxidative biochemical parameters (change in the concentration of nitrite - NO Lipid Peroxidation - LPO and Antioxidant Capacity Total) as well as evaluation of total deposits of mercury in the motor cortex and changes in cell density of neurons and astrocytes. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed by Student's t-test (p <0.05). It was possible to observe total mercury deposits in the motor cortex, and deficits in motor parameters, with a reduction in the overall locomotion, on balance and increase in the number of failure, coupled with a significant increase in the levels of NO and LPO and decreased ability antioxidant full of animals exposed, reducing the population of astrocytes and neurons compared to control animals these findings suggest that exposure of adult animals to MeHg, even at low dose and chronically, causes changes in the motor cortex with damage to their functions.

  • CARLOS ANTONIO DA COSTA JUNIOR
  • AVALIAÇÃO DA INTEGRIDADE GENÔMICA MITOCONDRIAL EM GLIOMAS DE ALTO E BAIXO GRAU NA POPULAÇÃO PARAENSE

  • Data: 14/12/2016
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  • Cancer is characterized by fast abnormal cells proliferation which grow beyond their
    normal limits and may invade adjacent or distant tissue. Cancer CNS represents 2%
    of all cancers in the world, being slightly higher in men than in women. Mitochondria
    are responsible for producing most of the cellular ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
    (OXPHOS), may also act through glycolysis for same purpose, not requiring only
    oxygen. This option is a particular cancer cell property, also known as the Warburg
    effect. One hypothesis to explain this metabolic change may be related to
    mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects caused by OXPHOS where these mutations can
    lead cancer cells to glycolysis. Eight mtDNA regions (D-LOOP, ND1, ND3, CO I, CO II
    CO III, ATPase 6 and ATPase 8) were analyzed in patients’ neoplastic tissues with
    glial cell cancer in Pará population, relating the data with the pathological and clinical
    characteristics of the patients. Among the changes found, the complex I seem to be
    decisive for the progression of high-grade tumors, as well as changes indel seem
    compromising important structures for OXPHOS. Deletions 4977 bp, when combined
    with other changes in ND1 / ND3 or heteroplasmias suggest poor prognosis, however,
    seem to have a reduced risk when changes in ND1 and ND3 are simultaneous

  • FRANCISCO BRUNO TEIXEIRA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS ALTERAÇÕES NO CÓRTEX MOTOR DE RATOS
    ADULTOS SUBMETIDOS À EXPOSIÇÃO CRÔNICA COM MERCÚRIO
    INORGÂNICO

  • Data: 12/12/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal, which can be found in organic and
    inorganic elemental forms in the environment. The inorganic mercury has lower
    liposolubility and consequently, lower absorption in the body, and lower
    passage through the blood brain barrier. For this reason, exposure models
    using inorganic mercury in rats to evaluate its effects in the central nervous
    system are rare, mainly in adults. Therefore, we investigate the potential of low
    concentration of mercury chloride (HgCl2), in a chronic exposure model to
    promote motor changes associated to variables in the oxidative balance,
    cellular cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the motor cortex of adult rats. For this
    purpose, rats were exposed for 45 days to a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day. After this
    period, the animals were submitted to motor evaluation and then were collected
    for measurement of total deposited mercury in neural parenquima, assessment
    and quantification of cellular cytotoxicity and apoptosis and evaluation of the
    oxidative balance. Furthermore, animals were perfused to evaluate the density
    of mature neurons and astrocytes of the motor cortex. It was observed that
    chronic exposure to inorganic mercury decreased balance and fine motor
    coordination. In addition, we found that this exposition model led to cytotoxicity
    and cell death by apoptosis, formation of deposits of mercury and oxidative
    stress evidenced by the increase of lipoperoxidation and the concentration of
    nitrites and decrease in total antioxidant capacity. Thus, our results provide
    evidence that a exposition to inorganic mercury, even before his lower capacity
    to cross the biology barriers, It is still capable to inducing motor changes
    associated to cell death and apoptosis and oxidative stress in the motor cortex
    of the adult rats.

  • BRUNA PUTY SILVA GOMES
  • MeHg, HgCl2, Genotoxicidade, Alteração gênica, Glia, Sistema nervoso central

  • Data: 02/12/2016
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  • The organic and inorganic forms of mercury have been pointed as important contaminants in several world regions due to its toxicological characteristics. Various studies have reported that the intoxication by methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) can lead to central nervous system impairment. It is generally agreed that glial cells are important for the mechanisms responsible for cellular protection against the damages caused by the mercury. However, little is known about the influence of the mercury in the cells genome. Hence, in the present study we did a complete mapping of the humam glial cells genetic network after mercury exposition with the aim to indentify the possible genetic alterations that occurred via the organic and inorganic forms of mercury. Our results demonstrated that U87 lineage cells are more sensitive to MeHg exposition when compared with HgCl2 exposition. Using an analysis of the concentration curves the LC50 was obtained from 28.8μM and 10,68μM after 4h and 24h exposition to MeHg and a LC50 of 92.25μM and 62.75μM after the same time periods exposition to HgCl2. Regarding the genic pool, our results have shown that both metal forms led to alterations in the genic dosage where the MeHg exposition was highly influenced by the concentration and time, whereas the HgCl2 exposition seemed have been strongly influenced by the exposition time. In total there were 205 indentified genes with a lower genic dosage and 188 genes with elevated expression, (Fold change > 5) after 4h exposition and 5μM of MeHg, and 204 down-regulated genes; and 180 up-regulated genes after HgCl2 exposition in the same concentration. The analysis after 24h exposition showed 90 down-regulated genes and 3 up-regulated genes after 1μM of MeHg; 116 genes were down-regulated and 66 genes were up-regulated after a 10μM exposition of MeHg. As for the HgCl2, there were 98 down-regulated genes and 73 up-regulated genes for the groups exposed to 5μM of HgCl2; 326 down-regulated genes and 66 up-regulated genes for the groups exposed to 62,75μM of HgCl2. Our dataset suggests that both mercurial forms are able to alter the cell genetic expression profile thus interfering in important signaling paths prone to gives rise to biochemical impairments and glial cells phenotypes.

  • VERONICA GABRIELA RIBEIRO DA SILVA
  • GANHO DE CONTRASTE DO POTENCIAL CORTICAL PROVOCADO VISUAL MULTIFOCAL: EFEITOS DA EXCENTRICIDADE E DO MODO DE ESTIMULAÇÃO

  • Data: 29/11/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • This study evaluated effects of eccentricity and mode presentation on the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEPS) recordings extracted by second-order kernels and its possible contributions from parallel visual pathways. Nine subjects (22.5 ± 3.7 years-old) were studied. All the subjects had 20/20 or corrected visual acuity and no previous history of neuro-ophtahlmic diseases or degenerative diseases. The subjects were tested with non dilated pupil in a monocular way. All the experimental procedures agreed to the tenets of Helsinki and were approved by Committee for Ethic in Research of Nucleus of Tropical Medicine (023/2011 protocol, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil). A CRT monitor displayed a 22º radius, 60 sectors dartboard, each sector with 16 checks (8 white and 8 black), pattern mean luminance of 40 cd/m2. The pattern selection to be shown in each sector was temporally modulated according to a binary pseudorandom m-sequence. Two stimulation protocols were used and we called them as pattern reversal and pattern pulse. Stimulus was presented at five Michelson contrast levels (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%) in two trials with increasing and decreasing contrast order. The subject was instructed to keep the eye in a red cross (1º) placed at the center of the screen. Veris 6.01 was used to configure the stimuli. mfVEPs were recorded with gold cup electrodes: the reference electrode was placed at the inion; the recording electrodes were placed at, 4 cm above the inion (channel 1), 1 cm above and 4 cm to the right of the inion (channel 2), 1 cm above and 4 cm to the left of the inion (channel 3). Ground surface electrode was placed at the forehead. Skin impedance was kept below 5 KOhm. Recordings were amplified 100.000x, band-pass filtered between 3 and 100 Hz. The Veris 6.1 performed an offline low-pass filtering at 35 Hz. Veris 6.1 was used to extract first (K2.1) and second (K2.2) slices from second-order kernels data from original channels. Using MATLAB routines three additional channels were computed from the subtraction of the three original channels. For each subject, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) evaluation was performed over the averaged data of two trials in each one of the 6 channels. We measured the RMS amplitude of signal and noise interval of each recording. Finally, we analyzed the waveforms with best SNR for each sector. Mean RMS amplitude for each of six eccentric rings (R1 and R6 are the inner and outer rings, respectively) and for all rings together as a function of stimulus contrast was modeled using Michaelis-Menten functions. Semi-saturation constant (C50) of the contrast-response function was used as indicator of response contrast gain. For pattern reversal protocol contrast-response functions from K2.1/K2.2 had the following C50 values: R1: 35,5% ± 9,3; R2: 26,5% ± 6,5; R3: 22,4% ± 8,8; R4: 18,4% ± 4,4; R5: 20,6% ± 9,3; R6: 26,7% ± 12 / R1: 38,4% ± 4,2; R2: 27,4% ± 7,4; R3: 20,2% ± 4,9; R4: 22,4% ± 4,2; R5: 18,7% ± 3,2; R6: 23,1% ± 8,9. For pattern pulse protocol contrast-response functions from K2.1/K2.2 had the following C50 values: R1: 0; R2: 44,7% ± 10,5; R3: 38,3% ± 12,1; R4: 45,8% ± 12,1; R5: 49,4% ± 16,1; R6: 47,8% ± 14,7 / R1: 0; R2: 50,2% ± 10,3; R3: 48,2% ± 11,1; R4: 28,5% ± 4,2; R5: 54,3% ± 16,2; R6: 0. Two contrast sensitivity mechanisms contribute to mfVEPs elicited by stimuli located in the central visual field, one mechanism with higher contrast gain (pattern reversal mfVEP) and other mechanism with low contrast gain (pattern pulse). For stimulus at the periphery visual field, mechanism with high contrast gain contributed to the generation of mfVEPs elicited by all stimulation modes.

  • AILIN CASTELO BRANCO
  • EFEITO DO METILMERCÚRIO EM GIRINOS E RECÉM-METAMORFOSEADOS DE Physalaemus ephippifer (STEINDACHNER, 1864) (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE)

  • Data: 23/11/2016
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  • The metal contamination in amphibians has been taken into account as one of the factors contributing to the population decline of these animals. The mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant showing high levels of toxicity. Its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), may bioaccumulative reaching high levels in the trophic chain. For amphibian populations, bioaccumulation of metals is important once that such animals may be MeHg diffusers from the aquatic environment to the terrestrial environment because of their double life cycle. MeHg concentrations in high doses can cause obvious lethargic effects and larvae mortality of amphibious, however little is known about subchronic effects of MeHg doses. Therefore, the present research aims to explore the effects of subchronic exposure to MeHg in one experimental model, the species Physalaemus ephippifer, describing, identifying and characterizing the possible changes in physical performance of larvae and newly metamorphosed, in addition to teratogenic and morphological changes in the sensory and nervous system. After the toxicological test, with MeHg concentrations of 0.007 μg/ml, 0.004 μg/ml 0.0007 μg/ml and 0.0004 μg / ml and negative control, the animals were assessed by behavioral analysis simulating breakout predatory, morphometric and analysis in light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our results revealed that MeHg concentrations did not induce locomotor weaknesses in tadpoles and nor apparent anatomical morphological damage, however, it induces the appearance of a massive cell count of pyknotic nuclei in the areas of the cerebellum and optic tectum. Such alteration, which remains in the animal even after metamorphosis, induces a locomotor weakness in concentration of 0,007μg/ml which is also the concentration where one increased teratogenic damage effect (corneal malformation) is observed. Therefore, we conclude that MeHg is a neurotoxic and teratogenic agent for P. ephippifer and that such features lead to one decrease in locomotor performance. The present work may contribute to the knowledge on effect of MeHg in amphibian populations that live in environments where this contaminant is present as member of the ecosystem

  • LORENA MONTEIRO GOMES
  • AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DOS EFEITOS GENOTÓXICOS E CITOTÓXICOS DO FÁRMACO DIPIRONA SÓDICA (METAMIZOL SODIUM) EM LINHAGEM DE RIM DE MACACO VERDE AFRICANO (VERO)

  • Data: 27/10/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The dipyrone or metamizole belongs to the family of the pyrazolones. It is one of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIs) most used, Brazil included, mainly due to its low financial cost. However, in some countries the sale of dipyrone is prohibited due to reported severe cases of agranulocytosis as a result of its use. Despite its high usage, studies showing genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of dipyrone in mammalian cells are scarce. Therefore, in the present study we will assess cell viability, genotoxic effects, cytotoxic effects (by apoptosis and necrosis induction) and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VERO cells (a cell line obtained from red kidney of green monkey) exposed to dipyrone. Our results showed a significant reduction in viability of cells exposed to dipyrone by the MTT assay. A significant increase in damage index evaluated by comet assay was also observed, which indicate its genotoxic effects. In which concerns the cytotoxic effects of dipyrone, we observed a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells using fluorescent dyes after 24h and 48 h of treatment with the drug. Ours results also showed that there was no significant difference in the induction of ROS generation after treatment of the cells with the drug assessed by the DCFH-DA technique. Thus, our work showed that dipyrone is both a genotoxic and cytotoxic drug to VERO cells in the assessed conditions.

  • LUANNA DE MELO PEREIRA FERNANDES
  • Caracterização dos efeitos comportamentais, teciduais e bioquímicos da administração intermitente e episódica de EtOH em ratas da adolescência à fase adulta

  • Data: 18/10/2016
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  • The consumption of ethanol (EtOH) is enhanced particularly in adolescent female pubic. The EtOH intake and intermittent episodic own consumption rate around 3 times per week. The toxic effects of this kind of consumption is especially dangerous over the continuous consumption of EtOH followed due to the high dietary intakes of abstinence, causing major changes in the central nervous system (CNS) maturing in a short time consumption. Considering the epidemiological relevance and the harmful effects of EtOH on the oxidative balance, hormone production and neurotrophin CNS maturing, the aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural, tissue and biochemical responses derived from intermittent and episodic consumption of EtOH in rats in phase from adolescence to adulthood. Wistar female adolescents (n = 80) received by gavage, distilled water or EtOH (3 g/kg/day) for 3 consecutive days per week. The animals were assessed seven and a half hours after the last administration day 1, 4 and 8 weeks of episodes of binge drinking (37, 58 and 86 DPN, respectively), besides, a period of 14 days of abstinence was added after BD 8 (100 DPN) to evaluate the ability to reverse the CNS damage generated on it. The battery of behavioural tests consisted of spontaneous locomotor activity, object recognition, elevated plus maze, test pole, walking beam and rotarod. The animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for evaluation of corticosterone levels of malondialdehyde, catalase activity, the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione content. Therefore, the hippocampus was dissected to quantify the immunocontent BDNF. The administration of EtOH reached average peak blood concentration of 197.4 mg / dL and the period of 7.5 hours after the last administration EtOH in acute binge blood concentration was 0.7 mg / dL. Thus, the animals underwent behavioural tests post-consumer EtOH, not under the drug effect. Consumption of EtOH in binge did not affect weight gain of adolescent animals into adulthood, however, reduced the exploratory locomotor activity, impaired motor coordination, balance and motor learning associated with bradykinesia, as well as loss in the mnemonic process and increased anxiety-like behaviour. These losses were accompanied by hormonal elevation of corticosterone, reduced hippocampal BDNF levels and systemic imbalance in the oxidative balance. Thus, it was possible to identify that the damage found on the similar behaviour to anxiety, short-term memory, bradykinesia and spontaneous locomotor activity appeared from EtOH post-consumption for three consecutive days, however, they showed no recovery or worsening of damage after repeated episodes. In contrast, there was recovery of short-term memory in object recognition task associated with the return of normal levels of BDNF in adulthood. Moreover, it showed worsening in motor learning in young adult phase followed by gradual and partial recovery after prolonged period of drug withdrawal, yet the loss of motor coordination and balance remained in adulthood

  • ROSANA TELMA SANTOS LOPES
  • MODULAÇÃO DA NEUROINFLAMAÇÃO CELULAR E NEUROPROTEÇÃO
    INDUZIDAS POR TRATAMENTO COM BETACARIOFILENO EM UM MODELO
    EXPERIMENTAL DE ISQUEMIA ESTRIATAL EM RATOS ADULTOS

  • Data: 11/10/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Stroke results from the transitory or permanent reduction of cerebral blood flow. It can be
    classified as hemorrhagic or ischemic. Ischemic stroke is responsible for around 87% of all
    cases. This acute neural disorder is the second cause of mortality and disability around the
    world and the main cause of death in Brazil. Since ischemic stroke in patients usually
    results from a thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA),
    experimental models of ischemia have been developed to mimic human stroke. There are
    no neuroprotective drugs available for human stroke. It follows that research on
    development of alternative neuroprotective drugs are of important clinical relevance. In
    this study, we investigated the effects of betacaryophyllene, the main sesquiterpene present
    in about 40% of the copaiba oil-resin composition, on microglial activation, astrocytic
    reactivity and neuronal preservation following experimental MCAO in adult rats. Animals
    were submitted to experimental stroke by microinjections of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and
    treated (i.p) with betacaryophillene (N=4) or vehicle control (N=4) and perfused at 3 days
    or 7 days post-MCAO. Gross histopathology was performed using cresyl violet staining.
    Immunohistochemistry was used to assess neuronal loss (anti-NeuN), microglial activation
    (anti-ED1) and astrocytosis (anti-GFAP). Numbers of NeuN+ and GFAP+ cells were
    quantified in the ischemic striatum. Betacaryophyllene treatment reduced microglial
    activation, increased neuronal preservation and decreased astrocytic reactivity at 7 days
    post-MCAO. These results suggest that betacaryophylene modulates neuroinflammation
    and is neuroprotective following experimental striatal. Considering that betacaryophyllene
    is a natural dietetic extract already used in non-neural human diseases with antiinflammatory,
    anti-microbial and anti-carcinogenic properties, its use as a neuroprotective
    agent is a promising future therapy for human stroke.

  • RAILSON CRUZ SALOMÃO
  • POTENCIAL CORTICAL PROVOCADO VISUAL GERADO POR ESTÍMULOS PSEUDOISOCROMÁTICOS

  • Data: 11/10/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Visual evoked cortical potentials (VECP) are useful the investigation of color vision mechanisms and color vision dysfunctions. Chromatic sinusoidal gratings are generally used to elicit VECP, but they require long psychophysical measurements to match the perceptual brightness between their stripes. An alternative is to replace them by pseudoisochromatic stimuli which make use of luminance noise to mask brightness clues and force the target perception to be dependent of chromatic contrast. In this work, we compared VECPs generated by sinusoidal and pseudoisochromatic gratings. This research was approved by the Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal do Pará, Protocol #570434. Seven normal trichromats were tested with chromatic sinusoidal gratings and illusory gratings provided by the pseudoisochromatic design of 0.33, 0.66, 1, 1.33, 1.66, and 2 cpd, presented in pattern reversal (1 Hz) and pattern onset (300 ms) – offset (700 ms) modes. The signals were recorded using surface electrodes, amplified x30,000, digitized at 1 kHz, and filtered between 0.1-100 Hz. Pattern reversal VECPs elicited by pseudoisochromatic gratings had similar amplitude and latency compared to those elicited by sinusoidal gratings. Onset-offset VECPs elicited by sinusoidal gratings had larger amplitude and shorter latency than those obtained with pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Different visual mechanisms are responsible for the cortical responses evoked by illusory stimuli when presented in different stimulation modes.

  • AMANDA PAMELA DOS SANTOS QUEIROZ
  • AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE ANTINOCICEPTIVA E ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIA DA PELLUCIDINA A E ELUCIDAÇÃO DO MECANISMO DE AÇÃO EM MODELOS IN VIVO.

  • Data: 07/10/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The Peperomia pellucida (Piperaceae) is an herbaceous plant commonly found in the American and Asian continents. In the Amazon the species is known by the name of erva-de-jabuti. This plant is used in folk medicine to treat a wide range of symptoms and diseases such as conjunctivitis, headache, asthma, gastric ulcer, inflammation and arthritis. Pellucidin A is an isolated compound of the species Peperomia pellucida and this study aimed to analyze the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of this compound, as well as to elucidate its mechanism of action. For the assays, male albino mice (25-40 g) were used, which were initially treated with pellucidin A at the doses of 0.5; 1 and 5 mg / kg (i.p.) and subjected to locomotor evaluation by the open field test and animal models of acute pain, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing tests, formalin tests and the hot plate test. The acetic acid-induced abdominal contortion test was realized to elucidate the mechanism of action in which the animals were treated at the standard dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p.) and for anti-inflammatory analysis of the compound was used model of granuloma induced by pellets of cotton, in which the animals were treated in the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). The compound did not show capacity to change the ambulation of the animals at any of the administered doses. In the contortion test, pellucidin A was able to inhibit the number of abdominal writhings in 43% at the dose of 1 mg/kg, and 65% at the dose of 5 mg/kg. In the formalin test, an antinociceptive effect was observed at the dose of 5 mg/kg, with a 68% reduction in the lymph time of the animal's paw in the inflammatory phase, showing a similar response to Indomethacin used at a dose of 10 mg/kg as positive control for this phase. Animals treated with pellucidin A and subjected to the hot plate assay did not show any change in their latency time on the plate, showing a similar response to the animals treated just with the vehicle solution. For the elucidation of the action mechanism, the pellucidin A was administered at the standard dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p.) and associated with Indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), NS-398 (10 mg/kg i.p.) cyproeptadine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.), naloxone (1 mg/kg i.p.) and L-NAME (5 mg/kg i.p.). The pellucidin A has shown a synergistic action when associated with cyproeptadine and L-NAME, with a decrease in the pattern of abdominal writhing by 97% when associated with cyproheptadine and 96% with L-NAME. In the analysis of the action of pellucidin A (10 mg/kg i.p.) in the granuloma test induced by cotton pellets, pellucidin A presented anti-inflammatory activity, reduced granuloma formation in 24% in the treated mice. The results confirm the hypothesis that pellucin A presents analgesic activity capable of interfering in the inflammatory process, acting as a possible glucocorticoid agonist.

  • ANGELICA RITA GOBBO
  • Serological biomarker assessment in a study of active new cases finding for leprosy in a hiperendemic area

  • Data: 07/10/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Leprosy is a cronic infection diasease clinically characterized by changes in tactile, thermal and painful sensitivity in skin and peripheral nerves. Due to the absence of laboratory diagnosis of leprosy, new tools that contribute for identification of cases are necessary for enable patient treatment before progression to physical disabilities. In this sense, the present study aimed evaluate serological biomarkers contribution for early diagnosis of leprosy. Was perfomed an active case finding study in Mosqueiro district, Belém – Pará. All individuals were clinically examined by experient leprologists doctors and than 5mL of peripheral blood were colleted for future titration of anti-ND-O-BSA, anti-LID-1 e anti-NDO-LID by ELISA. The action of active finding in Mosqueiro district diagnosed 104 new cases of leprosy between 895 subjects examined (11.6%), indicating a high hidden endemy that agree with the high seroprevalence between schoolchildren. Were observed a significant difference among patients with late or early diagnoses, mainly in multibacillary forms. All biomarkers tested showed promising results in detection of late cases, such as related in literature, however, for early cases those molecules identified correctly only 50% of patients. None of biomarker tested presented sufficient sensitivity to detect all leprosy patients, early or lately diagnosed. Besides, LID-1 molecule had evidenced a lower sensitivity for early cases, their high especificity and accuracy suggest their use as a potential tool for serological screening to identify assintomatic subjects with high risk of illness. Thus, we concludes that besides no biomarker had reveled utility as a serological diagnostic tool, the detection of anti-LID-1 presented a possible aplicability as a screening marker of subjects with increased risk to develop leprosy, contributing indirectly for leprosy diagnosis.

  • NUBIA FERNANDA SANTOS DA SILVA CAMPOS
  • DISLIPIDEMIAS E SÍNDROME METABÓLICA EM POPULAÇÕES EXPOSTAS AO MERCÚRIO: ESTUDO OBSERVACIONAL DE COORTE NAS REGIÕES DO RIO TAPAJÓS E TUCURUÍ.

  • Data: 30/09/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as the leading cause of death in Brazil and in the world, representing a third of the deaths and the main spending on health care. Between 2000-2010, the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease in one hundred thousand inhabitants increased by 28% in the North, with dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome among the main risk factors. These values become more worrying as it may be underestimated because of consequential underreported the geographical isolation of the region, which is characteristic of northern Brazil. Dyslipidemias correspond to changes in the plasma lipid profile, and represents a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome can be defined as a set of metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity. Recently, animal studies and clinical models have shown increased risk of atherosclerotic disease and hypertension with exposure to mercury. In the Tapajós River region, several studies have shown human exposure in riverine populations that consume fish contaminated with methylmercury. Also, recent data from our group show that the riverine communities of Tucuruí have high levels of mercury. The aim of this observational cohort study was to analyze the possible lipid abnormalities and the presence of metabolic syndrome in riverside communities in the Amazon region: Boa Vista do Tapajós, Barreiras, Pimental, Brasilia Legal, Fordlândia and Pedra Branca (Tapajós), Vila Cametá and community Ouro Verde (Tucuruí) with mercury exposure history. For this, the calculations were carried out in body mass index (by weight and height), blood pressure measurements, analysis of glycemic control (fasting blood glucose) and lipid, by plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and the calculations LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol did not the lipid. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 337 adults of both sexes (220 of the Tapajos and 117 Tucuruí) were analyzed. High average levels of obesity and high frequency of individuals who had dyslipidemia were detected, especially in Tucuruí, where the frequencies were even higher than in the Tapajos. Also, high percentages of individuals were identified with metabolic syndrome (14% to 35% depending on the definition adopted). The criteria adopted by the NCEP have proved the most sensitive for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MS) in these populations. The main factor that contributes to the detection of the presence of MS was the low HDL level, present in 32% of individuals with MS. In Tapajós, the second and third most common factors were the high levels of triglycerides and glucose, however in Tucuruí was altered blood pressure and high triglycerides levels. In conclusion, our study provides, epidemiological data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia, overweight and obesity, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome in adults bordering the Amazon. Adding to this, the epidemiological assessment of the lipid profile is an important tool for the promotion of health measures to prevent and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  • BARBARA BEGOT OLIVEIRA RISUENHO
  • POTENCIAL CORTICAL PROVOCADO VISUAL PSEUDOALEATÓRIO GERADO POR ESTÍMULOS COMPOSTOS: EFEITO DO MODO DE APRESENTAÇÃO E DO TEMPO DE ADAPTAÇÃO DA RESPOSTA

  • Data: 28/09/2016
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Conventional pattern-reversal visual evoked cortical potential (VECP) shows positivity for luminance and chromatic equiluminant stimuli while conventional pattern-onset VECP shows positivity for luminance pattern-onset and negativity for chromatic pattern-onset. We evaluated how the presentation mode affects VECPs elicited by luminance and compound (luminance plus chromatic) pseudo-random stimulation. Eleven normal trichromats and 17 red-green color-blinds were studied. Pattern-reversal and pattern-onset luminance and compound (luminance plus red-green) gratings were temporally modulated by m-sequence. We used a cross-correlation routine to extract the first order kernel (K1) and the first and second slices of the second order kernel (K2.1 and K2.2, respectively) from the VECP response. We integrated the amplitude of VECP components as a function of time in order to estimate its magnitude for each stimulus condition. We also used a normalized cross-correlation method in order to test the similarity of the VECP components. In order to assess how the interection time afects the VECP’s amplitude we calculate de root mean square (RMS) amplitude into differents time windows and correlated it with the response time interval relative to the sencond order kernel slice avaliated. The VECP components varied with the presentation mode and the presence of red-green contrast in the stimuli. In trichromats, for compound conditions, pattern-onset K1, K2.1, and K2.2, and pattern-reversal K2.1 and K2.2 had negative-dominated waveforms at 100 ms. Small negativity or small positivity were observed in dichromats. Trichromats had larger VECP magnitude than color-blinds for compound pattern-onset K1 (with large variability across subjects), compound pattern-onset and pattern-reversal K2.1, and compound pattern-reversal K2.2. Trichromats and color-blinds had similar VECP amplitude for compound pattern-reversal K1 and compound pattern-onset K2.2, as well as for all luminance conditions. The cross-correlation analysis showed high similarity between waveforms of compound pattern-onset K2.1 and pattern-reversal K2.2 as well as pattern-reversal K2.1 and K2.2. The amplitude of VECP was smaller as higher was the response time interval. We suggest that compound pattern-reversal K2.1 is an appropriate response to study red-green color-opponent activity.

  • JOSE ROGERIO SOUZA MONTEIRO
  • Novas ferramentas terapêuticas contra a convulsão e o comportamento tipo
    depressivo: ensaios pré-clínicos com açaí clarificado

  • Data: 28/09/2016
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  • Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Is a typical northern palm of Brazil, rich in phenolics and
    anthocyanins, substances with high antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory and proven
    beneficial health effects. Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the generation and
    propagation of seizures, main clinical feature of epilepsy, and in the pathogenesis of
    depression. In this work we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect, anticonvulsant
    and antidepressant commercial samples of clarified açaí (CA). Only four doses of CA were
    enough to increase latencies for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures and to reduce the total
    duration of tonic-clonic seizures induced Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Eletrocorticográfics
    changes induced by PTZ were prevented significantly by CA. In the depressive-like behavior
    model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CA decreased immobility time and increased
    significantly the sucrose consumption of animals, indicating that the CA has preventive
    activity on the appearance of behaviors which are characteristic of clinical depression. Both
    the PTZ model as LPS CA exhibited potent preventive activity against the oxidative stress.
    CA prevented lipid peroxidation and elevated nitrite levels in the cerebral cortex,
    hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate for the first time that
    acai is a fruit that exerts potent protective activity against the development of seizures, the
    depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress, which is an additional protection for individuals
    who consume this fruit.

  • GISELE PRISCILA SOARES DE AGUIAR
  • AUMENTO DA ATIVAÇÃO NEURONAL E DE MARCAÇÃO DE BDNF APÓS DEGRADAÇÃO DAS REDES PERINEURONAIS EM MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE PRIVAÇÃO SENSORIAL

  • Data: 23/09/2016
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  • The central nervous system (CNS) has the ability to processing and store information collected from the environment, and modifies and adapt under environmental stimuli diversity. However, It has low regeneration capacity after injury or neurodegenerative disease. Several works are demonstrating cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in CNS plasticity, such as chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs-SC) important components of the extracellular matrix from nervous tissue, responsible for synaptic stabilization, toconcentrateof growth factors and ions around neurons. Removing CSPG of the nervous tissue, we can (re)opens a potential plasticity window in the CNS. The goal of our work is to evaluate the influence of removal of GAGs-SC on neuronal activity, via cFos immunolabeling, and BDNF proteins levels at the barrel cortex, under an experimental model of sensory deprivation (vibrissectomy) during critical period of plasticity. To do that, we used 18 rats (Rattus novergicus), Wistar lineage, submitted to the removal of all whiskers from their right snout (vibrissectomy) since first day of life (P0) until the end of critical period of plasticity (P30). The 40 days deprived animals received epidural polimer implant of Elvax, previously saturated with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC, to degraded the extracellular matrix) or with bovine albumin serum(BSA, control), on the barrel cortex of contralateral cerebral hemisphere to the sensory deprivation (left). The animals were perfused 10 (P50) or 20 days (P60) after Elvax implant. Our results shown that the animals submitted to the sensory deprivation, during critical period of plasticity of S1, and to GAGsSC degradation presents modification in perineuronal net (PNNs) characteristics when compared to control animals, at P50. Those animals also presents increase in cFos labeled cells (mainly at the granular layer of S1) and in BDNF labeled cells at the deprived PMBSF, both seen in 10 (P50) as 20 days (P60) after Elvax implant saturated with ChABC. In this way, we concluded that GAGs-SC removal induced local plasticity, evoking changes in cortical activity and BDNF expression at the deprived PMBSF, even 30 days after critical period of plasticity ended at S1.

  • DLÂNIO GABRIEL FIGUERÊDO SILVA
  • EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO COM Euterpe Oleracea (AÇAÍ) NO PROCESSO DE REPARO DO TENDÃO DE AQUILES EM RATOS

  • Data: 09/09/2016
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  • Achilles tendon is the largest and strongest tendon in the human body, its excessive use induces microtrauma and activation of signaling pathways that lead to an inflammatory response. The ethanolic extract of Euterpe oleracea(açaí) is a natural product extracted from the fruit of the palm tree.Although evidence suggests an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of this product, there is no data in the literature about such effects on tendon lesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects of ethanolic extract of Euterpe oleracea in a rat model of total Achilles tendon rupture. This study was approved by the Animal Research Ethics Committee (CEPAE-UFPA/206-14). The animals were divided into four groups (n = 24): control; vehicle (0.9% saline); E. oleracea extract (125 μg/mL ethanolic extract of Euterpe oleracea) and methylprednisolone (30 mg/ml). After the respective treatments, the tissue was analyzed at 7, 14 or 21 days post-injury (dpi) by immunohistochemistry with hematoxylin/eosin and collagen autofluorescence. Immunofluorescence for COX2 and measurement of nitrite levels by Griess method were performed at 7 dpi. Treatment with E. oleracea extract accelerated tissue organization and orientation of the cells, similarly to the anti-inflammatory steroid methylprednisolone. This natural product led to an early alignment in collagen fibers as well as in the overall matrix structure when compared to the other groups, which was observed at 7 dpi and maintained at both 14 and 21 dpi. Treatment with E. oleracea extract or methylprednisolone reduced COX2 labeling in comparison to the vehicle at 7 dpi. Reduction in nitrite tissue levels was observed at 7 dpi in groups treated with E. oleracea extract (20.80 ± 2.54 μm/ml) and methylprednisolone (19.40 ± 2.31 μm/ml) compared to vehicle group (29.33 ± 3.98 μm/ml). Treatment with E. oleracea extract improved tissue organization and reduced both COX2 labeling and nitrite levels, suggesting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our findings highlight E. oleracea extract as a natural product with potential application in Achilles tendon repair.

  • AMANDA SODRE MOTA
  • Poderia um óleo atuar como analgésico opioide?
    OLÉO DE Plukenetia polyadenia: ELUCIDAÇÃO DO MECANISMO DE AÇÃO.

  • Data: 05/09/2016
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  • The seed oil of Plukenetia polyadenia (Pp-oil) is used by the Amazon people against arthritis and
    rheumatism, spreading it in the arms and legs. The fatty acid composition, antinociceptive effect and
    toxicity of Pp-oil were investigated.
    Materials and methods: The Pp-oil was obtained by pressing and its antinociceptive activity was
    analyzed in models of nociception (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin tests) in
    mice and also mechanism of action was determined using acetic acid- indiced abdominal writing, open
    field, pole test and rotarod.
    Results: Pp-oil demonstrated a significant dose dependent antinociceptive effect (p< 0.05) in the
    chemical stimulation and at the second phase of formalin. However, the result from the hot plate test, open
    field, pole test and rotarod were not significant (p> 0.05), suggesting that Pp-oil has an analgesic activity,
    which is putative of peripheral origin.
    In the writhing test, the oil dosed at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced the abdominal writhes in a
    significant manner. In the hot plate test, the oil dosed at 200 mg/kg did not induced alterations in the latency
    time when compared to the control. At the dose of 100 mg/kg it did not show any difference in motor
    system proving that Pp-oil does not have any influence at central nervous system. In the formalin test, the
    oil dosed at 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced in a significant manner the second phase of the algic stimulus. Pp-oil
    at 100mg/kg did not show any alterations in motor system when analyzed with open field, pole test and
    rotarod (p>0,05), which corroborates with previous results that affirm Pp-oil has no participation in central
    nervous system. In addition, its antinociception was reversed by naloxone in evaluation of the mechanism of
    action.
    Conclusion: Pp-oil proved to have analgesic properties. Moreover, the results concerning
    mechanism suggest that opiod receptors are involved in the antinociceptive action of the Pp-oil using a
    peripheral pathway.

  • KLEBSON DE JESUS ARAUJO RODRIGUES
  • PLASTICIDADE AUMENTADA NO CÓRTEX PRÉ-FRONTAL DE RATOS COM A REMOÇÃO DE REDES PERINEURONAIS

  • Data: 01/09/2016
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  • Aging is associated with decreasing brain plasticity, especially after the closure of the critical periods of plasticity (a sensitive limited period in life of elevated brain plasticity). Some brain regions may be particularly affected by aging, such as prefrontal cortex (PFC), which has a key role in the organization of higher-order cognitive aspects, the executive functions, including attention, set-shifting, working memory, decision making, etc. Decline of plasticity in the PFC and the brain is attributed mainly to the appearance of a structure called perineuronal net (PNNs) which enwraps the cell body and dendrites of many classes of neurons. PNNs are extracellular matrix structures consisting of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, hyaluronan, link proteins and tenascin, and are involved in the control of experience-dependent cortical plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Degradation of PNNs with the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) restores juvenile forms of plasticity in the adult brain. Here, we examined the developmental time course of PNN formation in the medial PFC (mPFC) of male rats ranging in age from the seventh postnatal day (PND) to 11 months. We used the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin that binds to glycosaminoglycan chains present in the PNNs. We also investigated whether the digestion of PNNs by bilateral injection of ChABC in the mPFC may open a new window of increased plasticity in adult rats, evaluated by two executive function tests: object recognition and spontaneous alternation. We found that immature PNNs were observed in PND 20 animals, but mature PNNs were seen only after PND 75-90 and a mature form appeared around 5 months of age. In addition, our results showed that enzymatic PNN removal promoted a significant increase in performance in the ChABC-treated animals in both behavioral tests. The present study reveals for the first time the temporal development of PNN formation in the rat mPFC. We also show that the degradation of PNNs with ChABC not only promotes plasticity but also potentiates cognitive abilities in adult animals.

  • GABRIELA DE PAULA ARRIFANO DE OLIVEIRA
  • ANÁLISE DE PARÂMETROS DE EXPOSIÇÃO MERCURIAL, SUSCETIBILIDADE GENÉTICA E INTOXICAÇÃO EM POPULAÇÕES RIBEIRINHAS DO TAPAJÓS E TUCURUÍ

  • Data: 30/08/2016
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  • Mercury is a heavy metal responsible for intoxications worldwide. Most toxic form is methylmercury that has affinity for the central nervous system, with recognized neurotoxicity. Some regions of the Amazon are well characterized by mercury exposure in humans, as the region of the Tapajos, due to local mining activity, for example. However, others, such as Tucuruí, remain virtually unstudied, with only one study in humans to date. In the Amazon, there is a large number of studies showing mercury exposure, however, intoxication and susceptibility studies are far less numerous in the Amazonian populations, and even today, there is no study analyzing simultaneously the three factors. The objective of this study was to determine the exposure (mercury content in the body by using mercury levels in hair samples), the individual susceptibility (genetic predisposition of each individual to suffer a damage because the exposure, using the genotyping of apolipoprotein E) and the intoxication (quantifying the extent of the damage already caused by using biomarkers such as S100B and NSE) in Amazonian riverside populations. Three hundred eighty-eight individuals, selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria were studied. The genotype of apolipoprotein E more frequent was ɛ3/ɛ3, followed by ɛ3/ɛ4. Allelic frequencies were 0.043: 0.784: 0.173 to ε2: ɛ3: ɛ4, respectively. The median level of total mercury in hair was 4.2 μg/g (1.9- 10.2). A significant proportion of participants (24.8%) had mercury levels above 10 μg/g, as recommended by the WHO limit, and 12.8% of participants showed a total content of mercury greater or equal to 20 μg/g. Interestingly, Tucuruí levels were much higher than levels in the Tapajós (area recognized by the presence of mining gold activity). We identified 29% of patients with ApoE4 (considered at risk) and 8 maximum risk individuals (carriers of ApoE4 and mercury content above the limit of 10 μg/g). Moreover, there was a significant difference in mRNA levels of S100B protein between groups exposed to high and low levels of mercury. For the first time, markers of the three spheres of influence in human toxicology (exposure, susceptibility and poisoning) were studied. Our data already support the use of these markers to monitoring the Amazonian populations. This knowledge will assist the development of prevention strategies and making government decisions facing the problem of the impact of the mercury in the Amazon.

  • JESSICA BATISTA DE JESUS
  • Ação da Ciclosporina A na via de ativação do Fator de Crescimento de Nervo (NGF) em células neurais do SNP

  • Data: 29/08/2016
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  • Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive drug with known action on T cells of the immune system used in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases. In the nervous system, cyclosporin A acts by inhibiting the action of Calcineurin, an important second messenger from pathway of signal transduction Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), resulting in hyperphosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and downregulation of NGF, TrkA and other factors that participating in this pathway. The NFAT1-4 family are dependent isoforms of calcineurin, while NFAT5 isoform is independent. It has been demonstrated the neuroprotective role of Cyclosporin A via calcineurin dependent or independent. In this study, we evaluate the action of Cyclosporine A in the PNS system, that could be associated with levels of NGF, TrkA and an independent of calcineurin transcription factor (NFAT5) that interplay the plasticity of neuronal cells derived from Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) maintained in cultures. We use E10 DRG cultures supplemented with medium conditioned E9 Retinal treated with Cyclosporin A for 48 and 72 hours. Cultures enriched neurons were confirmed by calcium imaging method. The action of Cyclosporine A in the neuritogenesis was assessed by bright field microscopy, expression of NGF, TrkA and NFAT5 was performed by RT-PCR, intracellular accumulation of NGF was evaluated by immunofluorescence and the presence of TrkA in neurons. The viability test of the cultures treated or not with the concentrations of 1-40μM Cyclosporine A was performed by MTT method. The results show an increase of NGF levels in mixed cultures, and TrkA receptor and NFAT5 in cultures enriched in neurons following treatment with cyclosporine A. Given the importance of NGF pathway in the development and maintenance of the SNP, the use of Cyclosporin A have activity in the peripheral nervous system cells, which might be used in the clinic with new target for new therapies.

  • HELENIANA MARIA MIRANDA DE CARVALHO
  • ANÁLISE IMUNOLÓGICA E GENOTÓXICA EM Rattus Novergicus DA LINHAGEM
    WISTAR TRATADOS COM CICLOFOSFAMIDA

  • Data: 11/08/2016
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  • The development of this work has given up due to the need to better understand the immune
    system, taking into account the diversity of experimental immunosuppression models as well as
    the variety of immunological responses and genotoxic differences these, related species, the drug
    and doses used. Thus, aim of this study was to analyze the effects on the immune system and
    genotoxic effects in Rattus norvegicus Wistar, after inoculation of the alkylating agent
    cyclophosphamide (CY). The administration of 50 mg / kg in rodents CY, possible to observe a
    significant decrease in the parameters of cellularity and relative weight of lymphoid organs. The
    humoral immunity of rodents has undergone deletion, since the analysis of the antibody titration
    was performed on the test plate forming cells and hemolysis testing. four inoculations that
    immunosuppressant and the intervals between the inoculations was determined by recovery of
    normal levels of the above parameters were performed. Both times the drug was administered,
    there was a reduction in the number of lymphocytes and neutrophils subsequently decreased, but
    only the second contact CY was observed immunosuppression. The analysis of the genotoxicity
    of cyclophosphamide (CY) was analyzed using the comet assay and was of paramount
    importance because dectamos genomic damage occurring in DNA exposed to different doses of
    cyclophosphamide (CY), which were 50 mg / kg in the first two phases and 25 mg / kg during the
    last two phases of the experiment. Furthermore, it was found that the genotoxic effects are
    cumulative with each CY dose applied, because even being administered in the third phase, the
    middle concentration (25 mg / kg) of the two inoculations initial CY the damage index does not
    correspond to half damage indices of the first and second vaccination. However, the analysis and
    immunologically genotoxicamente rodents, our work will enable testing new therapeutic
    immunosuppression regimens.

  • DANIELE DE ARAUJO MOYSES
  • AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCIAL CITOTÓXICO E GENOTÓXICO DO PIROXICAM EM LINHAGEM VERO

  • Data: 08/08/2016
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  • The Piroxicam is a NSAID that pharmacologically belongs to oxicam class and is indicated to treat various ailments such as rheumatoid arthritis, primary dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, among others. Its anti-inflammatory properties are well known and is related to its non-selective ability to reversible inhibition of COX, but it is known little about their cytotoxic activity and its effect on DNA. There are few data on the possible genotoxic effects of Piroxicam in mammalian cells. These effects can be monitored for the prevention and control of some adverse reactions and major side effects. This study was designed to investigate the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic induced in vitro by Piroxicam drug in kidney line of African green monkey (VERO). The viability of cells exposed to piroxicam was evaluated by MTT assay, cytotoxicity of piroxicam was verified by quantifying apoptosis and necrosis using fluorescent dyes (Hoechst, propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate) and genotoxicity of piroxicam was evaluated by the comet assay. The results of the cell viability assay showed that Piroxicam reduces significantly (p <0.05) cell viability in the concentrations of 1.0 mM, 2.0 mM, 4.0 mM and 8.0 mM. It is also noted that piroxicam induced significant killing (p <0.01) by apoptosis in all concentrations tested, both as to 24h treatment 48h. In the case of the comet assay, there was no damage to the DNA in any concentration tested. The data support the idea that piroxicam has a cytotoxic activity, but has no genotoxic potential in the tested conditions.

  • NATALI VALIM OLIVER BENTO TORRES
  • ENVELHECIMENTO E PROTEÇÃO COGNITIVA: Influências da escolaridade e da aptidão física

  • Data: 25/07/2016
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  • Clinical and hematological evaluations were used to study the influence of age, formal education and physical fitness on cognitive performances of two aged groups. For this purpose, three independent experiments were designed. In the first we investigated the influences of age and low education on cognitive performance of healthy elderly. In the second we investigated possible associations between cognitive age-associated cognitive decline, level of physical activity and platelet volume, an indirect peripheral marker of inflammation. In the third we compared age matched healthy elderly with Alzheimer's disease patients, where it is promptly recognized the contribution of inflammation to accelarate disease progression. To measure the influence of education, we used selected tests of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Battery (CANTAB), minimizing the influence of socio-cultural and educational variables, usually present in classical (paper and pencil) psychometric procedures. Thus, sustained visual attention, reaction time, spatial working memory and episodic learning and memory were measured in 182 elderlies. Based on medical history, visual acuity examination and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) we established inclusion criteria as follow: visual acuity 20/30 or higher, no previous or current history of head trauma, stroke, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, subjective complains of memory and absence of psychiatric illness, including major depression. Also excluded the volunteers with clinical and / or hematological signs of active infection. Subjects were grouped according to the education level (1 to 7 and ≥ 8 years of schooling) and age (60-69 and ≥ 70 years of age). Two-way analysis of variance indicated that, on average, education influenced performances on visual attention, learning and memory, reaction time and spatial working memory and age influenced the latency on reaction time test. The results suggest that improvement of education should be one of the targets of preventative actions to minimize age-related cognitive decline and that CANTAB might be used to detect subtle cognitive decline in healthy aging. In the study that measured potential associations between platelet morphological changes, physical activity and age-related cognitive decline, we adopted the same exclusion criteria used in the first assay and evaluated 152 healthy elderlies. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ - long form) and physical fitness was adopted as indicators of physical activity levels. Physical fitness was assessed by measurements of agility, muscle strength of lower limbs and aerobic capacity. The inclusion criteria based on physical activity self-report only included volunteers performing supervised physical activities at least three times a week, while the inclusion of sedentary elderly demanded that such activities have been not conducted for six consecutive months preceding assessment. All volunteers who participated in the study showed normal test scores of MMSE. Compared to the sedentary group, active elderly showed significant higher performance in all physical tests, sustained visual attention and reaction time, and these results were associated with lower platelet volumes. Significant correlations were found between platelet volumes and performances on learning and memory, rapid visual processing and sustained attention. In the study comparing the platelet morphology of patients with Alzheimer's disease with healthy elderly individuals we found that AD volunteers showed significantly higher platelet volumes associated with poor performance in MMSE. Taken together the results show that physical fitness and physical activity are associated with lower platelet volume and less cognitive decline during aging. The major and minor mean platelet volumes found respectively in patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly who exercise regularly, suggests that this parameter, usually ignored in haematological routine analysis, appears to have potential value to encourage preventative actions.

  • NELSON ELIAS ABRAHAO DA PENHA
  • NEUROPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF GERGELIM (Sesamum indicum L) EXTRACT IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF ACUTE SPINAL CORD INJURY IN RATS

  • Data: 10/06/2016
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  • The spinal cord is a component of central nervous system (CNS) with crucial functions for locomotion, motor skills, somatosensory and authonomic control. Spinal injuries are among the more serious and debilitating pathological conditions to human health with large worldwide. The use of experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) is pivotal to understandthe SCI pathophysiology as well as search for treatments to minimize the neurological deficits and improve functional recovery. In this work, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical gergelim (Sesamum indicum L.) extract in the acute phase of SCI in adult rats. Male Adult rats were submitted to spinal cord (SC) hemissection at T8. The sham (non lesioned) and control animals were treated with 5% tween(veicle), while treated animals received intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of Gergelim extract (150 mg/kg divided in two doses per day). Animals were allowed to recovery and were perfused at 1, 3 and 7 days post-lesion. 20 μm sections were obtained using a cryostat and stained with methylen blue, hematoxylin-eosin (HE), trichromic of Gomori and cresyl violet for gross histopathology. In addition, sections were immunolabeled with specific antibodies against neutrophils (anti-MBS-1) and activated microglia/macrophages (anti-ED1). The muscle force was assessed through electromiographic records performed in both control and treated animals at 1 and 7 days postlesion. The control animals presented progressive SC cavitation concomitant with neutrophil recruitment and microglia/macrophage activation. The treatment with gergelim extract induced tissue preservation and considerable decrease of neutrophil recruitment at 1 and 3 days, which was confirmed by quantitative analysis (ANOVA-Tukey, p<0.05). The gergelim treatment also decreased the microglia/macrophage activation at 7 days (ANOVA-Tukey, p<0.05). The electromiographic records revealed that the gergelim treatment improved the muscular force in about 50% compared to control animals. The results suggest that black gergelim seed extract is anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and induces muscle force recovery in adults rats submitted to acute SCI. Future studies should confirm that a phytotherapic obtained from black sesame extract can be used as possible neuroprotective agent for human SCI.

  • VALDENIRA DE JESUS OLIVEIRA KATO
  • IMUNOEXPRESSÃO DA PROTEÍNA PTEN EM AMOSTRAS DE CARCINOMA
    EPIDERMOIDE BUCAL E SUA CORRELAÇÃO COM CARACTERÍSTICAS
    CLÍNICO-PATOLÓGICAS E SOBREVIDA

  • Data: 03/06/2016
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  • Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplastic that
    affects the oral cavity, accounting for 90% of all cases diagnosed in this anatomic site.
    Despite the recent advances in the treatment, the survival rate varies from 30 to 50%.
    Molecular mechanisms which elucidates the agressive behaviour of these lesions help
    to identify new chemotherapeutics that might be used in the treatment in order to
    improve the survival rates. The aim of this study was investigating the imunoexpression
    of PTEN protein through the immunohistochemical technique (IHC) in CEB samples
    and relate them with clinicopathological features, histological grades and survival and
    in addition, evaluate the presence of allelic deletion through the Fluorescent In Situ
    Hybridization technique (FISH). Our results showed that a total from 119 cases of CEB,
    31 cases were negative to expression of protein PTEN and 88 cases were positive for
    PTEN, from which 15 (17,05%) were well differentiated, 43 (48,86%) moderately
    differentiated and 30 (34,09%) were poorly differentiated. Considering the
    clinicophatological features, there were not statistically significant correlations with the
    IHC expression of PTEN. Regarding the survival rates, it was observed that patients
    presenting lymph node infiltration (N) = 2 or 3 has 4 times greater risk of dying than
    those presenting N = 0 or 1. Finally, there was a significant association between
    expression by IHC negative and the result of FISH technique regarding the deletion,
    and between the positive PTEN expression and the non-deleted result of FISH
    technique.

  • NAYARA KAUFFMANN
  • O TRATAMENTO COM GLUTATIONA POTENCIALIZA O DANO HEPÁTICO EM CAMUNDONGOS INFECTADOS COM Plasmodium berghei (ANKA).

  • Data: 10/05/2016
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  • A malária é uma doença causada por protozoários do gênero Plasmodium e apresenta-se como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no mundo. Para avaliar o quadro de malária, modelos murinos tem sido utilizado devido às suas similaridades entre as espécies infectantes para os camundongos e as espécies infectantes para o homem. O aumento na produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio e alterações na atividade de enzimas como a glutationa peroxidase e superóxido dismutase foram caracterizadas dentro do quadro clínico da doença, porém pouco se sabe a respeito da participação de moléculas antioxidantes como a glutationa na evolução da doença. Diante do exposto, o principal objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da glutationa na evolução do quadro de malária murina e frente aos danos causados pela infecção com cepa ANKA de Plasmodium berghei (PbA). Para isso foram utilizados camundongos Balb-C, o qual foi inoculado (~106 de eritrócitos parasitados) via intraperitoneal. Os grupos foram divididos em: grupo malária (PbA) (n=6), grupo PbA + GSH 1mg (n=6), grupo PbA +GSH 3mg (n=6) e grupo PbA +GSH 8mg (n=7), tratados por 7 dias consecutivos. O desenvolvimento da doença foi monitorado diariamente pela determinação da sobrevivência, massa corpórea e a parasitemia foi monitorada a cada três dias em distensões sanguíneas, também foi analisado os cortes histológicos do tecido hepáticos e foi realizado a dosagem bioquímica das transaminases hepáticas. Nossos dados demonstraram que o tratamento com GSH (8mg/kg) acelerou a mortalidade dos animais infectados uma vez que entre o 13-14 dia pós infecção cerca de 43% dos animais evoluíram a óbito. No grupo infectado com PbA que não recebeu tratamento com GSH, uma diminuição semelhante (40%) só foi observada a partir do 23-25 dia pós infecção. Já em relação aos grupos PbA+GSH 1mg e PbA+GSH 3mg, não houve diferença quando comparado com o grupo PbA. Interessantemente, embora o tratamento com GSH 8mg tenha acelerado a mortalidade no grupo infectado, não observamos diferença significativa no nível de parasitemia dos quatros grupos analisados. Em relação a massa corpórea foi possível observar uma diferença entre o dia 0 e 24 em todos os grupos, porém quando analisado entre os grupos. Já no que diz respeito as análises histológicas e dosagens bioquímicas, podemos observar que ouve alterações tanto na histologia quanto na nas transaminases, sendo estas alterações mais expressas no grupo PbA que foi tratado com glutationa 8mg/kg do que no grupo PbA. Concluindo que a glutationa quando administrada via intraperitoneal acelera a mortalidade dos camundongos infectados com a cepa ANKA, porém essa mortalidade não está associada com aumento da parasitemia, indicando então que a mortalidade pode ser decorrente das alterações hepáticas.

  • GIOVANNI FREITAS GOMES
  • Alterações da Morfologia da Micróglia do Septo Lateral e Comportamento Semelhante ao Ansioso em um Modelo Murino de Inoculação Sequencial de VDEN1 e VDEN4: Influência do Enriquecimento Ambiental

  • Data: 05/05/2016
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  • A infecção por dengue é a maior causa de mortes por infecções por arbovírus no Brasil. A despeito de sua importância epidemiológica e um século de estudos sistemáticos dedicados aos mecanismos patogênicos da doença eles permanecem mal compreendidos. No continente americano, as epidemias parecem associadas ao fato de que múltiplos sorotipos circulam de forma simultânea, mas pouco se sabe sobre as alterações que ela é capaz de induzir no sistema nervoso central. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar possível influência do enriquecimento ambiental sobre as manifestações do comportamento e da morfologia microglial no septo lateral associadas à inoculação sequencial alternada de diferentes sorotipos do vírus da dengue (VDEN1 e VDEN4). Para esse fim, foram usadas fêmeas adultas de 10 meses de idade de camundongos imunocompetentes da variedade suíça albina, mantidas em ambiente padrão ou enriquecido. Foi feita uma única infecção intraperitoneal com homogenado cerebral infectado com VDEN1 seguida 28 dias após, por infecção com homogenado cerebral infectado com VDEN4. Com o intuito de acentuar os sintomas clínicos, foi implantado nos últimos sete dias a contar do 29º dia após a primeira infecção, um regime de infecções múltiplas alternadas de VDEN1 e VDEN4 acentuadas por anticorpo heterólogo anti-VDEN3. Animais controles receberam igual regime de inoculações e volumes de homogenado cerebral não-infectado. A avaliação comportamental, feita por meio da atividade exploratória do campo aberto (CA) e do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE), mostrou que animais infectados de ambiente padrão apresentaram redução do tempo de permanência na periferia do CA e no braço fechado do LCE, sendo esse o único grupo experimental que apresentou tal modificação do comportamento. Para avaliar possíveis alterações da morfologia microglial nesses grupos experimentais, foram sacrificados para análise neuropatológica de 5 indivíduos em função das janelas de infecção. Para imunomarcação seletiva da micróglia, utilizamos anticorpo anti-IBA-1 e o método de reconstrução tridimensional para a análise morfométrica. De forma geral, células obtidas a partir de animais infectados de ambiente padrão, quando comparados aos não-infectados, apresentaram alterações significativas, com aumento significativo da complexidade, K-Dim, número e densidade de segmentos e comprimento dos ramos. Animais de ambiente enriquecido não apresentaram a mesma alteração. Além disso, testamos a hipótese de que as micróglias do septo lateral encontram-se divididas em subtipos e que essa conformação também poderia ser alterada pela infecção. Notamos que, em estado fisiológico, micróglias do septo lateral de animais de ambiente padrão ou enriquecido apresentam-se subdivididas em três subpopulações, uma mais complexa, uma menos complexa e uma intermediária. Após a infecção por VDEN1 ou por VDEN4, houve alteração desse padrão na população de micróglias do septo lateral do animais de ambiente padrão, com surgimento de um subtipo de alta complexidade e aumento do percentual de células mais complexas, porém não em animais de ambiente enriquecido. Baseado nessas evidências sugerimos que as micróglias do septo lateral apresentam um padrão morfológico heterogêneo e que a infecção pelos sorotipos 1 e 4 da dengue é capaz de induzir alterações na morfologia da micróglia e no padrão de subdivisão dessas células, associado ao aumento do percentual de células de alta complexidade, além de induzir alterações comportamentais importantes detectadas no CA e no LCE, e que o enriquecimento ambiental parece proteger os animais contra as alterações comportamentais e da morfologia da micróglia do septo lateral no presente modelo de infecção.

  • DANIELLE VALENTE BRAGA
  • Adenosina modula os níveis extracelulares de glutamato induzido por hiperosmolaridade em cultura de astrócitos hipotalâmicos

  • Data: 29/04/2016
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  • Estudos recentes mostram que liberação de glutamato por células gliais hipotalâmicas é uma importante resposta fisiológica em situações de hiperosmolaridade. Além disso, estudos prévios apontam um marcante aumento dos níveis de adenosina no fluido intersticial renal após o aumento da ingestão de sódio. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a possível relação entre a liberação de adenosina e a liberação de glutamato em culturas primárias de astrócitos expostas à situação de hiperosmolaridade. Culturas de astrócitos hipotalâmicos obtidos de ratos da linhagem Wistar nos dois primeiros dias de nascidos,  foram expostas à solução hipertônica com sódio (340mOsm/L) nos tempos 3, 5, 10 e 15 minutos. Após o estímulo, o meio de incubação foi coletado e os níveis extracelulares de glutamato e adenosina foram determinados por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficácia (CLAE). Afim de avaliar a relação entre estes compostos em situações hiperosmóticas, utilizou-se o tratamento das culturas com Adenosina, com R-PIA um agonista do receptor A1, bem como com glutamato e agonista do receptor tipo NMDA. Nossos resultados demonstraram elevação significativa dos níveis extracelulares de glutamato após o estímulo hiperosmótico com um pico em 5 minutos. Similarmente, observamos o aumento nos níveis de adenosina no meio de incubação após 10 e 15 minutos. O tratamento com glutamato induziu aumento nos níveis extracelulares de adenosina após 15 e 20 minutos em meio iso-osmótico. A exposição ao NMDA não induziu a liberação de adenosina e em nenhuma das concentrações utilizadas. Os pré-tratamentos com adenosina e o agonista A1 R-PIA impediram a liberação de glutamato induzida por hiperosmolaridade.  Nossos resultados mostraram também que o efeito do estímulo na liberação de glutamato e adenosina é dependente de sódio, e apresenta uma resposta específica para astrócitos do hipotálamo que pode ser modulada através da ativação do receptor A1 de adenosina. 

2015
Descrição
  • LUIZ RAIMUNDO C DA S E CUNHA JUNIOR
  • INVESTIGAÇÃO DE EFEITOS MUTAGÊNICOS EM TRABALHADORES EXPOSTOS À RADIAÇÃO IONIZANTE NO BRASIL

  • Data: 28/12/2015
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  • As radiações ionizantes (RI) estão presentes na maioria dos diagnósticos precoces de uma infinidade de doenças, muitos tipos de câncer estão inclusos, e têm a característica de um diagnóstico rápido e preciso e, muitas das vezes, mais barato. A utilização deste tipo de energia no entanto, requer de cuidados de proteção específicos, uma vez que as RI tem a característica de alterar o material genético, através de mutações.
    Os operadores da área da radiologia em hospitais são a classe de trabalhadores que está exposta de forma mais direta e, portanto, são alvos de investigações que podem auxiliar no entendimento da interação das RI com o material biológico, além de auxiliar a estes profissionais no requisito de proteção radiológica.
    Foram coletadas 75 amostras de indivíduos que trabalham em vários departamentos da radiologia em 5 hospitais de 4 Estados diferentes no Brasil (São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul e Pará). Os critérios de seleção para a participação foram: ter ao menos 18 anos de idade e 2 anos de profissão, não ser etilista ou tabagista, não estar tomando medicamentos. Para análise citogenética, foram realizados os testes do cometa e Micronúcleo, assim como estudo de aberrações cromossômicas. Este estudo foi avaliado e aprovado por comitê de ética.
    Todos as amostras foram comparadas com indivíduos do mesmo gênero e idade que não tenham passado por qualquer tipo de exame radiológico nos últimos 6 meses.Quando comparados com o controle, os testes de MN e AC demonstraram uma totalidade de danos, usando o teste T, o banco de dados SPSS e bioestat. O teste do cometa mostrou um nível de danos maior se comparado aos controles (0,84 0,47).
    Foi estabelecida a média de idade e feita relação entre gênero e idade dos participantes, sendo os níveis de danos maiores para o gênero feminino em relação ao masculino. Individuos com idades acima dos 45 anos também demonstraram um nível de dano maior quando comparados com idades inferiores. Um fator a ser levado em consideração é de que a população de Porto alegre apresentar um nível de dano menor se comparado aos outros grupos, sendo muito provável este evento por conta da utilização de equipamentos DR de conversão direta. Os equipamentos de Belo Horizonte e Ribeirão Preto utilizam CR e os de Belém, convencionais

  • ALESSANDRA MENDONCA TOMAS
  • CONDICIONAMENTO FÍSICO E DESEMPENHO EM TESTES
    NEUROPSICOLÓGICOS EM ADULTOS JOVENS

  • Data: 21/12/2015
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  • O Brasil é um País em período de transição demográfica com aumento expressivo da população acima de 65 anos, o que requer mudanças nas políticas públicas destinadas à saúde. O início precoce de cuidados específicos com a população adulta e jovem visando o envelhecimento bem-sucedido, pode representar redução futura de gastos públicos e menor incidência de doenças associadas ao envelhecimento, como as demências. Para prover subsídios às políticas de saúde baseadas em evidências, o presente trabalho investigou os efeitos do condicionamento físico no desempenho em testes neuropsicológicos automatizados selecionados para mensuração de funções de aprendizado, memória visuoespacial e linguagem. Foram avaliados 109 adultos jovens saudáveis de ambos os sexos, submetidos à anamnese; avaliação cognitiva global empregando o Mini exame do estado mental, testes de linguagem (incluindo fluência verbal e a lista de palavras da Bateria CERAD) e testes neuropsicológicos automatizados (Bateria CANTAB); avaliação da aptidão física (avaliação indireta do condicionamento cardiorrespiratório, resistência de membros inferiores, avaliação da agilidade, mensuração de índices perimétricos e antropométricos). Com base na estatística multivariada através da análise de conglomerados (método de Ward, Distância Euclidiana) os voluntários foram reunidos em três grupos, pareados por idade e escolaridade, para proceder-se o teste ANOVA um critério ou o Kruskall-Wallis, em caso de amostras com variâncias desiguais. Também foi realizada a análise de correlação, componentes principais e análise discriminante, a qual mostrou que o condicionamento cardiorrespiratório foi a variável que mais contribuiu para formação de agrupamentos. O nível de significância foi fixado em valores de p≤0,05. Foram constatadas diferenças significativas nos testes de fluência verbal semântica; nos testes de aptidão física incluindo frequência cardíaca de repouso, condicionamento cardiorrespiratório, resistência de membros inferiores e avaliação da agilidade e em testes neuropsicológicos da Bateria CANTAB (aprendizagem pareada - PAL e tempo de reação - RTI). A análise de correlação demonstrou apenas correlações fracas. Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo indicam que o desempenho em testes neuropsicológicos não pode ser predito pelo condicionamento físico de adultos jovens praticantes ou não de exercício físico regular. Entretanto, o condicionamento físico demonstrou estar associado com melhor desempenho em tarefas de atenção, memória visuoespacial e de aprendizado, mensuradas através do PAL e RTI.

  • PATRICIA FAGUNDES DA COSTA
  • ISOLAMENTO E CULTIVO in vitro DO AGENTE ETIOLÓGICO DA DOENÇA DE JORGE LOBO:
    MORFOLOGIA, FISIOLOGIA E GENOMA DE Candida loboi sp. nov.

  • Data: 18/12/2015
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  • A Doença de Jorge Lobo é uma infecção crônica, granulomatosa, que se desenvolve após a implantação traumática do fungo na pele. Manifesta-se com lesões nodulares, verrucosas e/ou queloidiformes, localizadas principalmente nos membros inferiores e pavilhões auriculares. Doença prevalente na região Amazônica e, atualmente considerada como emergente, com casos novos em outros continentes em humanos e golfinhos. Pouco se conhece sobre o agente etiológico da doença de Jorge Lobo, principalmente pela impossibilidade do cultivo in vitro, dificultando a caracterização correta do agente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo isolar, cultivar e caracterizar cepas do agente etiológico da doença de Jorge Lobo provenientes de pacientes atendidos na Unidade de Referência em Dermatologia Sanitária do Estado do Pará Dr. Marcello Candia, Marituba no estado do Pará. Durante alguns anos foram acompanhados 23 pacientes, a maioria lavradores do sexo masculino, entre 14 e 80 anos de idade, com material biológico coletado por raspado dérmico e biópsia, para confirmação do diagnóstico pelo exame micológico direto e histopatologia, com posterior tratamento. O material biológico coletado foi processado para o isolamento, com a obtenção de células leveduriformes características do agente etiológico da doença de Jorge Lobo após 7 a 14 dias em meio RPMI com a enzima dispase II. Depois de 2 a 6 meses em RPMI (5% CO2, 37ºC) observamos a fragmentação das células-mãe provenientes das lesões e a presença de células leveduriformes, variando de 1 a 7 μm de diâmetro. A partir deste momento, foi possível manter as cepas do agente etiológico da doença de Jorge Lobo em meio líquido RPMI ou em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose à temperatura ambiente, onde formaram colônias pastosas, branco-acastanhadas, cerebriformes, por vezes lanuginosas. Células destas cepas foram analisadas por diferentes técnicas de microscopia óptica e eletrônica, bioquímicas e genéticas, culminando com a descrição do genoma da cepa de um paciente, logo após o isolamento enzimático e antes da diferenciação em cultura, definindo aseguinte identificação taxonômica:Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Saccharomycotina; Saccharomycetes; Saccharomycetales; Debaryomycetaceae; Candida/Lodderomyces clade; Candida; Candida sp. LDI48194. A apresentação de características clínicas peculiares, associada a aspectos morfológicos únicos, propriedades fisiológicas e genéticas, que não permitem a definição de uma espécie já identificada, indicam que o agente da doença de Jorge Lobo é, na realidade, uma nova espécie, para a qual propomos a nomenclatura de Candida loboi.

  • CAROLINE MARTINS ALMEIDA
  • ESTUDO DA AÇÃO IMUNOMODULATÓRIA DO ÁCIDO KÓJICO SOBRE AS CÉLULAS MONONUCLEARES DA MEDULA ÓSSEA DE CAMUNDONGOS

  • Data: 03/11/2015
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  • A medula óssea é um tecido de aspecto gelatinoso que contém células hematopoieticas responsáveis pela proliferação e diferenciação das células sanguíneas circulantes. A proliferação de monócitos na medula óssea e a diferenciação destas células em macrófagos desempenham papel crucial para a resposta imune. Neste contexto, a busca por medicamentos que potencializem a resposta imune inata se faz necessária para restaurar a homeostasia e resposta imune. O Ácido Kójico (AK) é um metabólito secundário obtido de fungos do gênero Aspergillus que apresenta várias aplicações (aditivo alimentar, cosméticos, agente antitumoral, radioprotetor e ativador de macrófagos), por este motivo, este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a ação imunomodutatória do AK em células da medula óssea de camundongos. Estas células foram obtidas a partir de fêmures de camundongos, tratadas com AK na concentração de 100 μg/mL e mantidas em cultura por 24-96 horas. Foi possível observar através da microscopia óptica que células mononucleares da medula óssea tratadas com AK promoveram o aumento da adesão celular, maior espraiamento celular, maior volume citoplasmático e grande quantidade de vacúolos. Para confirmar estes resultados, foi analisado por Western blot a via de sinalização Akt. AK foi capaz de ativar esta via, que apresenta papel regulatório muito importante no desenvolvimento e diferenciação celular. Também foi detectado por citometria de fluxo o aumento de F4/80 e do CD11b, seguido da diminuição do CD11c em células tratadas por 96 horas, mostrando que o AK é capaz de induzir o processo de diferenciação das células da medula óssea em macrófagos e não em células dendríticas. A análise microbicida revelou que o AK também potencializou a fagocitose e aumentou a produção de ânion superóxido, entretanto, não promoveu o aumento na produção de óxido nítrico. Além disso, não foram observados efeitos citotóxicos nas células tratadas com AK quando comparadas as células não tratadas. Assim, o AK parece atuar como agente imunomodulador, sendo capaz de induzir as células da medula óssea durante o processo de diferenciação da linhagem monocítica.

  • TATIANE CRISTINA MOTA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO IN VITRO DOS EFEITOS GENOTÓXICOS E CITOTÓXICOS DA DROGA ANTIMALÁRICA ARTESUNATO EM LINFÓCITOS HUMANOS

  • Data: 23/10/2015
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  • A malária é uma das patologias infecto-contagiosas mais graves no mundo, apresentando distribuição geográfica bastante extensa em zonas tropicais. Seu tratamento é baseado na administração de drogas específicas, como, a artemisinina e seus derivados: artesunato, o qual será objeto deste estudo, e artemeter. O artesunato, é um composto semi-sintético derivado da artemisinina, substância extraída da planta chinesa Artemisia annua L. Apesar da ampla utilização do artesunato na terapia antimalárica, e de haver fortes evidências de que outros antimaláricos como, a partenina e a cloroquina, apresentem efeitos genotóxicos in vitro; ainda hoje são escassos os trabalhos que demonstrem seus efeitos genotóxicos em linfócitos humanos. Em estudos prévios realizados no laboratório de citogenética humana, foi demonstrado que o artesunato induz danos genotóxicos e citotóxicos ao DNA de linfócitos humanos em cultura. Apesar destes achados, os mecanismos indutores de tais efeitos não foram devidamente caracterizados devido a limitações das técnicas utilizadas. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar in vitro os efeitos genotóxicos e citotóxicos do artesunato em linfócitos de sangue periférico humano utilizando técnicas como FISHMN, ensaios de estresse oxidativo e imunocitoquímica por imunofluorescência. Pretendeu-se através do uso de tais técnicas, elucidar os mecanismos responsáveis pelos efeitos do artesunato no DNA de linfócitos humanos. A partir dos resultados encontrados no presente estudo foi possível inferir que o artesunato induz a formação de ROS e outros radicais livres e que estas substâncias estão causando danos no DNA dos linfócitos humanos em cultura. Assim, as células com o DNA danificado, não sendo capazes de reverter tal condição, ativam a apoptose pelas vias extrínseca e intrínseca.

  • MARIO SANTOS BARBOSA JUNIOR
  • ALTERAÇÕES MORFO-FUNCIONAIS EM CÓRTEX ISQUÊMICO DE ANIMAIS TRATADOS COM TRANSPLANTE AUTÓLOGO DE CÉLULAS MONONUCLEARES DA MEDULA ÓSSEA.

  • Data: 08/10/2015
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  • Dados estatísticos apontam AVE como a segunda maior causa de morte e primeira causa de incapacidade dentre todas as demais doenças no mundo. O AVE isquêmico (AVEi) é responsável por cerca de 87% de incidência dos casos de acidentes vasculares encefálicos. Os atuais modelos para estudos de AVE baseiam-se em comprometimento cerebrovascular. Um modelo experimental, capaz de mimetizar a fisiopatologia isquêmica, amplamente utilizado, é o de isquemia induzida por Endotelina-1 (ET-1). No curso isquêmico, a inflamação atua na contenção do infarto ocasionado pelo AVEi, e em contrapartida a intensidade da resposta inflamatória influencia na neurodegeneração e consequentemente na perda funcional. A terapia celular autóloga, com células mononucleares da medula óssea, promove modulação na neuroinflamação, sendo oportuna durante um evento isquêmico para diminuição de perda tecidual e funcional. No presente trabalho, utilizamos um modelo experimental de AVEi focal para avaliar os efeitos morfofuncionais do implante autólogo de células mononucleres da medula óssea (CMMOs) sobre as alterações morfofuncionais relacionadas ao AVEi. Demonstramos, neste estudo, que os transplantes autólogos de CMMO em períodos agudo ou agudo e subagudo, de evento isquêmico, promoveram neuroproteção e modulação inflamatória capazes de repercutirem em preservação e recuperação funcional em atividades especificas. Demonstramos, também, que o tratamento reforçado em período subagudo, do evento isquêmico, foi capaz de promover aumento das melhoras morfofuncionais promovidas pelo transplante autólogo em período agudo.

  • LOUISE NEIVA PEREZ
  • Ontogenia do Peixe de Quatro Olhos Anableps anableps:
    Adaptações Ósseas e Oculares para a Visão Simultânea Aérea e
    Aquática

  • Data: 30/09/2015
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  • A evolução e desenvolvimento dos olhos tem intrigado cientistas por séculos. Além da perda parcial ou completa dos olhos, poucos vertebrados apresentam uma modificação substancial na morfologia do olho. Um exemplo é o peixe de quatro olhos (Anableps anableps). Esta espécie pode ser encontrada desde o Golfo de Paria na Venezuela até o Delta do Parnaíba no Brasil, apresenta fecundação interna e se reproduz continuamente ao longo do ano. O peixe de quatro olhos é um modelo interessante para o estudo de inovações morfológicas no contexto de evolução e desenvolvimento (Evo-Devo) por apresentar algumas estruturas oculares divididas, como córneas e pupilas. A retina é uma estrutura única dividida em duas regiões, dorsal (recebe informações luminosas aquáticas) e ventral (recebe informações luminosas aéreas). Estas características permitem que esses animais acomodem a visão aérea e aquática simultaneamente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a descrição ontogenética dos estágios de desenvolvimento da espécie Anableps anableps, e a descrição morfológica e molecular da retina durante o processo de desenvolvimento ocular. Foram descritos seis estágios larvais. Os dois primeiros estágios, não apresentavam as córneas e pupilas divididas, e a partir do estágio 3, é possível observar o inicio da divisão. Também foi descrito o desenvolvimento e a expansão do osso frontal. O aparecimento do osso frontal também ocorre no estágio 3. Foi identificado o aparecimento de um septo inter-orbital cartilaginoso, a partir do estágio 4 de desenvolvimento ocular. Observou-se que no inicio do desenvolvimento da retina, as células ainda não estão organizadas, não sendo possível distinguir as camadas da retina. Durante o desenvolvimento é possível observar as camadas se organizando, foi possível identificar que a camada nuclear externa dorsal é menos densa que a camada nuclear interna ventral. O padrão de proliferação celular foi descrito em três estágio do desenvolvimento, antes e durante a divisão ocular, sendo observado na zona marginal ciliar. A proliferação celular é mais acentuada no inicio do desenvolvimento ocular e no estágio 5 de desenvolvimento, a quantidade de células em proliferação celular diminui. Os resultados deste trabalho irão elucidar a base genética das mudanças morfológicas presentes neste gênero.

  • LEOPOLDO SILVA DE MORAES
  • Análise de Variações Genômicas em Genes da Região Cromossômica 22q11.2 em Pacientes Esquizofrênicos do Estado do Pará

  • Data: 28/08/2015
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  • Os polimorfismos COMT Val158Met e ZDHHC8 rs175174 têm recebido papel de destaque no
    estudo molecular da esquizofrenia não apenas por estarem localizados no principal locus de
    suscetibilidade da doença, 22q11, mas também por relacionarem-se, respectivamente, ao estado
    dopaminérgico do córtex pré-frontal e à atividade de diversas proteínas em células neuronais.
    Para avaliar a influência dos genótipos polimórficos na esquizofrenia, genotipamos por PCR em
    tempo real 130 pacientes e 175 controles de uma população do Norte do Brasil. Nossos
    resultados indicaram uma ausência de associação entre ambos os polimorfismos com a chance de
    esquizofrenia na população estudada. Todavia, quando categorizada por sexo, encontramos uma
    associação dicotômica entre o genótipo Met/Met do polimorfismo COMT Val158Met e a
    suscetibilidade à esquizofrenia, conferindo uma chance maior da doença em homens (OR =
    10,76; IC 95% = 2,09–55,34; p = 0,004) que em mulheres (OR = 0,23; IC 95% = 0,07–0,69; p =
    0,009). Além disso, a análise de variância revelou uma associação dos genótipos Val/Met (COMT
    Val158Met) e GG (ZDHHC8 rs175174) com maiores médias de idade de início da esquizofrenia.
    Nosso estudo suporta a hipótese de associação dependente de gênero do polimorfismo COMT
    Val158Met com a esquizofrenia, além de apontar uma influência de ambos os polimorfismos
    estudados com a idade de início da doença.

  • PATRYCY ASSIS NORONHA TAVARES
  • IMUNOREATIVIDADE PARA OS RECEPTORES DE NEUROTROFINAS p75NTR E TrkA NA ZONA SUBVENTRICULAR DE RATOS ADULTOS APÓS ISQUEMIA ESTRIATAL

  • Data: 21/08/2015
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  • Neurotrofinas são fatores de crescimento expressos por células do Sistema Nervoso, tanto durante o desenvolvimento quanto na vida adulta. O Fator de Crescimento Nervoso (NGF, do inglês- Nerve Growth Factor), o Fator Neurotrófico derivado do Cérebro (BDNF- do inglês- Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor), Neurotrofina-3 (NT-3) e Neurotrofina-4/5 (NT-4/5), desempenham inúmeras funções relacionadas a maturação e resposta do tecido nervoso à patologias, como o Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE). Nesta condição, o aumento da expressão das neurotrofinas pode interferir no grau de neurogênese na Zona sub-ventricular (SVZ), bem como redirecionar a corrente migratória das Células-tronco Neurais Adultas (CTNAs) para a região isquêmica. A presença dos receptores de neurotrofinas p75NTR e TrkA, em CTNAs da SVZ, indica que eles podem participar na regulação da neurogênese nessa região. Neste trabalho, descrevemos a influência de uma isquemia experimental, através de uma microinjeção do peptídeo vasconstritor Endotelina-1, restrita ao estriado adjacente à SVZ; sobre o padrão de imunoreatividade para os receptores p75NTR e TrkA em diferentes tempos de sobrevida. Foi analisado o padrão histopatológico do estriado isquêmico e a citoarquitetura da SVZ, seguidos de análises imunoistoquímicas para os receptores. Inúmeras células p75NTR + foram encontradas na SVZ contra e ipsilateral ao sítio de injeção, ocorrendo uma redução de imunorreatividade no primeiro e terceiro dia após a isquemia. Raríssimas células TrkA+ foram encontradas na SVZ de ambos os grupos, porém, observamos inúmeros terminais axonais TrkA+ na SVZ ipsilateral a isquemia. Logo, após o processo isquêmico, houve espessamento da SVZ, concomitante à redução da imunorreatividade para o p75NTR e surgimentos de terminais axonais TrkA+.

  • TEREZINHA MEDEIROS GONÇALVES DE LOUREIRO
  • EFEITOS DA ADAPTAÇÃO AO FLICKER DE LUMINÂNCIA SOBRE O POTENCIAL CORTICAL PROVOCADO VISUAL

  • Data: 20/08/2015
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  • O potencial cortical provocado visual tem sido utilizado para avaliar a visão espacial de luminância. A observação prolongada de um estímulo visual leva a uma série de mudanças na resposta neural em diferentes níveis de processamento do sistema visual. Os resultados destes estudos tem levado à compreensão de como o córtex visual primário processa informações espaciais. Muito tem sido sugerido sobre a ativação das vias paralelas M e P para a contribuição das respostas visuais corticais à partir do uso de estímulos que ativariam preferencialmente uma ou outra via. Uma abordagem para se estudar as interações da atividade atribuída às vias paralelas visuais M e P sobre as respostas corticais poderia ser a aplicação de estímulos que promovessem a adaptação preferencial de uma das vias ou mesmo de ambas e deixar que a via remanescente pudesse se expressar na resposta visual cortical. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os efeitos da adaptação ao flicker para estímulos de contraste de luminância sobre respostas corticais visualmente provocadas em várias condições favoráveis à ativação diferencial ou conjunta das vias paralelas M e P, levando a um aumento ou diminuição das respostas corticais. Foram avaliados 8 sujeitos com visão normal e acuidade normal ou corrigida 20/20. Foram utilizadas várias condições de estimulação, as quais serão três condições de estimulação sem adaptação visual, contendo apenas os estímulos testes, redes senoidais em 0,4 cpg, 2 cpg e 10 cpg com taxa de reversão espacial de 180 graus de 1 Hz (condições controle). As demais condições apresentaram um estímulo de adaptação que será uma máscara gaussiana bidimensional que variará a luminância no tempo cosenoidalmente (flicker) com modulação temporal de 5 Hz, 10 Hz e 30 Hz. O experimento consistiu em apresentar um estímulo de adaptação durante 8 s seguido por um estímulo teste durante 2 s. As respostas corticais foram registradas sobre o couro cabeludo acima do córtex occipital e foram registradas apenas durante a apresentação do estímulo teste. As respostas corticais foram avaliadas no domínio do tempo e das frequências temporais. No domínio do tempo, medido a latência e a amplitude do componente P1 (pico-linha), enquanto no domínio das frequências temporais foram avaliadas as amplitudes das bandas de frequências alfa, beta e gama presentes no registro. As respostas para os estímulos testes foram comparadas entre as condições sem adaptação e com adaptação visual ao flicker. O principal resultado foi que a adaptação visual ao flicker ocorreu de forma diferenciada no domínio das frequências espaciais. Os resultados indicam que o componente P1 foi encontrado em todas as condições de estimulação e adaptação ao flicker na frequência espacial mais baixa (0,4 cpg) em todas as condições temporais. Os resultados também indicam que ocorreu uma diminuição da energia da banda alfa na mesma condição de 0,4 cpg e um aumento da banda gama. Este trabalho concluiu que a adaptação ao flicker levou à diminuição da amplitude do potencial cortical provocado visual causado pela diminuição da energia das oscilações alfa e aumento da energia na banda gama em 0,4 cpg, representando uma modificação do balanço entre as duas vias visuais M e P nas células do córtex.

  • MONICA GOMES LIMA MAXIMINO
  • Sensibilização dependente de tempo em paulistinhas adultos como modelo
    de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: Papel do óxido nítrico

  • Data: 11/08/2015
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  • LIMA, M. G. Sensibilização dependente de tempo em paulistinhas adultos como modelo
    de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: Papel do óxido nítrico. Plano de tese
    (Doutorado) – Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, 2015.
    O Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático (TEPT) é classificado como um transtorno relacionado
    ao trauma e a estressores, um conjunto de doenças neuropsiquiátricas severamente debilitantes
    que se caracterizam por uma desregulação de respostas de estresse após um evento
    traumático. O paulistinha (Danio rerio Hamilton 1822) tem emergido como um modelo importante
    para o estudo de funções genéticas, neurofarmacológicas e comportamentais, como
    no estudo sobre ansiedade e estresse. O óxido nítrico (NO) é um gasotransmissor que parece
    ter um papel importante na regulação de respostas neurocomportamentais ao estresse, inclusive
    no paulistinha. É diante deste cenário que propomos um modelo comportamental para
    TEPT, com a avaliação da sensibilização dependente de tempo do comportamento do paulistinha
    em decorrência da exposição à substância de alarme co-específica (SA) – um potente estressor.
    Com esse modelo, verificaremos o papel do sistema nitrérgico nesse processo de sensibilização.
    Os animais serão expostos à SA e mantidos livres de estresse por 24 h; após esse
    período, o comportamento dos animais será analisado. Realizaremos 5 experimentos que visam
    investigar: i) o efeito atrasado da substância de alarme sobre diferentes tarefas comportamentais
    em paulistinhas, ii) a comparação da sensibilização dependente de tempo nos fenótipos
    shortfin e longfin, iii) a aplicação de Critérios Comportamentais de Corte na sensibilização
    dependente de tempo, iv) a quantificação de glutamato extracelular e nitrito tecidual no
    telencéfalo após exposição à substância de alarme, e v) Participação do NO na iniciação e
    consolidação da sensibilização dependente de tempo. Nossos resultados revelaram que: i) a
    substância de alarme produz sensibilização atrasada da ansiedade (aumento da geotaxia, diminuição
    da habituação, aumento do nado errático, aumento da frequência de thrashing no teste
    de distribuição vertical eliciada pela novidade; diminuição do tempo no branco, aumento do
    nado errático, avaliação de risco e tigmotaxia, no teste de preferência por escuridão) e hiperexcitação
    (aumento da distância percorrida na primeira tentativa e a inclinação da habituação
    no teste de reatividade de sobressalto). ii) em relação aos animais shortfin, a exposição de animais
    longfin produziu maior sensibilização do tempo no compartimento branco, da avaliação
    V
    de risco e da tigmotaxia, enquanto os animais shortfin apresentaram frequência de nado errático
    maior. iii) 25,74% dos animais que foram expostos à SA alcançaram o critério de Resposta
    Comportamental Extrema (RCE) e 20% atingiram o critério para Resposta Comportamental
    Mínima (RCM); em animais não-expostos, apenas 4% alcançaram o critério de RCE e 96%
    alcançaram o critério de RCM. Animais classificados como RCE dispenderam menos tempo
    no compartimento branco, com entradas de menor duração, maior tigmotaxia e mais nado errático
    em relação a animais classificados como RCM e controles não-expostos; iv) o tratamento
    com L-NAME 30 minutos antes da exposição à SA não bloqueou a sensibilização comportamental
    no teste de preferência por escuridão; v) o tratamento com L-NAME 30 minutos
    após a exposição à SA bloqueou a sensibilização da escototaxia e da avaliação de risco; vi) o
    tratamento com L-NAME 90 minutos após a exposição à SA bloqueou a sensibilização da
    avaliação de risco, nado errático e tigmotaxia. Esses resultados sugerem que a sensibilização
    dependente de tempo no paulistinha pode ser um bom modelo para estudo do TEPT e apontam
    o NO com um importante mediador nesse processo.

  • SUELLEN ALESSANDRA SOARES DE MORAES
  • REGENERAÇÃO TENDÍNEA EM MODELO MURINO: ESTUDO DA PLASTICIDADE CENTRAL E INVESTIGAÇÃO DO EFEITO DA MODULAÇÃO NITRÉRGICA NA PLASTICIDADE PERIFÉRICA

  • Data: 10/08/2015
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  • As lesões tendíneas causam forte impacto sobre as pessoas em decorrência da dor e limitação funcional dela resultante. Após a lesão, o tecido passa a apresentar uma rede de nervos. Adicionalmente, há indícios da ocorrência de plasticidade central na medula após a lesão. Dentre os fatores moleculares envolvidos no reparo da lesão, o óxido nítrico (NO) é implicado na remodelagem tecidual, contudo seus efeitos ainda não são bem compreendidos. A proposta deste estudo é averiguar a existência de plasticidade central e a influência do NO na plasticidade periférica, limitação funcional e regeneração tendínea em modelo murino. Para estudar os efeitos do NO na plasticidade periférica, utilizamos animais controle (CTRL, sem lesão) ou tratados com salina (SAL, NaCl 0,9%), L-nitro-arginina-metil-éster (L-NAME, inibidor da síntese de NO) ou nitroprussiato de sódio (SNP, doador de NO) em dias alternados até o 21º dia pós-lesão (DPL). Para avaliar a ocorrência de plasticidade central (segmento L5), apenas a lesão foi realizada e a medula coletada em 2 ou 21 DPL. Analisamos a integridade e a organização tecidual nas amostras de tendão por H&E, microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e imunofluorescência, que também foi usada para avaliar a plasticidade periférica. Para verificar a recuperação funcional do tendão, determinamos o índice funcional de Aquiles, o ângulo articular e o campo aberto. No estudo da medula espinhal, investigamos a reatividade glial e o envolvimento neuronal após a injúria através de colocalizações com o indicador de ativação celular c-Fos. Os achados desta pesquisa mostram que a inibição do NO promove a organização tecidual em associação ao aumento da síntese, secreção e deposição de colágeno. Além disso, a administração local de L-NAME parece favorecer a diferenciação celular para tipos morfológicos análogos a tenócitos e melhorar a organização de ramos nervosos por dentre a malha de colágeno em correlação com a recuperação funcional em 21 DPL. Por outro lado, o aumento nos níveis de NO através de SNP promoveu uma piora em quase todos os parâmetros analisados. Nossos dados mostram ainda que a injúria tendínea desencadeia um processo de plasticidade central com aumento da reatividade glial em 2 DPL e da ativação celular ipsilateral à lesão em 2 e 21 DPL. Em suma, nossos achados indicam a ocorrência de plasticidade central após a lesão tendínea e o favorecimento do reparo tecidual e da plasticidade periférica através do bloqueio nitrérgico, revelando aspectos fundamentais da recuperação tecidual que podem representar novos alvos para uma nova abordagem terapêutica em lesões tendíneas.

  • ADRIANO GUIMARAES SANTOS
  • Investigação de tipos e origem celular neurogênicos em áreas diversas do Sistema Nervoso Central da espécie Cebus apella
  • Data: 27/07/2015
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  • A identificação de populações de precursores neuronais, e células-tronco geradas pelo próprio Sistema Nervoso Central tem sustentado debates sobre seu possível uso na reparação de danos causados por desordens agudas do Sistema Nervoso Central. Contudo, no caso do cérebro mamífero adulto, tal geração é considerada evolutivamente restrita a duas áreas: a zona subgranular do giro denteado do hipocampo, e as paredes dos ventrículos laterais onde novos neurônios são continuamente gerados. Utilizaremos 6 primatas não-humanos, adultos, machos, da espécie Cebus apella (Macaco-prego, 10 anos de idade), com pesos entre 2,1 e 2,8 Kg (média 2,5 Kg) pré-tratados com BrdU que após sacrifício e devido processamento histológico, tiveram seus tecidos analisados em imuno-histoquímica para análises por meio de anti-BrdU, Anti-Nestina, anti-sox2 e DCX em diversas áreas do Sistema Nervoso Central. As paredes ventriculares apresentaram presença de neuroblastos similar àquela já observada em trabalhos anteriores, porém resultados inesperados também foram observadas em áreas como o córtex frontal.
  • NELSON MONTE DE CARVALHO FILHO
  • VARIABILIDADE ALÉLICA E EXPRESSÃO DO GENE ABCA4 EM
    SUJEITOS DIAGNOSTICADOS COM A MACULOPATIA DE
    STARGARDT: ASSOCIAÇÃO COM A FUNÇÃO E ESTRUTURA DA
    RETINA E MORFOLOGIA CELULAR GRANULOCÍTICA

  • Data: 24/06/2015
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  • A maculopatia autossômica recessiva de Stargardt se caracteriza pela perda progressiva
    simétrica da visão na região central do campo visual em indivíduos entre a primeira e segunda
    décadas de vida. Também fazem parte do diagnóstico clínico a presença de lesões maculares
    pontuais de coloração amarelo-esbranquiçadas encontradas nas regiões foveal e parafoveal,
    além da deposição de lipofuscina gerando hipofluorescência e atrofia córiocapilar e do
    epitélio pigmentado da retina. A acuidade visual dos portadores da degeneração de Stargardt
    decresce com o seu progresso e tende a se estabilizar entre 20/200 (1,0 logMAR) a 20/400
    (1,3 logMAR). Esta tese teve como objetivos a investigação da ocorrência de associações
    entre as variantes alélicas (mutações) e os níveis de expressão do gene ABCA4 com a
    morfologia dos granulócitos periféricos e os fenótipos clínicos, eletrofisiológicos e de
    estrutura da retina em pacientes portadores da maculopatia de Stargardt. Nos onze sujeitos
    selecionados foram identificadas quatro variantes do tipo não-sinônimas e três do tipo
    sinônimas. A combinação alélica L1395P/D1817E foi encontrada em 64% dos 22
    cromossomos analisados sugerindo a ocorrência do efeito do fundador. Não foi possível a
    associação entre os genótipos e os fenótipos analisados. Os valores diferenciais de expressão
    do gene ABCA4 obtidos entre pacientes e grupo controle, bem como a prevalência de
    neutrófilos bastonados na circulação sanguínea periférica sugerem a possibilidade de servirem
    como biomarcadores para Stargardt. As imagens retinográficas e angiográficas obtidas
    permitiram a classificação em estágios I, II e III de comprometimento retiniano nos sujeitos
    investigados. O valores de espessura da região central da mácula dos pacientes foram bem
    menores do que aqueles obtidos para os controles, evidenciando a perda da camada de
    fotorreceptores. Os achados eletrorretinográficos de campo total em função do tempo de
    adaptação ao claro possibilitaram a caracterização das perdas funcionais nos sujeitos
    investigados.

  • DANIELLA PATERNOSTRO DE ARAUJO
  • Avaliação da suscetibilidade in vitro de Fonsecaea spp a diferentes antifúngicos e análise das concentrações plasmáticas de itraconazol e hidroxiitraconazol em pacientes com cromoblastomicose na região amazônica

  • Data: 18/06/2015
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  • A cromoblastomicose (CBM) é uma micose por implantação fúngica na pele, de evolução crônica, causada pela inoculação traumática de fungos dematiáceos. O Estado do Pará é uma das principais áreas endêmicas, sendo F. pedrosoi o principal agente etiológico. A baixa taxa de cura é reflexo da falta de um esquema terapêutico padronizado e da escassez de dados relacionados a suscetibilidade de fungos negros aos fármacos disponíveis para o tratamento. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a suscetibilidade in vitro de isolados clínicos de Fonsecaea spp. frente a nove antifúngicos, correlacionando as Concentrações Inibitórias Mínimas (CIM) do itraconazol (ITZ) com a evolução clínica e os tipos de lesões, além de quantificar os níveis plasmáticos de ITZ e Hidroxi-ITZ (ITZOH) em pacientes atendidos na Unidade de Referência Especializada em Dermatologia Sanitária do Estado do Pará Dr. Marcello Candia. Os 38 isolados clínicos de Fonsecaea foram avaliados em relação ao ITZ, cetoconazol (CTZ), posaconazol (PCZ), voriconazol (VCZ), fluconazol (FCZ), anfotericina B (ANF B), caspofungina (CAS), terbinafina (TBF) e 5-fluorocitosina (5-FLU), de acordo com as recomendações do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, documento M38-A2). A CIM para cada fármaco utilizado foi obtida após 5 dias de incubação a 30°C, e dentre os fármacos testados, o PCZ foi o mais efetivo (CIM 0.28 μg/ml, CFM 4.35 μg/ml) podendo ser uma alternativa terapêutica em isolados não sensíveis ao ITZ. Os resultados da correlação entre a CIM do ITZ e a evolução clínica demonstraram que os pacientes com piora tiveram um valor médio ± erro padrão da média (0.90 ± 0.10 μg/ml) superior aos sem melhora (0.45 ± 0.05 μg/ml) com melhora (0.59 ± 0.05 μg/ml) e cura (0.45 ± 0.05 μg/ml), com diferença significativa (p < 0.05) entre os grupos. Não houve correlação entre o CIM do ITZ e os tipos de lesões dos pacientes. Observamos uma grande variabilidade interindividual entre os níveis plasmáticos de ITZ e ITZOH, sendo importante destacar que o ITZOH estava até 3 vezes mais elevado no plasma dos pacientes (p < 0.001), o que pode contribuir para atividade antifúngica do tratamento e sugere uma importante contribuição deste metabólito na terapia. Por fim, avaliamos três pacientes que foram submetidos a altas doses de ITZ, 600 mg/dia, com aumento significativo dos níveis plasmáticos de ITZOH (p=0.0148) e uma concentração >1000 ng/ml na somatória ITZ+ITZOH, considerada satisfatória para a maioria das infecções fúngicas, além de apresentarem melhora do quadro clínico. Em resumo, nossos dados 1) confirmam F. pedrosoi como o principal agente etiológico da CBM no Pará; 2) não evidenciam correlação entre as lesões, as espécies e a sensibilidade ao ITZ; 3) demonstram que ITZ, VCZ e PCZ foram os fármacos com menor CIM, sendo que o PCZ apresentou a menor CFM; 4) correlacionam o metabólito ITZOH com a evolução clínica dos pacientes e; 5) indicam que o uso de altas doses de até 600 mg/dia de ITZ podem ser usadas em pacientes que não respondem a doses terapêuticas menores.

  • CLEITON MENDES LOPES
  • ANÁLISES DOS GENES TP53, PTEN, IDH1 E IDH2 EM
    TUMORES NÃO GLIAIS DO SISTEMA NERVOSO HUMANO

  • Data: 17/06/2015
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  • Apesar da considerável incidência, estudos de alterações genéticas nos genes
    TP53, PTEN, IDH1 e IDH2, em tumores não gliais, são raros e, em alguns casos,
    inexistentes. Os tumores não gliais são classificados geralmente como benignos e
    raramente evoluem à malignidade, apresentando diferentes classificações,
    incidências e localizações. Os genes supressores tumorais e de resposta a danos ao
    DNA, TP53 e PTEN, estão entre os genes mais frequentemente mutados em
    tumores humanos. Os genes IDH1 e IDH2 estão envolvidos no metabolismo celular
    e, também, foram encontrados frequentemente mutados em gliomas, melanomas e
    leucemias, sendo atualmente considerados como bons marcadores em gliomas.
    Foram realizadas análises de alterações genéticas nos genes citados, a fim de
    verificar se estão associados à etiologia e/ou progressão de tumores não gliais do
    Sistema Nervoso Humano (SNH). Foram utilizadas as técnicas de PCR-SSCP para
    amplificação da região de interesse e triagem mutacional das amostras para
    posterior sequenciamento. Foram analisadas 37 amostras de tumores não gliais (14
    schwannomas, 3 Meningiomas, 4 Meduloblastomas, 2 Neurocitomas e 14
    Metástases do Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC). Somente o gene IDH1 apresentou
    polimorfismos na SSCP em 12 (32,4%) amostras, sendo, então, submetidas ao
    sequenciamento. No entanto, as reações de sequenciamento foram satisfatórias em
    apenas em 5 amostras, entre as polimórficas, (1 metástase, 1 meningioma e 3
    schwanomas,). Análises dessas 5 amostras identificaram diferentes mutações, uma
    delas, presente em todas, uma transversão T→A no éxon 4 do códon 106 do gene
    IDH1, resultando na substituição do aminoácido treonina por serina. Foram, também,
    identificadas outras mutações em regiões não codificantes (íntron 4) do gene IDH1
    em duas dessas amostras. As mutações encontradas em nosso estudo ainda não
    haviam sido relatadas na literatura. Nossos resultados indicam a participação do
    gene IDH1 na patogênese desses tumores.

  • MELLINA MONTEIRO JACOB
  • PROPRIEDADES ESPACIAIS DAS RESPOSTAS ISOLADAS DE CONES L E M AO ELETRORRETINOGRAMA: IMPLICAÇÕES SOBRE A ATIVIDADE DAS VIAS VISUAIS PARALELAS
  • Data: 16/06/2015
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  • Foi estudada a organização espacial dos sinais de cones L e M ao eletrorretinograma (ERG), refletindo a atividade das vias pós-receptorais magno e parvocelular. Para tal, foram criados estímulos senoidais que isolavam as respostas de cones L e M e que eram emitidos por um estimulador que utilizava quatro primárias de LED, permitindo que fosse aplicado o paradigma da tripla substituição silenciosa. As frequências temporais utilizadas foram de 8 e 12 Hz, para refletir a atividade de oponência de cones, e 30, 36 e 48 Hz para refletir a atividade de luminância. As respostas de eletrorretinograma foram registradas com estímulos que alcançavam todo o campo visual (campo total) e por estímulos que variavam em configuração espacial, entre estímulos circulares e anelares com diâmetros diferentes. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a presença de dois mecanismos de resposta diferentes a estímulos com frequências temporais intermediárias e altas. As respostas de ERG medidas em frequências temporais altas dependeram fortemente da configuração espacial de estimulação. Nas condições registradas com campo total, as respostas de cones L foram substancialmente maiores do que as respostas de cones M na mesma condição, e do que as respostas de cones L a estímulos menores. Já as respostas de cones M aos estímulos com campo total e com diâmetro de 70º, apresentaram valores de amplitude similares. As respostas de cones L e M medidos com frequências temporais de 8 e 12 Hz, apresentaram amplitudes similares, e estavam aproximadamente em contra-fase. As amplitudes foram constantes para a maioria das configurações de estimulação. Os resultados indicaram que, quando as respostas de ERG refletem a atividade de luminância, elas estão correlacionadas positivamente com o tamanho do estímulo. Além de 35º de excentricidade retiniana, a retina contém principalmente cones L. Estímulos pequenos são suficientes para obter respostas máximas de ERG em frequências temporais intermediárias, onde o ERG é sensível também ao processamento de oponência de cones.

  • CELINA COELHO DA ROSA
  • Caracterização cromossômica e mapeamento genômico comparativo com sondas de Hylaeamys megacephalus de Oecomys paricola e Oecomys auyantepui (Cricetidae – Sigmodontinae)

  • Data: 19/05/2015
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  • A Ordem Rodentia representa a mais numerosa ordem de mamíferos, com cerca de 42% das espécies conhecidas atualmente. Os roedores apresentam 2.227 espécies, 468 gêneros e 33 famílias recentes, sendo este último elevado para 50 se forem consideradas as famílias extintas. A enorme variação na morfologia, na diversidade de habitats e climas e na alimentação são as causas desta Ordem ser mais numerosa e melhor sucedida evolutivamente entre as ordens de mamíferos. O gênero Oecomys pertence à subfamília Sigmodontinae (Cricetidae, Rodentia) com aproximandamente 16 espécies descritas, distribuídas em floresta tropical e subtropical do Centro e do Sul da América. Estudos citogenéticos prévios sugerem que o gênero Oecomys apresenta uma grande diversidade cariotípica, com o número diplóide variando entre 58 e 86. No presente trabalho foram analisados, por meio de técnicas citogenéticas convencionais e pintura cromossomo multidirecional (Sondas cromossômicas de Hylaeamys megacephalus – HME), foram analisados 18 exemplares de Oecomys, sendo quatro identificados como da região metropolitana de Belém, Pará ; dois no Município de Santa Bárbara, Pará; cinco  na região de Carajás, Pará e 7 na região do Calha Norte, Pará. Os exemplares do Parque Ambiental de Belém apresentaram 2n=72 e NF=76 e foram identificados como O. paricola. Os exemplares de Santa Bárbara apresentaram 2n=70 e NF=74 e foram identificados como O. paricola. Os exemplares de Carajás apresentaram 2n=70 e NF=72 e foram identificados como O. paricola. Os exemplares coletados do Calha Norte apresentaram 2n=62 e NF=80 e foram identificados como O.auyantepui.  Os citótipos descritos para O. paricola apresentaram diferenças em 5 picos de HME hibrizados, evidenciando 3 rearranjos para esta espécie. Para O. auyantepui foram identificados 5 rearranjos.  As diferenças cromossômicas encontradas para O. paricola de diferentes regiões geográficas sugere que estes citótipos pertencem a espécies crípticas, o que é caracterizado pela ausência de diferenças significativas morfológicas e moleculares, podendo os rearranjos cromossômicos ser a causa do processo de especiação.  Desta forma, O. paricola representa um complexo de espécies onde os indivíduos desta espécie estão se diferenciando independentemente um do outro, e ainda não houve tempo suficiente para fixação de diferenças morfológicas e moleculares.

  • CÉSAR AUGUSTO RAIOL FÔRO
  • INFLUÊNCIAS DO AMBIENTE E DA IDADE SOBRE A COMPLEXIDADE MORFOLÓGICA DOS ASTRÓCITOS DO GIRO DENTEADO DE CAMUNDONGOS SUÍÇOS ALBINOS
  • Data: 14/05/2015
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  • Durante nosso estudo anterior (Diniz et al., 2010), os camundongos (Mus musculus) mantidos em ambiente empobrecido desde o desmame, mimetizando um estilo de vida sedentário, tem um desempenho pior em testes de memória espacial no labirinto aquático de Morris e não distinguem entre objetos antigos e recentes, e entre objetos deslocados e estacionários nos testes de memória semelhante à episódica. Contrastando com esses desempenhos os camundongos mantidos em gaiolas enriquecidas por igual período, preservam essas habilidades estando os resultados comportamentais associados à variação do número de astrócitos em função da camada. Usando as mesmas séries de seções anatômicas imunomarcadas seletivamente para proteína ácida fibrilar glial do estudo anterior, testamos a hipótese de que o empobrecimento ambiental reduziria a complexidade morfológica dos astrócitos e que essa redução estaria associada ao declínio nos testes de memória semelhante à episódica. Para isso utilizou-se microscopia óptica tridimensional empregando amostragem sistemática e aleatória sem viés para selecionar os astrócitos das camadas polimórfica, granular e molecular do giro denteado (GD). Testes de aglomerados e análises discriminantes das reconstruções morfométricas tridimensionais dos astrócitos de cada camada e grupo experimental revelaram dois principais fenótipos morfológicos. Em comparação ao tipo II, detectamos que os astrócitos do tipo I são mais complexos, revelaram maior volume de seus ramos, maior número de segmentos e vértices. A análise integrada com os achados comportamentais anteriores dos mesmos sujeitos revelou que as reduções da complexidade morfológica encontrada em camundongos jovens de ambiente empobrecido e camundongos envelhecidos do ambiente enriquecido, foram observadas em ambos os tipos de astrócitos das camadas giro denteado. Tomados em conjunto nossos dados sugerem que os efeitos em longo prazo do empobrecimento ambiental e do envelhecimento sobre a morfologia dos astrócitos podem contribuir pelo menos em parte para as alterações dos circuitos subjacentes ao declínio de cognitivo observado.
  • ADRIANO AZEVEDO DE MELLO
  • Estudo do Papel das Proteínas LYN, CKB e SRC na Carcinogênese Gástrica.
  • Data: 28/04/2015
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  • O câncer gástrico (CG) é o quarto tipo câncer mais frequente e a segunda maior causa de mortalidade em todo o mundo. Um melhor entendimento da biologia da progressão dessa neoplasia é crucial para redução da taxa de mortalidade com o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas e de tratamento dos pacientes. Em nosso estudo, foram analisadas amostras de câncer gástrico, encontrando-se expressão elevada de mRNA e de proteínas das quinases SRC e LYN, e níveis diminuídos da quinase CKB. Essas alterações podem ter um papel na invasão e na metástase dos tumores gástricos. A expressão dessas três quinases também foram associadas com a expressão do oncogene MYC, um possível biomarcador para o câncer gástrico. Objetivando-se entender os mecanismos que regulam a expressão desses genes, avaliou-se os padrões de metilação dessas três quinases. Assim, descobriu-se que a hipometilação de SRC e LYN e a hipermetilação de CKB estavam presentes apenas nas amostras neoplásicas gástricas. A perda de metilação de SRC e LYN foi associada com aumento nos níveis de expressão de seus mRNA e proteínas, sugerindo que a metilação do DNA está envolvida na regulação da expressão dessas quinases. A frequência de hipermetilação e metilação parcial de CKB foi mais elevada em amostras de câncer gástrico do que em amostras gástricas não-neoplásicas; no entanto, a expressão de CKB estava apenas parcialmente regulada por metilação do DNA. Analisando os dados de expressão, descobriu-se que alterações nos padrões de metilação do DNA das três quinases estudadas também estavam associadas com o avanço do câncer gástrico, invasão tumoral mais profunda e a presença de metástase. Portanto, a expressão de SRC, LYN e CKB ou a metilação do DNA, relacionada a esses genes, podem ser marcadores preditivos úteis para a progressão tumoral e alvos estratégicos em terapêutica anticâncer.
  • ALLAN COSTA MALAQUIAS
  • EXPOSIÇÃO À CONCENTRAÇÃO SUBLETAL DE METILMERCÚRIO: GENOTOXICIDADE E ALTERAÇÕES NA PROLIFERAÇÃO CELULAR
  • Data: 01/04/2015
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  • LETICIA MIQUILINI DE ARRUDA FARIAS
  • Correlação entre parâmetros estimados pelos testes Colour Assessment and Diagnosis e Cambridge Colour Test na avaliação da discriminação de cores

  • Data: 31/03/2015
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  • Os testes Colour Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD) e Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) têm sido amplamente utilizados em pesquisas básicas e clínicas, devido à alta sensibilidade e especificidade de seus resultados. Estes testes utilizam diferentes paradigmas de estimulação para estimar os limiares de discriminação de cor. Pouco se sabe sobre a relação de cada paradigma na avaliação da discriminação de cor nesses testes. Sendo assim, este trabalho objetiva comparar os parâmetros de avaliação da discriminação de cor estimados pelos testes CAD e CCT em sujeitos tricromatas e com discromatopsia congênita. Foram avaliados 59 sujeitos tricromatas e 38 sujeitos discromatópsicos (16 protans, 22 deutans) com idade média de 26,32 ± 8,9 anos. Foram testados 66 sujeitos nos testes CAD e CCT, 29 sujeitos no teste CAD e 2 sujeitos no teste CCT. O fenótipo da visão de cores de todos os sujeitos foi determinado através de uma bateria de testes psicofísicos e a estimativa dos limiares de discriminação de cor foi avaliada pelos testes CAD e CCT. Os dados de limiares de discriminação de cor foram ajustados a funções de elipse. Os critérios analisados para cada sujeito foram: a área da elipse, o ângulo de rotação e tamanho dos vetores protan, deutan e tritan. Para cada um dos parâmetros foi realizada: estatística descritiva, análise da dispersão dos parâmetros entre os testes CAD e CCT e dos parâmetros em conjunto, razão entre os parâmetros, correlação dos parâmetros a três modelos matemáticos e análise de concordância. Os parâmetros de área e tamanho dos vetores deutan e tritan do subgrupo tricromata; área e tamanho do vetor tritan do subgrupo protan; e tamanho dos vetores protan e tritan do subgrupo deutan apresentaram equivalência entre os resultados de ambos os testes. Os parâmetros de área, ângulo de rotação e tamanho dos vetores protan e tritan apresentaram concordância de medidas entre os testes CAD e CCT. Fatores como as localizações distintas das coordenadas centrais dos testes CAD e CCT e a disposição espacial dos vetores no espaço de cor da CIE 1976 no teste CCT podem ter influenciado na determinação de limiares de discriminação cromática de ambos os testes. Apesar de utilizarem paradigmas distintos na configuração da estimulação, os testes CAD e CCT são equiparáveis.

  • MARCELO MARQUES CARDOSO
  •  

    SOBREVIVÊNCIA E DISPERSÃO DE CÉLULAS DA FRAÇÃO MONONUCLEAR DA MEDULA ÓSSEA TRANSPLANTADAS HETEROLOGAMENTE NO ESTRIADO APÓS ISQUEMIA EXPERIMENTAL

  • Data: 27/02/2015
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  • Estudos experimentais evidenciam o potencial promissor das células da fração mononuclear da medula óssea (CMN-MO) no tratamento de modelos de isquemia cerebral. Sabe-se que as CMN-MOs são sensíveis à modificações microambientais, tal qual aquelas induzidas por uma isquemia, como eventos associados à inflamação. Contudo, pouco se conhece a respeito da biodistribuição e sobrevida dessas células no tecido nervoso pós-lesão. Objetiva-se investigar se a sobrevivência e a disseminação das CMN-MOs são influenciadas pela resposta inflamatória após isquemia estriatal. Parecer CEPAE, protocolo nº 073/12. Transplante heterólogo (5x105 de CMN-MOs) no estriado de ratos Wistar, agrupados entre controles não-tratados (IST) e falso-operado (FO) e tratados (ITCM), perfundidos em 1, 3, 7 e 28 dias. CMN-MO foram impregnadas com Nanocristais Qdot para posterior identificação por microscopia de fluorescência no tecido do receptor. Coloração, por violeta de cresila, e imunoistoquímica básica (IBA1 e ED1) foram aplicadas para análise histopatológica do tecido em microscopia de luz. Testes neurocomportamentais (teste de remoção do adesivo e teste do cilindro) foram realizados para aferir a resposta dos grupos às intervenções. Os achados histopatológicos evidenciam a eficiência do modelo experimental de indução isquêmica em reproduzir a lesão no estriado dorsolateral. O infiltrado celular no grupo IST marca a resposta inflamatória, posteriormente confirmada por imunoistoquímica para ED1 e IBA1; o infiltrado celular no grupo ITCM, evidencia a permanência das CMN-MO em todas as sobrevidas estudadas. O perfil de perda por morte das CMN-MO transplantadas no sítio de lesão é semelhante entre os grupos ITCM e FO, contudo, evidencia que resposta inflamatória do receptor causa maior decaimento do montante celular no grupo ITCM. Procedimentos de infusão celular mais refinados ou automatizados podem melhorar a sensibilidade dos testes comportamentais para discriminar a evolução entre os grupos estudados. Conclui-se que a alteração do microambiente pós-isquemia cria condições que determina a dispersão e a sobrevivência das CMN-MO. Outras análises de imunoistoquímicas podem apontar resultados quanto ao perfil microglial presentes nas sobrevidas estudadas e o grau de imunomodulação pelo estudo da dinâmica das citocinas inflamatórias produzidas.

  • ENEAS DE ANDRADE FONTES JUNIOR
  • Acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico na
    exposição crônica ao etanol: estudo pré-clínico
    da comorbidade e da resposta a minociclina.

  • Data: 27/02/2015
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  •  

    O acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) é a segunda maior causa de morte no mundo e a principal
    no Brasil, sendo que 87% dos AVE ocorrem por processos isquêmicos (AVEI). O consumo
    crônico de etanol, que se inicia geralmente na adolescência, é reconhecido como um fator de
    risco independente para a elevação da morbidade e mortalidade por AVEI. Apesar de que
    casos que combinem as duas patologias sejam relativamente frequentes, não há dados
    disponíveis em modelos animais ou clínicos que demonstrem a qualidade ou mecanismos de
    interação entre as duas morbidades, e tão pouco suas consequências sobre a intervenção
    terapêutica. Considerando então os recentes estudos que propõem a minociclina como nova
    ferramenta terapêutica para o tratamento do AVEI, este estudo teve por objetivo investigar a
    interação entre a Intoxicação Alcoólica Crônica (IAC) iniciada na adolescência e o AVEI em
    córtex motor na fase adulta em ratos, e os efeitos do tratamento com minociclina sobre esta
    interação, usando parâmetros comportamentais, celulares e moleculares. Ratas Wistar (de 35
    dias de idade) foram expostas cronicamente a etanol (6,5 g/kg/dia, 22,5% m/v) ou água por
    55 dias. Um dia após o fim da IAC, foi induzida isquemia focal no córtex motor com endotelina-
    1 (ET-1), seguindo-se sete dias de tratamento com minociclina ou salina. Ao final deste período
    os animais foram testados em modelos de campo aberto e rota rod. A seguir, os animais foram
    sacrificados e o córtex dissecado para avaliação dos níveis de nitritos e de peroxidação lipídica.
    De cada grupo, alguns animais foram perfundidos e o córtex motor submetidos à analise
    histológica, para avaliação do dano, e histopatológica, para a morte neuronal (anti-NeuN),
    ativação microglial/macrófagica (Anti-ED1) e astrocitária (anti-GFAP). A intoxicação por etanol
    a partir da puberdade até a idade adulta potencializou os danos causados pela isquemia,
    causando grandes perdas na capacidade de iniciar e gerir os movimentos, bem como na
    coordenação e força motora em comparação aos animais isquêmicos pré-tratados com água.
    Estas manifestações foram acompanhadas de aumento da perda neuronal, redução do
    número de células ED1+ e GFAP+ e maiores níveis de nitritos e peroxidação lipídica. O
    tratamento com minociclina foi eficiente em prevenir/reverter as perdas motoras e danos
    teciduais induzidos pela isquemia focal, inibindo também a elevação dos marcadores de
    estresse oxidativo. A IAC tanto isoladamente como sucedida pela isquemia focal, modificaram
    o desfecho do tratamento com minociclina. Os nossos resultados indicam que a intoxicação
    com álcool durante a adolescência agrava o déficit motor e danos no tecido em animais
    sujeitos a isquemia focal no córtex motor. Este processo parece estar associado com a
    ativação microglial/ astrocitária, mas principalmente com o estresse oxidativo. Mostra ainda
    que o histórico prévio de IAC iniciado na adolescência interfere significativamente no
    tratamento da isquemia cerebral com minociclina.

  • MARTHA DE SOUZA FRANCA
  • O TRATAMENTO COM ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO ACELERA O PROCESSO DE REPARO DO TENDÃO CALCÂNEO EM MODELO DE LESÃO TENDÍNEA EM RATOS

  • Data: 24/02/2015
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  • A ruptura do tendão calcâneo acomete uma grande parte da população, principalmente atletas e idosos e seu processo de reparo ainda necessita de maiores esclarecimentos, possibilitando novos tratamentos. O ácido ascórbico (AA) é uma substância conhecida pela participação na hidroxilação de prolina e lisina, importante para síntese da matriz extracelular, bem como eficiência comprovada em diversos tratamentos por suas propriedades antioxidantes. Dessa forma, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tratamento local com AA nos parâmetros de reparo tecidual e funcional no tendão calcâneo de ratos. O trabalho foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética da instituição (CEPAE-UFPA) sob o parecer 161-13. Os animais foram submetidos à ruptura do tendão calcâneo, em três grupos (n=18): Controle; Injúria+AA (30mM); Injúria+veículo (NaCl 0,9%). Todos os tratamentos foram realizados por injeção local, a partir do segundo dia pós-lesão e a cada dois dias até o 14º dia ou 21º dia. Foi avaliado a marcha dos animais pelo Índice funcional de Aquiles (IFA) nos dias 7(n=6), 14(n=6) e 21(n=3) dias pós-lesão, o número de células por marcação com DAPI no 14º(n=9) e 21º(n=9) dia pós –lesão e a estrutura do tecido por marcação com HE, nos mesmos dias. Os animais não diferiram no ganho de massa corporal. O grupo Injúria+AA(-39.51±15.3) apresentou melhora funcional principalmente no 14º dia, se comparado ao grupo Injúria+veículo(-89.22±16.57, p<0,01). A análise histológica demonstrou sob contagem do número de células, que o grupo Injúria+AA(762±29.6) apresentou um menor número de células no 21º dia em relação ao grupo Injúria+veículo(916±57.0, p<0,01). A análise da autofluorescência do colágeno e HE demostrou que o grupo tratado com AA apresentou uma estrutura tecidual mais conservada em 14 e 21 dias pós-lesão em relação ao grupo veículo que, por sua vez, difere bastante do grupo controle. Nossos resultados sugerem que o ácido ascórbico acelera o processo de reparo da lesão tendínea, apresentando melhoras teciduais e funcionais 21 dias após a lesão.

  • RAFAEL MONTEIRO FERNANDES
  • AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DECORRENTES DA EXPOSIÇÃO AO CLORETO DE LUMÍNIO SOBRE PARÂMETROS  OTORES, COGNITIVOS E DE ESTRESSE OXIDATIVO EM RATOS.

  • Data: 20/02/2015
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  • Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust, being present in large amounts in soil and water, its high bioavailability makes it an important environmental contaminant. Al is considered a neurotoxic agent and accumulates in the nervous system, being this behavior associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about its effects at doses similar to human consumption in the nervous and biochemical systems. Thus, this study investigated the effects of chronic exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on cognition, motor behavior and oxidative stress. For this, adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Al1 (8.3 mg / kg / day), Al2 (5.2 mg / kg / day) and Control (Distilled water) being exposed orally for 60 days. After the exposure period, behavioral, histological, oxidative stress parameters and quantification of aluminum levels in the blood were performed. There were no changes in motor behavior, there was change in only one exploratory parameter and in cognition. No differences were found in the population of the purkinje neurons between the experimental groups. Exposure to Al increased levels of this metal in the blood, also altering the parameters of oxidative biochemistry. Thus, we can affirm that exposure to Al in rats, at doses equivalent to urban exposure and in potentially safe doses are capable of promoting breakage of blood homeostasis, altering hippocampal biochemical balance, generating a state of oxidative stress and cognitive damage, not being able to promote significant changes in the cerebellum and motor parameters.

  • LUANA KETLEN REIS LEÃO DA PENHA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA RESPOSTA INFLAMATÓRIA E ALTERAÇÕES NEUROQUÍMICAS E ELETROFISIOLÓGICAS DO TECIDO RETINIANO EM MODELO MURINO DE MALÁRIA CEREBRAL INDUZIDO PELA INFECÇÃO POR Plasmodium berghei ANKA

  • Data: 19/02/2015
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  • A malária cerebral (MC) é uma das complicações mais graves resultante da infecção por P. falciparum e a principal causa de morte em crianças. O quadro de MC apresenta uma patogênese complexa, associado a complicações neurológicas provenientes de uma resposta imunológica exacerbada, bem como eventos hemorrágicos. Estudos descrevem uma retinopatia associada ao quadro, juntamente com um intenso processo de astrogliose nas proximidades de vasos que nutrem o tecido retiniano. O presente trabalho buscou caracterizar o processo inflamatório e as possíveis alterações neuroquímicas e eletrofisiológicas no tecido retiniano de camundongos albino suíço, quando inoculados com a cepa ANKA de Plasmodium berghei (PbA). Camundongos albino suíço foram infectados com cepa PbA. Para caracterização do quadro de malária cerebral experimental (MCE) foram avaliados diversos parâmetros, como surgimento dos sinais clínicos, curva de sobrevivência, parasitemia (%), ganho de massa corpórea, permeabilidade vascular e quantificação de citocinas (TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-10) no tecido cortical. Para avaliarmos alterações na funcionalidade do tecido retiniano, utilizamos eletrorretinograma de campo total. Para a avaliação dos sistemas de neurotransmissão foi realizado ensaio de liberação e captação de glutamato e GABA que, posteriormente foi quantificado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Para análise da resposta inflamatória foi realizada a quantificação de citocinas (TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-10) no tecido retiniano. Após a caracterização do quadro de MCE nós observamos a diminuição da amplitude de onda-b de cones e bastonetes, bem como aumento do tempo implícito de bastonetes, respostas mistas em diferentes intensidades e potencial oscilatório. Observamos aumento na liberação e captação de glutamato e, ainda, a ativação de uma via antiinflamatória no tecido retiniano. Este trabalho nos permitiu validar o modelo murino de MCE e caracterizar, pela primeira vez, alterações na funcionalidade do tecido retiniano, acompanhada de alterações no sistema glutamatérgico, bem como ativação de uma via antiinflamatória no tecido retiniano.

  • DIEHGO TULOZA DA SILVA
  • PROTEÍNA PR-4 DE PIMENTEIRA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L.): EXPRESSÃO HETERÓLOGA EM SISTEMA BACTERIANO E AVALIAÇÃO FUNCIONAL
  • Data: 06/02/2015
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  • Proteínas Relacionadas à Patogênese (PR) são induzidas em resposta ao ataque de patôgenos. Proteínas PR são agrupadas em 17 famílias, PR-1 a PR-17. Atividades antifúngicas e enzimáticas foram descritas para algumas dessas proteínas. Entre elas, a família PR-4 compõe as classes I e II de quitinases de plantas. Um clone de cDNA que codifica uma PR-4 da classe II, nomeada PnPR-4, foi isolado, em estudos anteriores, de Piper nigrum L. (pimenteira do reino). Esta é uma importante cultura para Brasil, principalmente no estado do Pará, no entanto sua produção tem diminuído devido à doença conhecida como podridão da raiz (Fusariose) causada pelo fungo Fusarium solani f. sp. Piperis. Neste trabalho, o cDNA da PnPR-4 foi usado para a produção da proteína recombinante, chamada de PnPR-4. O quadro de leitura aberta (ORF) da PnPR-4, foi amplificado por meio de ensaio de PCR e, em seguida a ORF foi ligada ao vetor de expressão pET-29(a) e introduzido, por eletroporação, em E. coli Rosetta (DE3). Nas células transformadas, a produção da proteína de interesse foi induzida por IPTG 1mM à 37°C por 5h. Após a produção, a atividade enzimática da proteina recombinante PnPR-4 foi avaliada pela detecção da atividade enzimática de quitinase em gel de poliacrilamida após eletroforese. A atividade foi avaliada em pH: 5.0 e pH:7.8 para demonstra a estabilidade da proteína recombinante. A massa molecular da PnPR-4 foi de 13.5 kDa, estando de acordo com outras PR-4 produzidas pelo sistema de expressão heterologa em sistema bacteriano. No ensaio de atividade enzimática, a PnPR-4 apresentou atividade quitinolitica, tanto em pH:5.0 ou pH:7.8. Esta é uma característica de chitinases de plantas, atividade em uma ampla faixa de pHs. Onde, a atividade ótima ocorre entre pH: 3.0 e 5.0. Na proteína recombianante, o pH ótimo foi 5.0, no entato ela teve atividade em pH 7.8, demonstrando a estabilidade da enzima. Estes resultados mostram que o sistema bacteriano de expressão heteróloga é eficaz para a produção da proteína recombinante PnPR-4, que é uma enzima com atividade quitinolitica e altamente estável. Assim, a PnPR-4 é uma nova enzima que pode ser usado em biotecnologia vegetal no combate contra fungos patogênicos da planta.
  • TARCYANE BARATA GARCIA
  •  

    O FATOR DE CRESCIMENTO DO NERVO INIBE O EDEMA CITOTÓXICO DE CÉLULAS DE MÜLLER E CÉLULAS BIPOLARES DA RETINA DE RATO POR MEIO DA LIBERAÇÃO DE CITOCINAS GLIAIS: PARTICIPAÇÃO DO SISTEMA GLUTAMATÉRGICO E PURINÉRGICO 

  • Data: 03/02/2015
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  • O fator de crescimento do nervo (NGF) pode retardar a degeneração celular na retina de ratos em diferentes injúrias retinianas. O acúmulo de água em células da retina contribui para o desenvolvimento de edema retiniano e degeneração neuronal. Em atribuição ao seu efeito protetor, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se o NGF influencia o edema celular osmótico em células de Müller e células bipolares. Assim, montagens planas, fatias de retina e células isoladas da retina de ratos foram superfundidas com solução hipo-osmótica na presença de BaCl2. Secções retinianas foram utilizadas para imunomarcações, e a liberação de adenosina foi medida por cromatografia líquida de alta eficácia, em montagens planas. A área de secção transversal celular foi medida antes e após a superfusão em meio hipo-osmótico, em fatias de retina e suspensões celulares. Tanto células de Müller quanto células bipolares foram imunopositivas para TrkA, mas somente células de Müller foram marcadas contra p75NTR e NGF. A hipo-osmolaridade induziu um rápido e significativo aumento da liberação de adenosina endógena em retinas controle, mas não em retinas perfundidas com BaCl2. O NGF inibiu o edema citotóxico em células de Müller e em células bipolares em fatias de retina controle e retinas pós-isquêmicas submetidas a condições hipo-osmóticas. Por outro lado, NGF impediu o edema citotóxico da célula de Müller isolada, mas não da célula bipolar isolada (em meio hipo-osmótico contendo íons Ba2+). Isto sugere que NGF induz a liberação de fatores por células de Müller, os quais inibem o edema citotóxico de células bipolares em fatias de retina. O efeito inibitório do NGF sobre o edema citotóxico de células de Müller foi mediado pela ativação do receptor TrkA, mas não de p75NTR, e foi anulado por bloqueadores de receptores metabotrópicos de glutamato, receptores de adenosina A1, e receptores do fator de crescimento de fibroblasto (FGF). O bFGF evitou o edema citotóxico de células de Müller isoladas, mas inibiu somente em parte o edema citotóxico de células bipolares isoladas. O bloqueio de FGFR impediu o efeito inibidor de edema celular da adenosina, sugerindo que a liberação de bFGF ocorre após à ativação autócrina/parácrina de receptores A1. Além de bFGF, GDNF e TGF-β1 reduziram em parte o edema citotóxico da célula bipolar. Estes dados sugerem que o efeito neuroprotetor do NGF é em parte mediado pela prevenção de edema citotóxico de células gliais e bipolares da retina.

  • TAYANA SILVA DE CARVALHO
  • A intensificação do comportamento tipo ansiedade induzido por
    cafeína em Daniorerio(zebrafish) é prevenida pelo tratamento com -
    Tocoferol e L-NAME

  • Data: 23/01/2015
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  • O crescente consumo de bebidas com elevado teor de cafeína pode resultar no
    aparecimento de sintomas provenientes do transtorno de ansiedade induzida por essa
    droga. Atualmente, tem-se utilizado a cafeína como um indutor farmacológico do
    comportamento tipo ansiedade e essa indução pode facilitar a melhor compreensão da
    relação entre alterações comportamentais e os mecanismos de ação envolvidos nesse
    efeito, portanto o presente trabalho propôs que a via nitrérgica poderia ser um
    mecanismo chave para explicar os efeitos comportamentais produzidos pela cafeína e
    que esses efeitos poderiam ser revertidos por um antioxidante, logo, no presente
    trabalho nós tivemos como objetivo avaliar o possível efeito do L-NAME e do -
    tocoferol no comportamento tipo ansiedade ampliado pela cafeína nos testes de
    preferência claro/escuro (PCE) e distribuição vertical eliciada pela novidade (DVN) em
    Daniorerio. Foram utilizados peixes da espécie Daniorerio(n=178) subdivididos nos
    seguintes grupos experimentais: SAL – salina 0,9%; CAF – cafeína 100 mg/kg; DMSO
    – dimetilsulfóxido 0,1%; L-NAME - (N-Nitro-L-arginina-metil éster hidrocloreto) 10
    mg/kg; TF – -tocoferol 1 mg/kg (receberam apenas uma injeção por i.p); SAL + SAL;
    DMSO + SAL; SAL + CAF; L-NAME + SAL; L-NAME +CAF; TF + CAF (receberam
    duas injeções seguidas, uma injeção de cada substância na forma de cotratamento, por
    i.p). Os animais foram submetidos ao teste de preferência claro/escuro e de distribuição
    vertical eliciada pela novidade. Todos os testes foram filmados e os vídeos foram
    avaliados utilizando o X-PLO-RAT. Os dados foram expressos em média ± erro padrão.
    Foi aplicado o teste de normalidade utilizando o teste Shapiro-Wilk e o teste
    paramétrico ANOVA de uma via com pós-teste Tukey, considerando significativos
    valores com p<0,05. Nós demonstramos que o -tocoferol na dose de 1 mg/kg reverteu
    todos os parâmetros do comportamento tipo ansiedade ampliado pela cafeína nos testes
    de PCE e do DVN e esse efeito foi semelhante ao observado quando administrado um
    inibidor da enzima óxido nítrico sintase (NOS), L-NAME. Portanto, o presente trabalho
    demonstrou pela primeira vez que o efeito comportamental ampliado pela cafeína no
    teste escotáxico e no DVN pode ser modulado pelo sistema nitrérgico e que o -
    tocoferol reverte esse efeito comportamental induzido pela cafeína de forma total.

2014
Descrição
  • KELLY HELORANY ALVES COSTA
  • ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA E TOPOGRÁFICA DAS CÉLULAS GANGLIONARES DA RETINA DO CAITITU (Tayassu tajacu)

  • Data: 22/12/2014
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  • Na Amazônia habitam diversas espécies de animais silvestres, tornando-a um importante local de investigação sobre fisiologia comparada. Dentre estas espécies, destacamos o caititu Tayassu tajacu, animal distribuído na América Central e Latina. Existem várias publicações acerca da morfologia de órgãos sexuais, carne e sangue do caititu. Porém, no que diz respeito ao estudo sobre a morfofisiologia visual do caititu, as publicações ainda são escassas. Diante dessa realidade, o presente estudo investigou a morfologia e topografia das células ganglionares da retina do Tayassu tajacu. Foram utilizadas seis retinas, provenientes de oito animais de ambos os sexos da espécie Tayassu tacaju. Os caititus, criados e mantidos em cativeiro na Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Brasileira - Embrapa/Pará, foram abatidos de acordo com as normas de manejo animal para posterior retirada e fixação dos olhos. As retinas foram dissecadas e coradas utilizando a técnica de Nissl para visualização de células ganglionares, amácrinas deslocadas, hemácias, micróglia e células componentes da vascularização. A contagem de células ganglionares foi realizada ao longo do eixo horizontal e vertical, sendo o número de células ganglionares por campo convertido em valores de densidade. Diferentes regiões da retina foram analisadas quanto à densidade celular, obtendo-se como valor médio de densidade 351,822 ± 31,434 CG/mm². Verificaram-se diferenças de densidade entre as regiões estudadas: a região dorsal teve densidade média e desvio padrão de 894 ± 44 CG/mm²; a região ventral 894 ± 1 CG/mm²; a região nasal 1.403 ± 43; e a região temporal com 1596 ± 251. O pico de densidade a média, localizado a aproximadamente 3,13 mm de distância no sentido dorsal e 6,77 mm no sentido temporal do nervo óptico, foi de 6.767 CG/mm². Verificaram-se duas regiões especializadas, a faixa visual e a area temporalis. A faixa visual, localizada no sentido horizontal da região nasal para temporal, apresentou alta densidade celular, possivelmente proporcionando melhor visão panorâmica do ambiente e detecção de objetos em movimento no horizonte. Já a area temporalis, localizada dentro da faixa visual, proporciona maior acuidade visual e resolução espacial, do meio em que vivem Os resultados deste trabalho permitem iniciar comparações morfofisiológicas da retina dos caititus com a de outras espécies animais.

  • DANIELLE CRISTINNE AZEVEDO FEIO
  • "AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE NANOPARTÍCULAS LIPÍDICAS QUE SE LIGAM A RECEPTORES CELULARES COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA A TERAPÊUTICA DO CÂNCER"

  • Data: 19/12/2014
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  • Sistema de nanopartículas à base de lipídios têm sido usados como veículos experimentais para agentes quimioterápicos no tratamento do câncer. Recentemente essas preparações de nanopartículas foram testadas também em modelos animais de doenças inflamatórias cardiovasculares crônicas, doenças reumáticas entre outras. Acredita-se que esses sistemas suspostamente atenuem os graves efeitos tóxicos de agentes quimioterápicos antineoplásicos. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos da associação do paclitaxel a um sistema de nanopartículas à base de lipídios no tratamento crônico em primatas não-humanos, da espécie Cebus apella, por meio de extensas documentações e métodos detalhados da análise toxicológica através de bioquímica sérica, parâmetros hematológicos e histopatológicos. As nanopartículas a base de lipídios (LDE) eram constituída por ésteres de colesterol esterificado e colesterol, lectina e treolin, com adição de paclitaxel. Foram estudados dezoito Cebus apella; sendo que três animais foram tratados apenas com solução salina, administrada por via intravenosa, a cada três semanas, durante seis ciclos de tratamento; seis animais foram tratados com o paclitaxel associado a LDE no mesmo regime de administração, com três animais recebendo a dose mais baixa do fármaco (175 mg/m²) e três com a dose mais elevada (250mg/m2); seis animais foram tratados com o paclitaxel na forma comercial, sendo que três receberam as doses mais baixas (175 mg/m²) e outros três com doses mais elevadas (250mg/m2). Três semanas após o último ciclo de tratamento foram submetidos a eutanásia por dosagem letal de anestésico, e os fragmentos de tecidos foram recolhidos para a análise histopatológica. Em três animais não-tratados, a cinética plasmática da LDE foi determinada após a injeção intravenosa do colesterol radioativo (3H), seguido de coleta de sangue ao longo de 24 horas. O projeto foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética em pesquisa com animais de experimentação da UFPA (CEPAE/BIO008-11). No grupo LDE-paclitaxel, nenhuma toxicidade clínica foi observada, o peso, assim como o consumo de alimentos foram semelhantes aos animais pertencentes ao grupo controle. O tratamento foi interrompido após o segundo ciclo em quatro animais de grupo que recebeu o paclitaxel na forma comercial, devido a elevada toxicidade clínica, entretanto dois animais completaram os 6 ciclos de tratamento. Esses dois animais apresentaram perda de peso, náuseas e vômitos, diarréia, lesão inflamatória descamativa, perda de 70% do pelo corpóreo e diminuição da atividade física. A dose de paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 é usado em quimioterapia contra o câncer com uma toxicidade considerável, enquanto que a dose a 250 mg/m2 é intolerável e mostra toxicidade considerável nos pacientes. O uso de LDE como transportador de fármaco, em ambos as doses neutralizou consideravelmente a toxicidade do fármaco em primatas não humanos da espécie Cebus apella, intimamente relacionadas a sujeitos humanos. Isso foi observado não só devido as manifestações clínicas, bioquímicas e hematológicas, mas também pela análise histopatológica do estômago, intestino delgado e grosso, esôfago, pâncreas, traqueia e da vesícula biliar. Os resultados suportam a hipótese de que os sistemas de nanopartículas à base de lipídios utilizado como transportadores de droga pode oferecer ferramentas valiosas na diminuição da toxicidade e aumentar a segurança dos agentes quimioterápicos, assim como, amplia a sua utilização em outras doenças crônicas que não o câncer.

  • JOAO BENTO TORRES NETO
  • ENRIQUECIMENTO AMBIENTAL REDUZ AS ALTERAÇÕES ASTROCITÁRIAS E A PROGRESSÃO DA DOENÇA PRION EM MODELO MURINO: ensaios morfométricos, estereológicos e comportamentais.

  • Data: 26/11/2014
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  • Já está bem estabelecido que um estilo de vida sedentário é fator de risco para uma série de doenças crônicas, dentre elas a doença de Alzheimer. A neuropatologia da doença de Alzheimer é caracterizada por depósitos amilóides, perda neuronal, gliose reativa e vacuolização da neurópila. A doença príon tem sido amplamente utilizada como modelo experimental para estudar aspectos celulares e moleculares da neurodegeneração crônica em muito semelhante àquela descrita na doença de Alzheimer. O ambiente empobrecido das gaiolas padrão de laboratório tem sido usado para mimetizar um estilo de vida sedentário enquanto que o ambiente enriquecido tem sido empregado para mimetizar um estilo de vida ativo. Para testar a hipótese de que o ambiente enriquecido pode contribuir para desacelerar o curso temporal da neurodegeneração crônica associada à doença príon em modelo murino induzimos a doença príon em vinte camundongos fêmeas da variedade suíça albina que tinham sido alojadas aos seis meses de idade em ambiente enriquecido (EE) ou em ambiente padrão (SE) durante cinco meses. Após esse peródo foram realizadas cirurgias para injeção estereotáxica intracerebral bilateral de homogendao de cérebro de camundongo normal (NBH, n=10) ou de camundongo com sinais clínicos de doença príon terminal (ME7, n=10). Os animais foram devolvidos as suas gaiolas e condições de alojamento originais formando os seguintes grupos experimentais: NBH SE=5, NBH EE=5, ME7 SE=5, ME7 EE=5. Após três semanas foi iniciado teste semanal empregando o burrowing, uma tarefa sensível ao dano hipocampal e 18 semanas após as inoculações realizou-se os testes de memória de reconhecimento de objetos. Encerrados os testes sacrificou-se os animais realizando-se o processamento histológico do tecido nervoso visando a imunomarcação astrocítica das áreas de interesse. A redução progressiva da atividade de burrowing teve início na décima terceira semana pós injeção no grupo ME7 SE e somente na décima quinta semana no grupo ME7 EE. A habilidade de reconhecer o objeto deslocado no teste de memória espacial foi comprometida no grupo ME7 SE, mas se manteve normal nos demais grupos experimentais. O teste de discriminação entre o objeto novo e o familiar não revelou alterações. As análises quantitativas sem viés dos astrócitos imunomarcados para proteína fibrilar ácida (GFAP) foram realizadas no stratum radiatum de CA3 e na camada polimórfica do giro denteado dorsal. As estimativas estereológicas do número total de astrócitos e do volume do corpo celular revelaram que em CA3 somente ocorre hipertrofia dos corpos celulares em animais dos grupos ME7 SE e ME7 EE em relação aos respectivos controles, sendo o volume médio dos corpos celulares do grupo ME7 EE menor que aquele do grupo ME7 SE. Na camada polimórfica houve significativo aumento do número de astrócitos no grupo ME7 SE em relação ao NBH SE e do grupo NBH EE em relação ao NBH SE. O volume do corpo celular também foi significativamente maior nos grupos ME7 em relação aos respectivos controles dos grupos NBH. As análises morfométricas tridimensionais revelaram importante aumento de volume e área de superfície dos segmentos das árvores astrocíticas nos grupos doentes em comparação aos controles. O enriquecimento ambiental reduziu o aumento de volume dos ramos observado no grupo ME7 e aumentou o número de intersecções dos ramos distais no grupo NBH EE em relação ao NBH SE e nos ramos proximais no grupo ME7 EE em relação ao ME7 SE. O emprego da análise de cluster e discriminante permitiu a identificação dos parâmetros morfométricos que mais contribuíram para a distinção entre os grupos. Para testar a hipótese de existirem subfamílias de astrócitos morfologicamente distintos dentro de cada grupo experimental, foi realizada análise de conglomerados que resultou na formação de duas famílias distintas no grupo NBH SE, três famílias nos grupos NBH EE e ME7 EE e quatro famílias no grupo ME7 SE. As bases celulares e moleculares que conduzem a formação de novas famílias de astrócitos e a neuroproteção associada ao ambiente enriquecido que diminui a velocidade de progressão da doença permanecem por serem investigadas.

  • ERICA DE TÁSSIA CARVALHO CARDOSO
  • INIBIÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE DA TIROSINASE POR ANÁLOGOS DO
    ÁCIDO KÓJICO

  • Data: 14/11/2014
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  • A tirosinase é uma enzima chave para a biossíntese de melanina. É uma enzima “cobre-dependente” que pode existir em três estados intermediários: desoxi (Cu1+-Cu1+), oxi (Cu2+-O2-Cu2+) e met (Cu2+-Cu2+). Apresenta atividade bifuncional, pois oxida fenóis ou catecóis em seus o-difenóis correspondentes, sendo que o processo de oxidação de fenóis pode ser descrito por cinética de Michaelis-Menten. Distúrbios na tirosinase estão associados com hiperpigmentação e escurecimento enzimático de frutas e fungos. Assim a busca por substâncias de origem natural ou sintética capazes de regular o comportamento desta enzima é fator chave para o tratamento de tais desordens. Nesta perspectiva, no presente trabalho buscou-se analisar bioquimicamente a atividade anti-tirosinase de análogos do ácido kójico derivados de 4H- pironas (S-01, S-02, S-03 e S-04) e derivados de diidropirano[3,2-b]cromenodionas (S-05, S-06, S-07 e S-08), quimicamente planejadas por modelagem molecular no LPDF, do ICEN da UFPA. A cinética das substâncias S-02, S-04, S-06, S-07 e S-08 apresentaram inibição do tipo competitiva, semelhante ao padrão de inibição do ácido kójico, com valores de Ki de 145,0 ± 20,0 μM; 64,0 ± 10,0 μM; 4,0 ± 0,0 μM; 6,0 ± 0,0 μM; 9,0 ± 0,0 μM, respectivamente, e de 5,0 ± 0,0 μM para o ácido kójico, enquanto a substância S-01 apresentou uma inibição do tipo mista (Ki = 999,0 ± 150,0 μM). Já as substâncias S-03 e S-05 não apresentaram atividade inibitória. As substâncias testadas demonstraram alto grau de segurança tanto na integridade de membrana de eritrócitos em teste de hemólise, quanto na viabilidade em teste com MTT em culturas de fibroblasto MRC5, em cultura de células nervosas de retina de embrião de galinha e em melanoma B16F10. Assim, demonstrou-se que as substâncias S-02, S-04, S-06, S-07 e S-08 apresentam atividade como potentes inibidores de tirosinase, podendo ser candidatos no tratamento de desordens de pigmentação.

  • CAIO MAXIMINO DE OLIVEIRA
  • Papel da serotonina no comportamento defensivo do paulistinha (Danio rerio Hamilton
    1822) adulto: Diferenças entre modelos comportamentais, linhagens e efeitos do estresse
    predatório agudo

  • Data: 14/11/2014
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  • Os transtornos de ansiedade apresentam a maior incidência na população mundial
    dentre os transtornos psiquiátricos, e a eficácia clínica das drogas ansiolíticas é
    baixa, em parte devido ao desconhecimento acerca das bases neuroquímicas
    desses transtornos. Para uma compreensão mais ampla e evolutivamente
    substanciada desses fenômenos, a utilização de espécies filogeneticamente mais
    antigas pode ser uma aproximação interessante no campo da modelagem
    comportamental; assim, sugerimos o uso do paulistinha (Danio rerio Hamilton 1822)
    na tentativa de compreender a modulação de comportamentos tipo-ansiedade pelo
    sistema serotonérgico. Demonstramos que os níveis extracelulares de serotonina no
    encéfalo de paulistinhas adultos expostos ao teste de preferência claro/escuro [PCE]
    (mas não ao teste de distribuição vertical eliciada pela novidade [DVN]) apresentamse
    elevados em relação a animais manipulados mas não expostos aos aparatos.
    Além disso, os níveis teciduais de serotonina no rombencéfalo e no prosencéfalo
    são elevados pela exposição ao PCE, enquanto no mesencéfalo são elevados pela
    exposição ao DVN. Os níveis extracelulares de serotonina estão correlacionados
    negativamente com a geotaxia no DVN, e positivamente com a escototaxia,
    tigmotaxia e a avaliação de risco no PCE. O tratamento agudo com uma dose baixa
    de fluoxetina (2,5 mg/kg) aumenta a escototaxia, a tigmotaxia e a avaliação de risco
    no PCE, diminui a geotaxia e o congelamento e facilita a habituação no DVN. O
    tratamento com buspirona diminui a escototaxia, a tigmotaxia e o congelamento nas
    doses de 25 e 50 mg/kg no PCE, e diminui a avaliação de risco na dose de 50
    mg/kg; no DVN, ambas as doses diminuem a geotaxia, enquanto somente a maior
    dose diminui o congelamento e facilita a habituação. O tratamento com WAY 100635
    diminui a escototaxia nas doses de 0,003 e 0,03 mg/kg, enquanto somente a dose
    de 0,03 mg/kg diminui a tigmotaxia e a avaliação de risco no PCE. No DVN, ambas
    as doses diminuem a geotaxia, enquanto somente a menor dose facilita a
    habituação e aumenta o tempo em uma “base” (“homebase”). O tratamento com SB
    224289 não produziu efeitos sobre a escototaxia, mas aumentou a avaliação de
    risco na dose de 2,5 mg/kg; no DVN, essa droga diminuiu a geotaxia e o nado
    errático nas doses de 2,5 e 5 mg/kg, enquanto a dose de 2,5 mg/kg aumentou a
    formação de “bases”. O tratamento com DL-para-clorofenilalanina (2 injeções de 300
    mg/kg, separadas por 24 horas) diminuiu a escototaxia, a tigmotaxia e a avaliação
    de risco no PCE, aumentou a geotaxia e a formação de bases e diminuiu a
    habituação no DVN. Quando os animais são pré-expostos a uma “substância de
    alarme” co-específica, observa-se um aumento nos níveis extracelulares de
    serotonina associados a um aumento na escototaxia, congelamento e nado errático
    no PCE; os efeitos comportamentais e neuroquímicos foram bloqueados pelo prétratamento
    com fluoxetina (2,5 mg/kg), mas não pelo pré-tratamento com WAY
    100,635 (0,003 mg/kg). Animais da linhagem leopard apresentam maior escototaxia
    e avaliação de risco no PCE, assim como níveis teciduais elevados de serotonina no
    encéfalo; o fenótipo comportamental é resgatado pelo tratamento com fluoxetina (5
    mg/kg). Esses dados sugerem que o sistema serotonérgico dessa espécie modula o
    comportamento no DVN e no PCE de forma oposta; que a resposta de medo
    produzida pela substância de alarme também parece aumentar a atividade do
    sistema serotonérgico, um efeito possivelmente mediado pelos transportadores de
    serotonina, e ao menos um fenótipo mutante de alta ansiedade também está
    associado a esses transportadores. Sugere-se que, de um ponto de vista funcional,
    a serotonina aumenta a ansiedade e diminui o medo em paulistinhas.

  • RODRIGO RIBEIRO FURTADO
  • DETECÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE E IMUNOLOCALIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA ÓXIDO NÍTRICO SINTASE EM Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis E Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  • Data: 30/10/2014
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  • As leishmanioses são protozoonoses causadas por parasitos do gênero Leishmania e estão distribuídas por diversas partes do mundo. Essa patologia se manifesta sobre diversas formas clínicas: Leishmaniose visceral (LV), Leishmaniose cutânea (LC) e Leishmaniose cutaneomucosa (LM). O parasito Leishmania apresenta duas formas evolutivas: a forma promastigota, de vida livre, e a forma amastigota, intracelular obrigatório, presente principalmente nas células fagocíticas mononucleadas. A inibição do crescimento ou destruição dos parasitos dentro da célula hospedeira é um mecanismo fundamental para erradicar a infecção. A inibição dos efeitos leishmanicidas do macrófago parece estar relacionada com a capacidade de algumas espécies em inibir a produção de óxido nítrico (NO). Estudos recentes têm mostrado que algumas espécies de Leishmania possuem a capacidade de produzir NO a partir de uma forma constitutiva da enzima Óxido Nítrico Sintase (cNOS). Este trabalho tem como objetivo detectar e localizar a enzima cNOS presente em promastigotas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Para isto, o presente estudo utilizou citometria de fluxo, a qual permitiu quantificar a produção de NO nos parasitos, evidenciando a maior atividade da enzima cNOS em Leishmania (L.) amazonensis quando comparada com a espécie Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Foi realizada a imunomarcação das formas promastigotas com o anticorpo anti-cNOS para observar a localização ultraestrutural da enzima por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET), posteriormente a co-marcação com os anticorpos anti-cNOS e anti-GAPDH para confirmar a provável compartimentalização desta enzima em organelas glicossomais. Os resultados sugerem que a produção de NO por diferentes espécies de Leishmania é um processo localizado em organelas glicossomais com a captura do aminoácido L-arginina da célula hospedeira, o sequestro deste substrato priva o hospedeiro de sintetizar o NO exógeno danoso ao parasito. Esta modulação sugere mais um mecanismo de escape que os protozoár

  • ALINE ANDRADE DE SOUSA
  • INFLUÊNCIAS DO ENVELHECIMENTO E DO AMBIENTE SOBRE A PROGRESSÃO DA ENCEFALITE EXPERIMENTAL POR ARBOVÍRUS PIRY EM MODELO MURINO: MUDANÇAS MORFOLÓGICAS MICROGLIAIS E ALTERAÇÕES COMPORTAMENTAIS

  • Data: 03/10/2014
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  • O enriquecimento ambiental e os efeitos do envelhecimento sobre as alterações morfológicas das micróglias e no comportamento foram investigados em modelo murino de encefalite sub-letal por arbovírus. Para medir possíveis influências da idade e do ambiente sobre a progressão da encefalite, camundongos suíços albinos fêmeas de 2 meses de idade foram mantidos em Ambiente Padrão (AP) ou em Ambiente Enriquecido (AE), durante: 6 meses (Adulto - A) e 16 meses (Senil –S). Após os testes comportamentais, os camundongos A e S foram inoculados intranasalmente com igual volume de homogenado de cérebro de camundongo infectado pelo vírus Piry (Py) ou homogenado de cérebro de camundongo normal. Oito dias após a inoculação (8DPI), quando os primeiros testes comportamentais revelaram as alterações relacionadas à doença, os cérebros foram seccionados e inumomarcados seletivamente para IBA-1 e antígenos virais. Aos 20 ou 40DPI, os animais restantes foram testados comportamentalmente e processados para os mesmos marcadores e nenhum sinal neuropatológico foi detectado. Em camundongos adultos infectados o ambiente padrão (APPyA), a atividade de burrowing diminuiu e se recuperou rapidamente (8-10DPI), a atividade de campo aberto (20-40DPI), mas manteve-se inalterado em animais da mesma idade e de ambiente enriquecido (AEPyA). Em contraste animais senis tanto de ambiente enriquecido (AEPyS) quanto de ambiente empobrecido (APPyS) reduzem significativamente a atividade de burrowing em todas janelas. A encefalite causada pelo virus Piry, induziu perdas olfativas transitórias em animais APPyA e AEPyA, mas permanents em APPyS e AEPyS. A imunomarcação para os antígenos viral do Piry atingiram seu pico no parênquima do SNC aos 5 e 6DPI e desapareceu aos 8DPI. Todas as reconstruções tridimensionais das micróglias, foram realizadas aos 8DPI. Mudanças Microgliais foram significativamente mais graves em camundongos adultos do que em camundongos senis, mas os animais AE parecem recuperar a morfologia microglia homeostática mais cedo do que os animais de AP. Os efeitos benéficos do AE foram menores em camundongos envelhecidos.

  • TANIA MARA PIRES MORAES
  • AVALIAÇÃO SOROLÓGICA DOS ANTÍGENOS MICOBACTERIANOS ND-O-BSA, LID-1 E NDO-LID EM PACIENTES COM HANSENÍASE, CONTATOS INTRADOMICILIARES E ESTUDANTES DE UM MUNICÍPIO HIPERENDÊMICO DA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA

  • Data: 05/09/2014
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  • Apesar dos esforços para sua eliminação como problema de saúde pública, a hanseníase permanece com alta prevalência em alguns países, como o Brasil, sendo o Estado do Pará responsável pelo diagnóstico de aproximadamente 10% dos cerca de 400.000 casos novos do Brasil nos últimos 10 anos. Até o momento, não existe nenhum teste de diagnóstico para detectar a hanseníase nos estágios iniciais, contribuindo assim para a manutenção das altas taxas de incidência da doença. Neste sentido, novos antígenos específicos do M. leprae que possibilitem o desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico podem facilitar a detecção precoce de casos novos e contribuir para alcançar as metas de controle da hanseníase. Neste estudo, foi realizada avaliação clínica e dermatoneurológica dos participantes para a detecção de casos novos e foram coletadas amostras de sangue para pesquisa de anticorpos em dois momentos diferentes, T1 e T2, em um intervalo de tempo de 2 anos entre os mesmos. Os anticorpos IgM anti-ND-O-BSA e IgG anti-LID-1 foram detectados por ELISA, além de anti-IgM e anti-IgG associados para a pesquisa de anti-NDO-LID em amostras de plasma, também por ELISA ou sangue total pelo teste rápido OrangeLife® (OL) de 79 pessoas com hanseníase, 131 contatos e 331 estudantes do município de Breves, Estado do Pará. Nossos resultados mostraram alta incidência de hanseníase de 18,6% e 6,1% em contatos e estudantes respectivamente em T1 e de 19,8% e 9,4% em T2 e neste momento, entre contatos, foram positivos 44,3% para anti-ND-O-BSA, 7,86% para o anti-LID-1 e 37,4% para o anti-NDO-LID e para estudantes foram 49,5% para o anti-ND-O-BSA, 5,1% para o anti-LID-1 e 45% para o anti-NDO-LID. A associação entre os antígenos mostrou uma forte correlação para o ND-O-BSA e NDO-LID. A positividade para o OL em casos novos foi de 44,3% para MB, a maioria BT, em estudantes foi 47,4% e em contatos foi de 36,3%, com baixa concordância com ELISA anti-NDO-LID. No seguimento (T2), o percentual de casos novos foi de 35% e o maior percentual foi identificado entre indivíduos positivos para anti-ND-O-BSA. Os dados mostram alta incidência em contatos e estudantes através de busca ativa e seguimento sorológico, e concluímos que o antígeno ND-O-BSA se mostrou mais sensível no ensaio de ELISA para a identificação de casos novos em populações endêmicas.

  • CLAUDIA MARIA DA ROCHA MARTINS
  • ESTUDO DA INFLUÊNCIA DO USO DE AGROTÓXICOS E DE POLIMORFISMO DO GENE GSTT1 NA ETIOLOGIA DE FISSURAS LABIOPALATAIS EM PACIENTES DO ESTADO DO PARÁ

  • Data: 28/08/2014
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  • RESUMO
    Defeito congênito ou malformação congênita é qualquer anomalia anatômica, metabólica ou funcional, herdada por um mecanismo de transmissão mendeliana, ou causada por uma mutação gênica nova, por uma alteração cromossômica ou por uma agressão física, química ou infecciosa sobre o feto ou embrião em desenvolvimento. Suas causas podem ser genéticas ou ambientais, sendo, na maioria das vezes, de origem multifatorial, onde fatores de predisposição genética interagem com fatores ambientais desencadeadores. No estado do Pará, um grande número de indivíduos acometidos por Fissuras Labiopalatinas são oriundos de zonas rurais, principalmente no nordeste do estado onde sabidamente se faz uso indiscriminado de agrotóxicos nocivos a saúde humana, muitos dos quais tem alto potências teratogênico .O objetivo de nosso estudo foi Investigar a associação entre o polimorfismo (rs4630) no gene GSTT1 e a exposição a agrotóxicos na etiologia das fissuras lábio palatinas, bem como analisar o padrão das alterações de fala dos pacientes de acordo com o tipo da fissura . Foram analisados 83 pacientes portadores de Fissuras Palatinas, labiais ou Labiopalatinas de ambos os sexos, e 83 mães desses pacientes, todos oriundos do estado do Pará, com residência em zona rural e capital. Foram realizadas análises fonoaudiológicas e com o sangue desses indivíduos foi feita a análise molecular. A análise estatística foi realizada através dos programas estatísticos SPSS v. 12.0 e BioEstat v. 5.0. Os testes realizados foram os testes de Regressão Logística Multipla, teste x2e o teste exato de Fisher. O resultado consiste em cinco análises moleculares diferentes. Constatamos que a presença do alelo C no genótipo dos indivíduos pode influenciar no metabolismo de xenobióticos e aumentar o risco para desenvolver fissuras Orais.

  • THAYANA DE NAZARE ARAUJO MOREIRA
  • ASPECTOS MORFOLÓGICOS COMPARATIVOS ENTRE NEURÔNIOS DA CAMADA I DO CÓRTEX VISUAL DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ROEDORES: Cavia porcellus E Rattus norvegicus.

  • Data: 20/08/2014
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  • A camada I tem como característica principal a baixa quantidade de neurônios e uma alta densidade de fibras nervosas. A morfologia dos neurônios da camada I ainda é pouco estudada, tanto que nos estudos que avaliaram a morfologia desses neurônios não se chegou ainda a um consenso sobre as formas e funções desses neurônios. Este estudo avaliou a morfologia dos neurônios da camada I do córtex visual de duas espécies de roedores: Cavia porcellus, popularmente conhecido no Brasil como porquinho-da-índia e Rattus norvegicus, que é o rato e foi utilizada a linhagem Wistar, comumente usado nas pesquisas científicas. O porquinho-da-índia é um modelo animal muito estudado, utilizado em diversos segmentos da ciência. Apesar dessa espécie ser bem estudada, trabalhos na camada I desse animal são relativamente raros, especialmente em relação à morfologia e eletrofisiologia dos neurônios dessa região cortical. Pesquisas em ratos sobre os neurônios da camada I são mais frequentes, tanto em relação a morfologia quanto a eletrofisiologia. Para discriminar as possibilidades de diferenças na morfologia dos neurônios da camada I do córtex visual do porquinho-da-índia e do rato, este estudo classificou esses neurônios de acordo com a trajetória de seus dendritos e analisou as medidas dendríticas utilizando a técnica de injeção intracelular de biocitina. Após a classificação dos neurônios as comparações foram feitas entre os mesmos tipos celulares de cada roedor. Foram utilizados 35 porquinhos-da-índia da variedade Dunkin-Hartley de pêlo curto de ambos os sexos com idades de 4 a 5 dias de vida pós-natal. Quanto aos ratos, foram utilizados 30 ratos da variedade Wistar, de ambos os sexos com idades de 14 a 21 dias de vida pós-natal. Os animais foram anestesiados e tiveram seus encéfalos removidos, hemisférios separados e foram realizados cortes no plano coronal na região occipital onde se localiza a área visual dos roedores. As fatias foram mantidas em líquido cérebro-espinhal artificial e em seguida levadas ao microscópio para injeção de biocitina e posteriormente foram fixadas e tratadas para montagem em lâmina e contracoradas com Nissl para melhor visualização. Os neurônios encontrados foram classificados como: horizontais, ascendentes, descendentes e radias. Foram analisadas as seguintes medidas dendríticas: área do campo receptor, comprimento dendrítico total e médio, área total do corpo celular, número de dendritos, distância da pia-máter e análise da distribuição de Sholl. Dos resultados obtidos os mais notáveis foram o alcance dos ramos dendríticos e o tamanho do corpo celular dos neurônios da camada I do porquinho-da-índia quando comparados aos do rato. Isso sugere que, nessa espécie, um maior número de microcircuitos neurais podem ser estabelecidos, e por conseguinte maior taxa metabólica, justificada pelo maior tamanho do corpo celular.

  • LIENNE SILVEIRA DE MORAES
  • AÇÃO DO ALCALOIDE (+)-FILANTIDINA SOBRE O PROTOZOÁRIO Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis E A CÉLULA HOSPEDEIRA.
  • Data: 14/08/2014
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  • A leishmaniose é uma doença de caráter antropozoonótico causada por parasitas do gênero Leishmania. Estes parasitas proliferam principalmente dentro de macrófagos de mamíferos e são responsáveis por promover uma diversidade de manifestações clínicas como Leishmaniose Cutânea (LC) e Leishmaniose Mucocutânea (LMC). O único tratamento utilizado para a leishmaniose é a quimioterapia, onde geralmente são utilizadas drogas tóxicas e com longo período de tratamento. O estudo de produtos naturais obtidos de plantas como agente leishmanicida desempenha um papel importante na busca de novas drogas para o tratamento da leishmaniose. A (+)-filantidina é um alcaloide extraído do caule da planta Margaritaria nobilis, pertencente a família Phyllanthaceae. Desta forma, objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os efeitos da (+)-filantidina sobre formas promastigotas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e a célula hospedeira. A atividade antiproliferativa de formas promastigotas foi avaliada quando os parasitas foram tratados com 50, 100 e 200 μg/ml do alcaloide por 96 horas, com redução de 73,75%, 82,50% e 88,75% no número de parasitas respectivamente, quando comparados ao grupo controle sem tratamento. No período de 96 horas, foi observado um valor IC50 de 56,34 μg/ml. A anfotericina B foi utilizada como droga de referência na concentração de 0,1 μg/ml, sendo observada redução de 100% dos parasitas durante as 96 horas de tratamento. O tratamento com o alcaloide promoveu alterações importantes nas promastigotas, mostradas através de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. Foram observadas alterações no corpo celular, flagelo, cinetoplasto, mitocôndria, indução na formação de rosetas, presença de vesículas eletrodensas sugestivas de corpúsculos lipídicos e aumento no número de estruturas semelhantes a acidocalcisssomos. Com relação à célula hospedeira, não foi observado efeito citotóxico nos macrófagos tratados com alcaloide e análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou que o alcaloide promoveu aumento no número de projeções citoplasmáticas, aumento do volume celular e espraiamento. Assim, estes resultados demonstram que a (+)-filantidina foi eficaz na redução do crescimento de formas promastigotas do protozoário, sendo eficaz na ativação de macrófagos sem causar efeito citotóxico para o mesmo, o que pode representar uma fonte alternativa para o tratamento da leishmaniose.
  • SUSANNE SUELY SANTOS DA FONSECA
  • EFEITO PROTETOR DA FLAVANA EXTRAÍDA DA ESPÉCIE Brosimum acutifolium CONTRA DANOS CAUSADOS POR HIPÓXIA EM CÉLULAS RETINIANAS: UM ESTUDO IN VITRO

  • Data: 14/07/2014
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  • O acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCi) causa danos celulares por provocar intensa excitotoxicidade e estresse oxidativo após privação de oxigênio e glicose para uma região do encéfalo. Neste trabalho, investigamos o potencial neuroprotetor da planta amazônica Brosimum acutifolium que é rica em flavanas como a 4',7-diidroxi-8-(3,3-dimetilalil)flavana (brosimina b, aqui abreviada como Bb) que apresenta elevado potencial antioxidante. Utilizamos cultura de células retinianas de embrião de galinha submetidas a hipóxia experimental, por privação de oxigênio e glicose, para avaliarmos o potencial antioxidante da Bb através da análise do sequestro do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH). Além disso, avaliamos a viabilidade celular (VC) e o perfil oxidativo e antioxidativo após 3, 6 e 24 horas de hipóxia, pela produção de oxigênio reativo (O2-) e atividade antioxidante endógena pela enzima catalase, respectivamente. Nossos resultados demonstram que nosso modelo experimental de hipóxia in vitro provoca redução tempo-dependente da VC, acompanhada por intenso estrese oxidativo, devido à excessiva produção de oxigênio reativo (O2-). O tratamento com Bb (10μM) protegeu significativamente a viabilidade celular durante 3 e 6 h de hipóxia experimental em células retiniana cultivadas in vitro, além de favorecer o aumento da atividade da enzima catalase em todos os tempos testados. Desta forma, concluímos que a Bb possui ação antioxidante e neuroprotetor por contribuir na defesa contra o estresse oxidativo induzido em condições de hipóxia, tornando-se como uma droga com potencial uso em tratamentos em casos de AVCi in vivo.

  • SIMONE RODRIGUES CAMPELO
  • Leishmania (L.) amazonensis inibe a maturação e a função ativadora das
    células de Langerhans da pele tratadas com TNF-α e anti-CD40 in vitro

  • Data: 27/06/2014
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  • Leishmania amazonensis é um dos principais agentes etiológicos em um amplo espectro de formas clínicas da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana. De modo geral, a resistência frente às leishmanioses decorre do desenvolvimento de uma resposta imune celular eficiente, porém muitos estudos têm demonstrado que citocinas específicas ou combinações de citocinas podem ser fatores de resistência ou suscetibilidade à infecção por L. amazonensis. Estudos recentes sugerem a participação das células de Langerhans (LCs) nas resposta anti- Leishmania, porém os mecanismos envolvidos durante esta interação são ainda pouco estudados. Objetivos: Estudar o papel do TNF-α e anti-CD40 nas interações in vitro entre as LCs e L. amazonensis, observando o perfil de citocinas produzidas e a expressão de moléculas de superfície, bem como verificar a capacidade destas células em ativar a produção de IFN-γ e IL-4 por células do linfonodo. Metodologia: As LCs foram isoladas da epiderme de camundongos BALB/c e incubadas com promastigotas de L. amazonensis, TNF-α e/ou anti- CD40. Após 24h, as LCs foram co-cultivadas com células obtidas de linfonodos por 72h. As citocinas IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ e IL-4 foram dosadas por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e as moléculas de superfície foram analisadas por citometria de fluxo. Resultados: Os níveis de IL- 6 e IL-12p70 produzidos pela LCs foram significativamente reduzidos após interação com L. amazonensis, mesmo após o tratamento das LCs com TNF-α ou anti-CD40. Em relação às moléculas de superfície, não houve diferença na expressão de CD207 em nenhum dos grupos, porém a presença de L. amazonensis promoveu uma redução significativa na expressão de CD40 nas LCs tratadas com TNF-α ou anti-CD40, e aumentou a expressão de CD86 em todos os grupos. Na presença de L. amazonensis, as células do linfonodo apresentaram uma produção diminuída de IFN-γ e não houve alteração na produção de IL-4. Quando cocultivadas com LCs estimuladas previamente com L. amazonensis, a produção de IFN-γ também foi reduzida, mesmo na presença dos estímulos TNF-α e/ou anti-cD40. Não foram observadas alterações significativas na produção de IL-4 pelas células do linfonodo cocultivadas nas mesmas condições experimentais. Conclusão: L. (L.) amazonensis exerce um efeito imunomodulador sobre a resposta imune mediada por LCs, inibindo a produção de IL-6 e IL-12p70 e expressão de CD40, além de impedir a ativação da produção de IFN-γ por células do linfonodo co-cultivadas com LCs, mesmo após tratamento com TNF-α e anticorpo anti-CD40.

  • DANIELLE SANTANA COELHO
  • AVALIAÇÃO PRÉ-CLÍNICA DA DULOXETINA EM MODELO DE CONVULSÃO: ANÁLISE COMPORTAMENTAL, ELETROENCEFALOGRÁFICA E INFLUÊNCIA NO ESTRESSE OXIDATIVO.
  • Data: 17/06/2014
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  • O transtorno epiléptico apresenta alta prevalência e severidade. Além da gravidade da epilepsia per se, este distúrbio pode ser acompanhado de várias comorbidades, sendo a depressão a principal comorbidade psiquiátrica. Os mecanismos envolvidos na relação epilepsia/depressão ainda não estão bem esclarecidos, e sabe-se que o tratamento de ambos os distúrbios pode ser problemático, já que alguns anticonvulsivantes podem causar ou aumentar sintomas depressivos, enquanto alguns antidepressivos parecem aumentar a susceptibilidade a convulsões. Por outro lado, estudos têm demonstrado que alguns antidepressivos, além de seguros, também possuem atividade anticonvulsivante como a venlafaxina, um inibidor da recaptação de serotonina e noradrenalina (IRSN). Considerando que a duloxetina, outro IRSN, apresenta uma inibição mais potente sobre transportados monoaminérgicos e que não existe nada na literatura a respeito de sua influência sobre convulsões apesar de que está sendo aplicado atualmente na clínica, o objetivo do nosso estudo é verificar o possível efeito anticonvulsivante da duloxetina através do modelo de convulsões induzidas pelo pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) em camundongos. Para tal, camundongos foram pré-tratados com duloxetina (10, 20, 40 mg/kg/i.p.) e trinta minutos após receberam uma injeção intraperitoneal de PTZ (60 mg/kg). Por vinte minutos os animais foram monitorados para a avaliação dos tempos de latência para o primeiro espasmo mioclônico e a primeira crise tônico-clônica, como também o tempo de duração das convulsões e de sobrevida. A análise eletroencefalográfica foi utilizada para avaliar a severidade das crises (aumento da amplitude das ondas). Após esse período os animais foram sacrificados, o córtex cerebral dissecado e análises bioquímicas (atividade da superóxido desmutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), níveis de nitritos e peroxidação lipídica) foram feitas para investigação dos mecanismos pelos quais a droga influencia as convulsões. Os resultados preliminares demonstraram que a duloxetina apresenta atividade anticonvulsivante, sendo capaz de aumentar significativamente o tempo de latência tanto para o primeiro espasmo clônico, como para a primeira convulsão tônico-clônica induzidas pelo pentilenotetrazol. Ainda a avaliação eletroencefalográfica demonstrou que a duloxetina na dose de 20 mg/kg diminuiu significativamente a amplitude das ondas enquanto a dose de 40 mg/kg aumentou significativamente a amplitude em comparação a todos os tratamentos. Quanto à avaliação da influência no estresse oxidativo, animais tratados apenas com PTZ apresentaram um aumento significativo do nível de peroxidação lipídica, e diminuição da atividade da SOD e da CAT. Quanto ao nível de nitritos não houve nenhuma alteração significativa entre os tratamentos. A duloxetina na dose de 20 mg/kg se mostrou efetiva para evitar as alterações induzidas pelo PTZ nos parâmetros de estresse oxidativo avaliados. A atividade anticonvulsivante da duloxetina (20 mg/kg) colabora com a teoria que tem sido apresentada nos últimos ano de que a modulação da neurotransmissão serotonérgica e noradrenérgica pode ter efeito anticonvulsivante. Ainda, a capacidade da duloxetina de inibir a exacerbação do estresse oxidativo envolvido nas convulsões induzidas pelo PTZ corrobora com estudos que demonstram que algumas substâncias anticonvulsivantes podem modular as convulsões pelo menos em parte por sua atividade antioxidante. Portanto concluímos que a duloxetine é um adjuvante promissor para o tratamento de pacientes que apresentam a comorbidade epilepsia e depressão.
  • DANIELLA BASTOS DE ARAÚJO
  • GENOTOXICIDADE HUMANA E FÁRMACOS ANTIDEPRESSIVOS: AVALIAÇÃO DA DULOXETINA EM CULTURAS DE LINFÓCITOS

  • Data: 29/05/2014
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  • Fármacos antidepressivos são largamente utilizados no tratamento sintomático do transtorno depressivo. Inúmeras pesquisas atuais sobre a depressão vêm contribuindo para o avanço da terapia farmacológica e para o surgimento de novos fármacos antidepressivos. Diretrizes atuais para testes de genotoxicidade de novos medicamentos sugerem a importante utilidade de ensaios que detectem danos ao DNA, ou seja, testes para avaliar a indução de quebras no DNA. Entretanto, o número escasso de dados sobre a genotoxicidade de fármacos faz com que seja reduzido o número de fármacos que realmente podem ser usados em segurança. Portanto, é de extrema importância estudos sobre a avaliação genotoxicológica de fármacos, principalmente, drogas utilizadas por um longo período de tempo como é o caso dos antidepressivos. A duloxetina é um antidepressivo novo, pertencente à classe dos inibidores seletivos da recaptação de serotonina e noradrenalina (ISRSN), utilizada no tratamento sintomático da depressão. Apesar da existência de trabalhos demonstrando que alguns fármacos antidepressivos são genotóxicos, não existe até hoje nenhum estudo sobre a possível genotoxicidade da duloxetina em células de origem humana. Assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivo explorar o possível potencial genotóxico in vitro da duloxetina em culturas primárias de linfócitos humanos através das técnicas de detecção de aberrações cromossômicas e micronúcleos. Culturas primárias de linfócitos sanguíneos de voluntários sadios foram expostas a diferentes concentrações de duloxetina (10-150 ng/ml) e ciclofosfamida (6 μg/ml) como controle positivo. Aberrações cromossômicas estruturais, índice mitótico, índice de divisão nuclear, índice de binucleação, número de células com um, dois, três e quatro micronúcleos e o número de células com pontes nucleoplasmáticas foram avaliadas. Todos os índices das culturas incubadas com duloxetina foram significativamente menores que aqueles dos grupos controles, indicando um certo grau de citotoxicidade da droga. Entretanto, só as concentrações de 100 e 150 ng/ml provocaram o aumento significativo da presença de aberrações cromossômicas e micronúcleos. Considerando que essas concentrações ficam perto do limite superior da faixa terapêutica da droga usada em humanos, nossos resultados alertam já sobre a necessidade de aprofundar no conhecimento da genotoxicidade humana da duloxetina.

  • SUELLEN SIRLEIDE PEREIRA NOGUEIRA
  • IMUNOPATOGENIA DA INTERAÇÃO ENTRE MACRÓFAGOS e/ou CÉLULAS DE LANGERHANS E Lacazia loboi
  • Data: 24/04/2014
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  • A lobomicose é uma infecção subcutânea crônica, granulomatosa, causada pela implantação traumática do fungo Lacazia loboi nos tecidos cutâneo e subcutâneo. Ocorre predominantemente na região Amazônica e atinge qualquer grupo populacional. Histologicamente, observa-se reação inflamatória crônica caracterizada por intensa histiocitose e fibroplasia, abundante número de macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas do tipo corpo estranho e presença de considerável número de células leveduriformes. Os macrófagos são células fagocíticas que participam do reconhecimento e da resposta a patógenos através da fagocitose, da apresentação de antígenos aos linfócitos T e da produção de citocinas. As células de Langerhans (LC) são um grupo de Células dendríticas (CD) derivadas da medula óssea situadas principalmente em uma camada suprabasal da epiderme. Estudos envolvendo a interação fungo-hospedeiro na doença de Jorge Lobo são escassos. Assim, Este estudo é um passo importante para o melhor entendimento da biologia e patogenia do L. loboi, e para o estudo da imunopatologia da interação patógeno versus hospedeiro desta doença emergente e pouco conhecida. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a interação in vitro entre macrófagos peritoneais não ativados e/ou LC, isolados de camundongos BALB/c, com L. loboi recém-isolado de pacientes com doença de Jorge Lobo, bem como determinar os índices de infecção, fagocitose e fusão, e medir a produção das citocinas TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-12. Os resultados demonstraram que L. loboi é fagocitado por macrófagos, mas não por LC. O índice de infecção na interação entre macrófagos e L. loboi foi semelhante à interação entre macrófagos, LC e L. loboi em todos os tempos analisados. A média do número de fungos por macrófago também foi praticamente igual entre as interações e ao longo do tempo, variando de 1,2 a 1,6 fungos/macrófagos. Não houve a formação de células gigantes em macrófagos cultivados ou LC cultivadas isoladamente e em nenhum dos co-cultivos. Não houve diferença significante na produção de IL-4, IL-2 e IL-10 nas interações estudadas. Os níveis de TNF-α diminuem ao longo do tempo na interação entre macrófagos e L. loboi, enquanto a adição de LC induz aumento da produção de TNF-α, principalmente após 48 horas. LC modulam negativamente a produção de IL-6 por macrófagos e L. loboi também inibem essa produção por macrófagos isoladamente ou em co-cultivo com LC. L. loboi estimulam significativamente a produção de IL-12 por macrófagos co-cultivados com LC, mas não em LC ou macrófagos isoladamente.
  • ISABELLE CHRISTINE VIEIRA DA SILVA MARTINS
  • SELETIVIDADE ESPACIAL DE COR DO POTENCIAL CORTICAL PROVOCADO VISUAL PSEUDOALEATÓRIO
  • Data: 23/04/2014
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  • A seletividade espacial para cor tem sido investigada usando métodos eletrofisiológicos invasivos e não invasivos, e métodos psicofísicos. Em eletrofisiologia cortical visual não invasiva este tópico foi investigado usando métodos convencionais de estimulação periódica e extração de respostas por promediação simples. Novos métodos de estimulação (apresentação pseudo-aleatória) e extração de respostas corticais não invasivas (correlação cruzada) foram desenvolvidos e ainda não foram usados para investigar a seletividade espacial de cor de respostas corticais. Este trabalho objetivou introduzir esse novo método de eletrofisiologia pseudoaleatória para estudar a seletividade espacial de cor. Foram avaliados 14 tricromatas e 16 discromatópsicos com acuidade visual normal ou corrigida. Os voluntários foram avaliados pelo anomaloscópio HMC e teste de figuras de Ishihara para caracterizar a visão de cores quanto à presença de tricromacia. Foram usadas redes senoidais, 8º de ângulo visual, vermelho-verde para 8 frequências espaciais entre 0,2 a 10 cpg. O estímulo foi temporalmente modulado por uma sequência-m binária em um modo de apresentação de padrão reverso. O sistema VERIS foi usado para extrair o primeiro e o segundo slice do kernel de segunda ordem (K2.1 e K2.2, respectivamente). Após a modelagem da resposta às frequências espaciais com função de diferença de gaussianas, extraiu-se a frequência espacial ótima e banda de frequências com amplitudes acima de ¾ da amplitude máxima da função para servirem como indicadores da seletividade espacial da função. Também foi estimada a acuidade visual cromática pelo ajuste de uma função linear aos dados de amplitude a partir da frequência espacial do pico de amplitude até a mais alta frequência espacial testada. Em tricromatas, foi encontrada respostas cromáticas no K2.1 e no K2.2 que apresentaram seletividade espacial diferentes. Os componentes negativos do K2.1 e do K2.2 apresentaram sintonia passa-banda e o componente positivo do K2.1 apresentou sintonia passa-baixa. A acuidade visual estimada de todos os componentes estudados foi próxima àquelas encontradas por Mullen (1985) e Kelly (1983). Diferentes componentes celulares podem estar contribuindo para a geração do VECP pseudoaleatório. Este novo método se candidata a ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação não invasiva da visão de cores em humanos.
  • KETLIN JAQUELLINE SANTANA DE CASTRO
  • EFEITO COMBINADO DO EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO E DA DEGRADAÇÃO DA MATRIZ EXTRACELULAR NA PLASTICIDADE DO CÓRTEX CEREBRAL APÓS ISQUEMIA

  • Data: 14/04/2014
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  • O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é a maior causa de mortes e incapacidades neurológicas no Brasil, e mais de 80% deles são decorrentes de evento isquêmico. Os sobreviventes de AVC apresentam uma variedade de déficits motores, cognitivos e sensoriais, que prejudicam suas atividades de vida diária, limitando assim sua independência. Portanto, torna-se cada vez mais necessário elaborar estratégias terapêuticas que promovam a recuperação funcional de pacientes acometidos por AVC. Após isquemia do tecido nervoso, ocorre no meio extracelular a super expressão de moléculas inibitórias a regeneração neuronal e à plasticidade sináptica, como os proteoglicanos de sulfato de condroitina (PGSCs), o principal componente das redes perineuronais (RPNs). A remoção destas moléculas com a ação da enzima condroitinase ABC (ChABC) tem sido usada como estratégia para induzir a plasticidade neuronal. Outro fator que tem sido utilizado para estimular a neuroplasticidade é o exercício físico específico para o membro afetado após AVC. O exercício físico está relacionado à liberação de neurotrofinas, importantes para a regeneração do sistema nervoso. Portanto, a remoção dos PGSCs junto com o exercício físico pode potencializar a indução da plasticidade cerebral e recuperação funcional após lesão isquêmica experimental na área sensório-motora de ratos. Para testar nossa hipótese, utilizamos n=16 ratos (Ratus norvergicus) da linhagem Wistar, divididos nos seguintes grupos experimentais (todos com sobrevida de 21 dias após AVC isquêmico): Grupo Controle ou BSA (Isquemia experimental, implante de Elvax saturado com BSA); Grupo Exercício (Isquemia experimental, implante de Elvax saturado com BSA + exercício físico específico); Grupo ChABC (Isquemia experimental, implante de Elvax saturado com ChABC); e Grupo ChABC + Exercício (Isquemia experimental, implante de Elvax saturado com ChABC + exercício físico específico). A lesão isquêmica foi induzida através de microinjeções do vasoconstritor Endotelina-1 (ET-1) no córtex sensório-motor, na representação da pata anterior. Logo em seguida foi implantado uma microfatia de polímero de Etileno vinil acetato saturado com ChABC (grupos ChABC e ChABC + Exercício) ou BSA (grupos Controle e Exercício). Foram avaliadas a área de lesão e a degradação dos PGSCs, além da recuperação funcional da pata afetada através do teste da exploração vertical e do teste da escada horizontal. Avaliamos a área de lesão (mm2) com auxílio do programa ImageJ (NIH, USA), delimitando a área com palor celular e também marcada com azul de colanil que estava presente na solução de injeção do peptídeo vasoconstritor ET-1 e verificamos que não houve diferença significativa no tamanho da área de lesão entre os grupos Controle (0,48±0,12), Exercício (0,46±0,05), ChABC (0,50±0,18) e ChABC + Exercício (0,55±0,05) (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tukey, ***p<0,001; **<0,01; *p<0,5). Animais que foram submetidos à remoção enzimática dos PGSCs apresentaram imunomarcação para o anticorpo anti-condroitin-4-sulfato (C4S) na área de lesão ao final da sobrevida, não havendo
    evidencias de degradação de PGSCs nos grupos Controle e Exercício. Verificamos ainda no teste do cilindro que a indução da lesão isquêmica não provocou perda funcional ampla, não alterando o comportamento exploratório, nem a frequência de uso da pata anterior afetada dos animais após a lesão (grupo Controle: pré-lesão ou baseline (0,33±0,10), 3 (0,29±0,17), 7 (0,30±0,10), 14 (0,29±0,16) e 21 (0,27±0,13) dias após a lesão; grupo Exercício: pré-lesão ou baseline (0,30±0,12), 3 (0,32±0,24), 7 (0,19±0,37), 14 (0,31±0,10) e 21 (0,32±0,09) dias após a lesão; grupo ChABC: pré-lesão ou baseline (0,34±0,07), 3 (0,20±0,11), 7 (0,23±0,07), 14 (0,33±0,14) e 21 (0,39±0,16) dias após a lesão; grupo ChABC + Exercício: pré-lesão ou baseline (0,34±0,04), 3 (0,20±0,09), 7 (0,26±0,04), 14 (0,18±0,08) e 21 (0,27±0,04) dias após a lesão) (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tukey, ***p<0,001; **<0,01; *p<0,5). O grupo que teve apenas a remoção dos PGSCs apresentou um melhor desempenho motor no teste da escada horizontal, mantendo sua frequência de acertos quando comparado aos demais grupos, sendo que ao final da sobrevida de 21 dias, os grupos Controle e ChABC + Exercício alcançaram uma recuperação espontânea (equivalente ao teste pré-lesão), se aproximando do grupo ChABC. Apenas o grupo tratado somente com Exercício não alcançou a recuperação espontânea, apresentando um desempenho motor significativamente inferior aos demais grupos em todos os momentos de reavaliação (grupo Controle: pré-lesão ou baseline (7,70±0,54), 3 (5,30±0,71), 7 (5,4±1,14), 14 (5,20±0,37) e 21 (6,70±0,48) dias após a lesão; grupo Exercício: pré-lesão ou baseline (8,40±0,28), 3 (4,30±0,48), 7 (4,75±0,50), 14 (5,35±0,41) e 21 (5,05±0,67) dias após a lesão; grupo ChABC: pré-lesão ou baseline (7,65±0,97), 3 (6,90±0,65), 7 (7,80±0,37), 14 (7,15±0,87) e 21 (7,45±0,32) dias após a lesão; e grupo ChABC + Exercício: pré-lesão ou baseline (8,10±0,22), 3 (3,65±1,48), 7 (4,95±1,06), 14 (7,35±0,37) e 21 (6,70±0,48) dias após a lesão (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tukey, ***p<0,001; **<0,01; *p<0,5). Portanto, a remoção dos PGSCs, o exercício físico forçado precoce e sua associação não influenciaram no tamanho da área de lesão após isquemia focal no córtex sensório-motor. Porém, apenas a remoção dos PGSCs das redes perineuronais melhorou precocemente o desempenho motor do membro afetado após isquemia focal no córtex sensório-motor. Enquanto que a remoção dos PGSCs associada ao exercício físico melhorou o desempenho motor do membro afetado após a lesão, porém essa melhora foi tardia. E o exercício físico aplicado precocemente após isquemia focal no córtex sensório-motor prejudicou o desempenho motor do membro afetado.

  • LENA STILIANIDI GARCIA
  • PREVALÊNCIA DO GENE TSPY EM PACIENTES COM ANOMALIAS DO DESENVOLVIMENTO SEXUAL NO PARÁ
  • Data: 14/04/2014
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  • Pacientes portadores de Distúrbios da Diferenciação Sexual (DDS) apresentam maior risco de desenvolver neoplasias. As alterações neoplásicas mais frequentes nestes pacientes são: o gonadoblastoma, o carcinoma in situ/tumores de células germinativas intra-tubulares nãoclassificados. As células germinativas tipo II são as percussoras destas lesões na maioria dos casos. O gonadoblastoma é uma neoplasia benigna que não metastiza, mas pela alta prevalência e risco de evolução para as formas malignas de neoplasias gonadais, merece especial atenção. Em uma região próxima ao centrômero no braço curto do cromossomo Y, foi mapeado o gene TSPY, imputado como o gene do gonadoblastoma. Este gene expressa-se em grande quantidade nas células que constituem o gonadoblastoma. Foram avaliados 47 pacientes com DDS nos seus cariótipos e na pesquisa da prevalência do TSPY através da técnica da reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). As análises revelaram que 50% das pacientes com síndrome de Turner, mesmo sem o cromossomo Y, íntegro ou não, evidente no cariótipo, foram positivas para a presença do gene TSPY. Estes dados evidenciam a importância da investigação do referido gene no acompanhamento e orientação de gonadectomia em pacientes com DDS.
  • ALAN BARROSO ARAUJO GRISOLIA
  • Modulação dos sistemas GABAérgico e glutamatérgico na secreção hipotalâmica de ocitocina sob condições hiperosmóticas.
  • Data: 07/04/2014
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  • Em mamíferos, a osmolalidade do fluído extracelular é o parâmetro mais importante na manutenção do balanco hidroeletrolitica. Deste modo, variações de osmolalidade são detectadas por células hipotalâmicas especializadas, iniciando assim uma sinalização neuroquímica, com envolvimento dos sistemas glutamátergicos e GABAérgico, a qual pode desencadear a secreção da ocitocina. Entretanto, o modo como a relação dos aminoácidos GABA e glutamato pode modular a liberação de ocitocina durante a hiperosmolalidade ainda é pouco compreendida. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar o efeito do meio hipertônico sobre os níveis extracelulares de GABA e glutamato e sua relação com a liberação de ocitocina em preparações de hipotálamo in vitro. Para tal, Ratos Wistar Machos (270-300g) foram mantidos em condições padrões de laboratório. E após decapitação o cérebro foi retirado rapidamente, os fragmentos hipotalâmicos foram imediatamente dissecados em Krebs Ringer Bicarbonato Glicose gelado (KRBG) e colocados no sistema de perinfusão com solução de KRBG isotônica (280 mOsm/Kg H₂O) fluxo de 0.5-1.0 ml/min, foram feitas as coletas a cada minuto durante 15 min. O estímulo hipertônico (340 mOsm/Kg H₂O) ocorreu por 3 minutos. As dosagens de glutamato, GABA e ocitocina foram efetuadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (HPLC). As dosagens de glutamato mostraram um aumento da liberação somente após a diminuição da concentração de GABA. Este padrão de liberação temporal motivou-nos a adicionar GABA (3 μM) durante o estímulo osmótico, resultando no bloqueio da liberação de glutamato anteriormente observada. Além disso, os resultados mostraram que a liberação de ocitocina estimulada por solução de NaCl hipertônica pode depender também de uma diminuição da liberação de GABA. O presente estudo sugere que a liberação de ocitocina estimulada por hipertonicidade depende de alteração da relação GABA/glutamato.
  • FABÍOLA DE CARVALHO CHAVES DE SIQUEIRA MENDES
  • INFLUÊNCIA DA ATIVIDADE MASTIGATÓRIA E DO AMBIENTE SOBRE O APRENDIZADO ESPACIAL E O PADRÃO DA ATIVIDADE EXPLORATÓRIA EM MODELO MURINO SENIL
  • Data: 01/04/2014
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  • Para medir possíveis influências da mastigação e do estilo de vida sedentário em modelo murino senil, impusemos um de três regimes de dieta aos diferentes grupos experimentais do 21º dia pós-natal até 6 ou 18 meses de vida: dieta sólida tipo pellet; dieta em pellet seguida por uma em pó, farelada; ou dieta peletizada seguida de pó e novamente pellet, com intervalos de tempo iguais em cada dieta. Para mimetizar o estilo de vida sedentário ou ativo, os animais foram criados, respectivamente, em gaiolas-padrão (ambiente empobrecido-AP) ou em gaiolas enriquecidas (ambiente enriquecido-AE). Para medir os efeitos da dieta, do ambiente e da idade sobre a atividade exploratória, realizamos o teste do campo aberto, onde camundongos jovens de AP que sofreram alteração da atividade mastigatória demonstraram maior preferência pela zona periférica, mas no envelhecimento e no AE essas diferenças foram minimizadas. Nos velhos de AE, essas diferenças reapareceram. Já sobre as influências na aprendizagem e memória espacial, aplicamos o labirinto aquático de Morris e vimos que a redução da atividade mastigatória, independente do ambiente, diminuiu a taxa média de aprendizado espacial e sua reabilitação recuperou as perdas associadas em animais jovens e, quando combinada ao AE, melhorou a taxa de aprendizado em velhos. Não se encontrou correlação entre taxa de aprendizado e velocidade de nado dos camundongos sugerindo que os déficits são de natureza cognitiva. Concluímos assim, que a alteração da atividade mastigatória influencia o padrão de exploração por zonas no campo aberto e a estimulação ambiental acentua os seus efeitos no envelhecimento, privilegiando a preferência pela zona periférica e a redução da atividade mastigatória prejudica a memória espacial durante o teste do labirinto aquático de Morris e a sua reabilitação é capaz de recuperar as habilidades espaciais, mas em idosos é necessária a combinação com um AE.
  • DEISE CIBELE NUNES DE ALMEIDA
  • CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO GENOMA DE TUMORES BEM DIFERENCIADOS DA TIREÓIDE POR HIBRIDIZAÇÃO GENÔMICA COMPARATIVA EM MATRIZ (aCGH)
  • Data: 31/03/2014
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  • Os tumores bem diferenciados da tireóide representam mais de 95% das neoplasias malignas da glândula. A identificação pré-operatória dos carcinomas papilíferos está bem estabelecida através dos métodos de Punção aspirativa por Agulha fina e Ultrassonografia , com quase 100% de acurácia, enquanto os tumores foliculares significam um dilema para o cirurgião, visto que os métodos existentes não conseguem determinar com eficiência o diagnóstico sendo que 60-80% dos casos operados são benignos. Dessa forma, com o intuito de se analisar alterações genômicas do tipo variações no número de cópias (CNVs) que possam diferenciar esse tumor de outros tipos de doenças da tireóide, foram analisados 13 pacientes com doença tireoidiana (3 bócios, 2 hiperplasias , 4 adenomas foliculares e 4 carcinomas foliculares ) mais 1 individuo sadio através do método de aCGH, para identificação de CNVs que pudessem determinar com eficiência a presença de carcinoma folicular. Os achados foram confrontados com dados de carcinomas papilífero clássico (4 pacientes) e variante folicular (2 pacientes). Foram encontradas 725 CNVs na amostra, 703 dos pacientes com patologia. Dentre estas foram selecionadas 18 regiões mais frequentes. Houve um padrão de amplificação maior em pacientes jovens com adenomas e deleção em pacientes mais velhos. Os pacientes com carcinoma apresentaram taxas de CNVs muito próximas. Os carcinomas foliculares apresentaram padrões exclusivos de alteração nos cromossomos 8 e 12. Concluímos, assim, que os carcinomas foliculares da tireoide são uma patologia com um padrão exclusivo de alterações, não havendo correlação de progressão tumoral a partir de adenomas foliculares, sendo que duas regiões -8p22 e 12p13.32-p13.33, estão presentes em 100% e 75% das amostras respectivamente, podendo ser fortes candidatos a marcadores desse tipo tumoral.
  • MARCIO JOSE TEIXEIRA SFAIR
  • EFEITOS DO EXERCICIO VOLUNTARIO NA RECUPERAÇÃO DE HEMISSECÇÃO DA MEDULA ESPINHAL: MUDANÇAS NA REDE PERINEURONAL E ACETILAÇÃO DE HISTONAS.
  • Data: 31/03/2014
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  • A prática regular de exercícios físicos previne e combate várias doenças ao longo do tempo, destacando-se como excelente ferramenta terapêutica para o tratamento de lesões no sistema nervoso central (SNC). Após uma transecção (completa ou incompleta/hemissecção) da medula espinhal, células gliais reativas secretam substâncias inibitórias à regeneração axonal como, por exemplo, as moléculas de proteoglicanas de sulfato de condroitina (PGSCs) que exercem papel importante na formação de uma barreira físico-química, chamada cicatriz glial, que impede o crescimento dos axônios danificados pela lesão. Pesquisas que envolvem modelo experimental de lesão da medula espinhal e reabilitação por exercício físico têm obtido promissores resultados. No entanto, os mecanismos fisiológicos e moleculares pelos quais promovem esses resultados positivos ainda são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a recuperação da função motora da pata posterior após protocolo de exercício físico voluntario em modelo experimental de hemissecção da medula espinhal e investigar dois mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na recuperação funcional: a degradação de PGSCs nas redes perineuronais e acetilação de histonas. Para isso, vinte e quatro (24) ratos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus novergicus) foram utilizados e separados em 3 grupos (controle, treinados e não treinados). Com exceção do grupo controle, todos os animais foram habituados a rodas de corridas e em seguidas foram submetidos a uma cirurgia experimental de hemissecção da medula espinhal, na altura da 8a vertebra torácica. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o exercício voluntário em rodas de corrida após lesão experimental da medula espinhal promoveu recuperação da função motora da pata posterior afetada, porém não observamos diferenças qualitativas na acetilação de histonas e degradação de PGSCs entre os grupos.
  • RAMON COSTA DE LIMA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DA MARCHA E DO EQUILÍBRIO EM PACIENTES PORTADORES DE SÍNDROME LIPODISTRÓFICA SECUNDÁRIA À TERAPIA ANTIRRETROVIRAL.

  • Data: 31/03/2014
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  • A Síndrome da Imuno Deficiência Adquirida (SIDA) é uma enfermidade que assola a população mundial há décadas e ouvir esse diagnóstico era como uma “sentença de morte”. Com o advento da novas terapêuticas medicamentosas, a característica aguda da doença passou a ser de caráter crônico. Todavia, as drogas utilizadas na Terapia Antiretroviral (TARV) apresentam reações adversas, especialmente quando o paciente é submetido a longo prazo de utilização do chamado “coquetel”. Uma das reações adversas da TARV é a Lipodistrofia, que em escala molecular ocasiona a apoptose de adpócitos e alterações mitocondriais nas fibras musculares. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi de investigar as repercussões musculares da Lipodistrofia e a alteração dos padrões de marcha e equilíbrio de pacientes nesse quadro clínico. Foram avaliados 38 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, divididos em dois grupos: HIV positivo com Lipodistrofia (HIVL) e HIV positivo sem Lipodistrofia (HIV). No teste de Equilíbrio foi utilizada uma Plataforma de força (EMGSystem do Brasil), que avalia o deslocamento do Centro de pressão (Cop) nos sentidos anteroposterior (AP) e mediolateral (ML) do indivíduo gerando as variáveis deslocamento linear total, área total de deslocamento, velocidade de deslocamento e amplitude do deslocamento, num período de sessenta segundos para cada coleta. Para o teste de Marcha foi utilizado o Eletromiógrafo de 8 canais (EMGSystem do Brasil) para captar o sinal elétrico dos músculos Reto Femoral (RF), Bíceps Femoral (BF), Gastrocnêmio Lateral (GL), Tibial Anterior (TA) e Glúteo Médio (GMd) durante a deambulação e o processamento do sinal eletromiográfico foi feito através do modelo matemático Root Mean Square (RMS) e normalizado pela contração voluntária máxima (CVM). Os resultados de cada grupo foram expressos em média e desvio padrão e comparados através do Teste t de Student para amostras paramétricas e o teste Mann-Whitney para amostras não-paramétricas. As análises dos resultados nas duas fases do ciclo da marcha mostraram diferenças significativas. Na fase de Apoio e na fase de Balanço os sinais eletromiográficos do músculo GMd e TA foram maiores no grupo HIVL em relação ao grupo HIV. Quanto ao equilíbrio as variáveis com significância estatística na comparação dos grupos foram o Deslocamento total e a Área do deslocamento, ambas maiores no grupo HIVL em relação ao grupo HIV. Com isso concluímos que os pacientes com a Síndrome Lipodistrófica apresentaram alteração dos padrões de marcha e equilíbrio.

  • GLENDA FIGUEIRA GUIMARAES
  • ELETROFISIOLOGIA DA VISÃO EM MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE RATOS COM DIABETES E HIPOTIREOIDISMO
  • Data: 28/03/2014
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  • O diabetes mellitus constitui um problema de saúde pública mundial devido ao seu potencial de morbidade e mortalidade. Esta patologia é caracterizada como uma desordem metabólica com hiperglicemia crônica, resultado de uma deficiência absoluta ou relativa na secreção e/ou ação da insulina. Associado a esse quadro, problemas com a tireoide são frequentemente encontrados em pacientes acometidos por diabetes, principalmente com o avançar da idade. Além disso, há um corpo de conhecimento que descreve que tanto o diabetes quanto o hipotiroidismo provocam isoladamente perdas visuais, no entanto, não há muitas publicações acerca da fisiologia envolvendo em conjunto ambas patologias com as complicações visuais. O presente trabalho objetivou investigar questões relevantes para uma compreensão mais detalhada do quadro de evolução do comprometimento retiniano em modelos animais acometidos concomitantemente por duas doenças: diabetes e hipotireoidismo. Para isso, foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar machos (Rattus norvegicus), com dois meses de idade, pesando entre 80 a 120 gramas, divididos em quatro grupos: um grupo controle sem procedimentos; um grupo com hipotireoidismo optando por um modelo experimental de tireoidectomia bilateral; um grupo com diabetes, com aplicação de 200 mg/Kg a 2% de Aloxana; e dois grupos com as duas patologias, adotando ambos os procedimentos experimentais, alterando a sequência das patologias em questão. Nos grupos estudados foi utilizado para avaliar as alterações visuais, um método não invasivo amplamente utilizado no meio acadêmico que é o eletrorretinograma (ERG) em diferentes períodos de 30, 45 e 60 dias. Assim, encontramos uma diminuição da amplitude média da onda-a dos animais nos grupos com diabetes e com as duas patologias em todos os registros realizados, os que apresentaram maiores diferenças estatísticas foram em relação ao registro de estocópica máxima, como também diferença no potencial oscilatório de ambos os grupos com as duas patologias. Os resultados obtidos dão suporte à hipótese que as duas patologias concomitantes (diabetes e hipotireoidismo) diminuem significativamente as respostas do ERG.
  • JOSE ELIERSON BARROS COSTA
  • EFEITO ANTINEOPLÁSICO DO COMPOSTO 4,2´,3´,4´-TETRAMETOXI CHALCONA EM LINHAGEM DE NEUROBLASTOMA B103 DE RATO

  • Data: 28/03/2014
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  • Neuroblastoma é a neoplasia mais frequentemente diagnosticada na infância.
    O termo é comumente usado para se referir a uma ampla variedade de
    tumores neuroblásticos, incluindo os neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas e
    ganglioneuromas. Estimativas mostram que 8 milhões de crianças até 15 anos
    de idade por ano são atingidas por esta neoplasia, onde 80% dos casos são
    acometidos em até 4 anos de idade, o tumor é derivado de células malignas
    embrionárias advindas de células neuronais primordiais, desde gânglios
    simpáticos até medula adrenal e outros pontos. Neste estudo, foi avaliado o
    potencial citotóxico do composto 4,2´,3´,4´ tetrametoxi chalcona em modelo in
    vitro de neuroblastoma B103 de rato. Foram preparadas soluções estoques da
    droga a 50mM em dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO) e armazenadas a -20ºC para o
    preparo de novas concentrações (150μM, 100 μM, 75 μM e 50 μM). A
    viabilidade celular foi testada a partir de cultura de células da glia do córtex de
    rato e de neuroblastoma b103. Ensaios de migração celular e formação de
    colônias também foram realizados. Para a análise estatística foi realizado a
    análise de variância um critério (ANOVA) seguido pelo teste de Tukey,
    utilizando-se o programa BioEstat 5.0. Na avaliação do efeito citotóxico das
    chalconas, foi observado que o tratamento com o composto 4,2`3`4´-
    tetrametoxi chalcona não demonstrou nenhum efeito citotóxico contra células
    normais do córtex de rato para as concentrações testadas, enquanto que em
    culturas de células de neuroblastoma B103 foi demonstrado que esta droga
    promove a morte celular de forma significativa.

  • NATIELLE FERREIRA RABELO
  • INFLUÊNCIA DA GLUTATIONA (GSH) NOS REGISTROS ELETRORRETINOGRÁFICOS DE RATOS WISTAR ADULTOS

  • Data: 26/03/2014
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  • A glutationa (GSH) é uma molécula que intervêm em diversos processos biológicos, conhecida principalmente pela sua ação antioxidante. Atualmente, esse tripeptídeo constituído de glutamato, cisteína e glicina tem sido amplamente estudado pela sua possível ação como neurotransmissor e nuromodulador no CNS. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a ação dessa molécula através do eletrorretinograma, para avaliar a resposta em massa da retina, produzida após estimulação luminosa. Métodos: foram realizadas injeções intravítreas de GSH em diferentes concentrações (1, 5 e 10 mM) e de PBS (controle) em ratos Wistar. O protocolo de avaliação consistiu de 6 estímulos em diferentes condições de adaptação: resposta Escotópica de bastonetes e resposta Escotópica máxima, após adaptação ao escuro de pelo menos 12h; resposta Fotópica de cones, após 10 min de adaptação ao claro, com a utilização de filtros para a avaliação da subpopulações de cones UV e S; e a resposta ao estímulo de flicker em 12 Hz. Os principais parâmetros analisados foram as amplitudes das ondas –a e –b e seus respectivos tempos implícitos e a amplitude das ondas –b do flicker. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostram alterações nas respostas com a diminuição da amplitude da onda-b do ERG em todos os estímulos. Quando realizado o teste de múltiplas comparações, foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos controle e GSH 5mM e GSH 10mM. Alterações na amplitude da onda-a só foram observados na resposta Escotópica máxima, com significativa diminuição da amplitude. Os tempo de latência das respostas não apresentaram alterações em nenhum grupo avaliado. DISCUSSÃO: as células de Muller na retina contém grande quantidade de GSH e podem atuar ativamente na modulação das respostas glutamatérgicas e glicinérgicas; além disso, já foi mostrado que a GSH induz a liberação de GABA na retina, o que pode explicar a diminuição das amplitudes observadas pela super-ativação de alguma via inibitória. CONCLUSÃO: o presente trabalho vem colaborar com a hipótese de que a GSH atue como neuromodulador no SNC, com significativas alterações inibitórias após sua administração na retina.

  • EDILENE MAIA LIEBENTRITT
  • ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO DE ALTERAÇÕES NA LINGUAGEM EM PACIENTES COM ALZHEIMER EM INDIVÍDUOS COM BAIXA ESCOLARIDADE
  • Data: 21/03/2014
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  • O presente trabalho descreve características da linguagem, em especial de alguns dos aspectos discursivos, de idosos com envelhecimento saudável, com declínio cognitivo senil, ou com doença de Alzheimer leve e moderada. Foram avaliados um total de 44 idosos sendo 22 saudáveis, 4 com declínio cognitivo senil, 9 com doença de Alzheimer leve e 9 com doença de Alzheimer moderada, classificados pelos critérios do CDR. Foram aplicados os testes neuropsicológicos do mini exame do estado mental, nomeação de Boston resumido, fluência verbal e narrativa por confronto visual (figura do roubo dos bolinhos). Foram estimados os desempenhos nos testes selecionados e aplicada a avaliação dos relatos pelos critérios propostos por Groves-Wright (2004) assim como foi feita a tipificação da narrativa. Tratamento estatístico paramétrico determinou os valores de média, erro-padrão e o nível de significância das diferenças entre as médias foi fixado para valores de p<0.05. Em seguida foi realizado inventário e análise do léxico e das categorias gramaticas das narrativas, e realizada análise paramétrica a partir dos escores Z, através do programa STABLEX. Encontrou-se que a fluência verbal semântica é melhor nos idosos saudáveis quando comparados aos com declínio cognitivo leve. As narrativas mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os idosos saudáveis e os com declínio cognitivo leve nas análises de frequência de uso do vocabulário e das categorias gramaticais como um todo, e também entre saudáveis e todos os demais grupos nas análises de cada uma das categorias gramaticais. A análise do vocabulário e das categorias gramaticais permitiu identificar comprometimentos da função narrativa medida pelo tipo de vocabulário e pelas categorias gramaticais preferidas ou rejeitadas. Os resultados contribuem para distinguir as características da narrativa de idosos saudáveis, daquelas de idosos com declínio cognitivo leve ou com Alzheimer leve ou moderado, apontando alterações que possivelmente são indicadores precoces que podem ser usados para avaliar o curso temporal da doença.
  • ELIZA MARIA DA COSTA BRITO LACERDA
  • Investigação de Danos Visuais em Pacientes Diagnosticados com Meningite Criptocócica Não Associada à Imunossupressão
  • Data: 20/03/2014
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  • A meningite criptocócica é uma severa doença infecciosa causada pelo Cryptococcus spp. que apresenta alta letalidade e deixa nos sobreviventes uma série de sequelas sensoriais, entre as quais estão as alterações visuais. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as perdas visuais sofridas por pacientes, sem história de imunossupressão, diagnosticados com meningite criptocócica, de forma a indicar um possível mecanismo e fatores de risco para essas sequelas visuais. O trabalho foi composto de um estudo de série de casos de pacientes com meningite criptocócica sem história de imunossupressão (n = 7 pacientes, n = 14 olhos) e um estudo transversal analítico de todos os casos de meningite criptocócica sem história de imunossupressão notificados em 14 anos num hospital de referência do Pará (n = 113 casos). No estudo de série de casos, as funções visuais de uma amostra de pacientes foi cuidadosamente analisada por meio de avaliação oftalmológica, testes psicofísicos e eletrofisiológicos. No estudo transversal analítico, foi realizada análise de dados de prontuário com enfoque nas alterações visuais. Observou-se que os pacientes estudados na série de casos apresentaram grave diminuição da acuidade visual e mesmo em pacientes sem queixa visual houve alteração na percepção de cor, na percepção de contraste de luminância em diferentes frequências espaciais e no campo visual. Os testes indicam comprometimento da retina central como principal desencadeadora de uma cascata de alterações que impedem o normal processamento da imagem no córtex visual. Sugere-se que lesões do nervo óptico não foram as únicas responsáveis pelas alterações visuais observadas. Os principais fatores de risco para as alterações visuais observados pelo estudo transversal analítico foram o tempo de doença antes do início do tratamento e a resposta imunológica do paciente.
  • ALEXANDRE MAIA DE FARIAS
  • ESTUDO DA NEUROPATOLOGIA INDUZIDA PELO VÍRUS MARABÁ EM MODELO MURINO
  • Data: 28/02/2014
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  • O vírus Marabá (Be AR 411459) é um Vesiculovírus (VSV), membro da família Rhabdoviridae, isolado em 1983, de um pool de flebotomíneos capturado em Marabá-PA pela Seção de Arbovírus do Instituto Evandro Chagas. Na literatura pouco se tem sobre neuropatologia experimental induzida pelo vírus Marabá, apesar dos 30 anos de isolamento. Um único estudo, porém, revelou que a infecção viral em camundongos recém-nascidos provoca necrose e picnose em neurônios em várias regiões do sistema nervoso central (SNC) O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar a distribuição do vírus Marabá no SNC, a ativação microglial e astrocitária, aspectos histopatológicos; e a expressão de citocinas e óxido nítrico (NO), na encefalite induzida pelo vírus Marabá em camundongo BALB/c adultos. Para tanto, foram realizados processamentos de amostras para análise histopatologica; immunohistoquímica para marcação de microglia, astrócitos e antígeno viral; testes de quantificação de citocinas e NO; e análises estatísticas. Os resultados demonstraram que os animais infectados (Ai) 3 dias após a inoculação (d.p.i.) apresentam discreta marcação do antígeno viral, bem como quanto a ativação de microglia e astrócitos no SNC. Por outro lado, nos Ai 6 d.p.i. a marcação do antígeno viral foi observada em quase todas regiões encefálicas, observando-se intensa ativação microglial nestes locais, embora a astrogliose tenha sido menor. Edema, necrose e apoptose de neurônios foram observados principalmente no bulbo olfatório, septo interventrícular e córtex frontal dos Ai 6 d.p.i. A quantificação dos níveis de IL-12p40, IL-10, IL-6, TNF- α, INF-ү, MCP-1 e de NO mostrou aumentos significativos nos Ai 6 d.p.i., quando comparados aos animais controles e Ai 3 d.p.i.. Por outro lado, os níveis de TGF-β, importante imunossupressor, não foi significativo em todos os grupos e tempos avaliados (3 e 6 d.p.i.). Estes resultados indicam que o vírus Marabá pode infectar diversas regiões do SNC de camundongo BALB/c adulto 6 d.p.i., produzindo alterações anátomo-patológicas e uma forte resposta imune inflamatória que pode ser letal para o animal.
  • ANDREA DO SOCORRO CAMPOS DE ARAUJO SOUSA
  • ALTERAÇÕES HISTOPATOLÓGICAS DOS RINS DE MACACOS PREGO, Cebusapella (Linnaeus 1758) APÓS EXPOSIÇÃO CRÔNICA A BAIXAS DOSES DE METILMERCÚRIO.
  • Data: 28/02/2014
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  • O mercúrio representa um grande riscoambientale ocupacional constituindo um problema para a saúde humana na região Amazônica. Muito embora estudos tenham demonstrado que o mercúrio compromete vários tecidos e órgãos, os rins constituem-se órgãos-alvo para a toxicidade do metal. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar os efeitos de uma exposição crônica a baixas doses de metilmercúrio sobre o parênquima renal de macacos Cebusapella, machos, adultos, expostos durante 120 dias consecutivos com doses diárias via oral, de 1,5 μg na dieta. As concentrações de mercúrio total no sangue dos animais foram monitoradas a cada 30 dias usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica a vapor frio (Hg 201), comparando ao grupo controle. O método utilizado para análise histopatológica foi a inclusão em parafina com coloração pela Hematoxilina e Eosina, Tricrômico de CAB e PAS. As investigações imuno-histoquímicas compreenderam as reações para a detecção de actina para musculo liso (IA4), actina muscular (HHF35) e pancitoqueratina (AE1 e AE2). Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o tratamento com mercúrio causou diferença significativa (P<0,001) entre os grupos exposto e controle. Quanto aos níveis de Hg total, foram observadas alterações histopatológicas com características de hidropsia nos Túbulos Proximais, um achado comum na exposição ao metilmercúrio em outras espécies, sem alterações significativas nas concentrações de creatinina e ureia. O teste de correlação de Person demonstrou uma forte relação negativa entre a concentração de mercúrio e a perda de massa corporal dos animais (P<0,0001). Outro achado importante foi a diminuição do número de células mesangiais, o que sugere que o metilmercúrio executou a sua nefrotoxicidade atingindo não somente o sistema tubular renal, como também as células do mesangio glomerular, fazendo-se necessário um maior aporte de estudos experimentais para esclarecer qual o nível de alerta da concentração de mercúrio é capaz de desencadear mecanismos de agressão e injúria renal em indivíduos expostos ao metilmercúrio.
  • HELENO RAMOS MASSOUD JUNIOR
  • ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA in vitro DA AÇÃO DE ANTIFÚNGICOS EM CEPAS DE Fonsecaea pedrosoi
  • Data: 21/02/2014
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  • A cromoblatomicose (CBM) é uma doença causada por implantação transcutânea de várias espécies de fungos melanizados. O estado do Pará é a principal área endêmica do país, sendo Fonsecaea pedrosoi o principal agente etiológico. O tratamento desta doença não é padronizado e diversas formas de intervenção são relatadas na literatura. Por outro lado, os testes de susceptibilidade in vitro aos fármacos antifúngicos podem ajudar na escolha do esquema terapêutico e na identificação de cepas resistentes. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a susceptibilidade in vitro ao itraconazol (ITZ), ao cetoconazol, (CTZ), ao fluconazol (FCZ) e a terbinafina (TBF) em 20 isolados clínicos de Fonsecaea pedrosoi, bem como as possíveis alterações morfológicas induzidas por ITZ ou TBF na Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e em altas concentrações. Os testes de susceptibilidade foram conduzidos de acordo com as recomendações do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, documento M38-A2). As concentrações finais de ITZ, TBF e CTZ em cada teste variaram de 16 a 0.03 μg/mL e de 64 a 0.125 μg/mL para o FCZ. A CIM para cada fármaco utilizado foi obtida após cinco dias de incubação a 30°C, sendo definida como a mínima concentração do fármaco capaz de reduzir em 100% o crescimento visual do fungo quando comparado com o grupo controle. O ITZ demonstrou ser o fármaco mais efetivo in vitro contra conídios de F. pedrosoi (CIM 90= 1μg/mL). A TBF apresentou baixa atividade in vitro, com 70% das cepas apresentando CIM ≥ 0.5 μg/mL. Quando se analisa morfologicamente os conídios tratados com a CIM para ITZ observa-se um aumento no diâmetro celular, a presença de conídios em processo de divisão e formação de pequenas cadeias. Na maior concentração do teste de susceptibilidade (16 μg/mL) observou-se a irregularidade no contorno celular, o desprendimento de material pigmentado da parede celular e a vacuolização. Em 32 μg/mL e 64 μg/mL notou-se a ruptura da parede celular e conídos amorfos. Não foram observadas - em nenhuma das concentrações analisadas - alterações morfológicas significativas induzidas pela TBF. Além disso, a 5-Fluorocitosina (5-FC) e o FCZ não impediram o crescimento dos conídios, mesmo em altas concentrações. No entanto, alterações ultraestruturais foram notadas após tratamento com 5-FC 64 μg/mL. Portanto, sugere-se um comportamento morfológico diferente de conídios frente ao ITZ ou TBF durante os testes de susceptibilidade in vitro. Em síntese, dentre os fármacos estudados, ITZ apresentou a melhor atividade antifúngica in vitro, enquanto a 5-FC somente provocou alterações estruturais em hifas e conídios na mais alta concentração utilizada no estudo.
  • SUSAN BEATRIZ BATISTA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Perfil de suscetibilidade antifúngica e fatores de virulência de leveduras isoladas de onicomicose de pacientes atendidos no Laboratório central do Estado do Pará (LACEN).
  • Data: 21/02/2014
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  • Introdução: Onicomicoses são infecções ungueais causadas por fungos, podendo ser causadas por dermatófitos, leveduras e fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos. O diagnóstico de leveduras como agente de onicomicose tem aumentado significativamente, tal evidência tem sido atribuída ao crescente número de indivíduos imunocomprometidos e transplantados, ao aumento do uso de drogas antibacterianas de amplo espectro, à fatores genéticos, tendências atópicas e ao aumento da vida média da população. O objetivo principal do trabalho foi determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade antifúngica e alguns dos fatores de virulência de leveduras causadoras de onicomicoses. Métodos e Resultados: Foram estudadas 100 amostras de raspado ungueal semeadas em Agar Sabouraud com cloranfenicol e em Agar Mycosel. A identificação e o teste de suscetibilidade antifúngica (fluconazol, anfotericina B, fluocitocina e voriconazol) foram realizados através do método automatizado Vitek 2 e visando a pesquisa dos fatores de virulência para detecção de fosfolipase e proteinase foram utilizados os meios com emulsão de ovo a 50% e o ágar BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin), respectivamente. Das 100 amostras coletadas, 57 (57%) foram positivas no exame micológico direto e 42 (42%) na cultura. Dos isolados, 29 (69%) eram Candida parapsilosis, 8 (19%) C. albicans, 3 (7,2%) C. haemulonii, 1 (2,38%) C. lusitanea e 1 (2,38%) C.tropicalis. Todas as espécies de C. albicans, C. lusitanea e C. tropicalis foram sensíveis aos antifúngicos. As espécies de C. parapsilosis apresentaram resistência em 6 (20,7%) cepas ao fluconazol, e em 3 (10,34%) ao voriconazol. C. haemulonii apresentou resistência em 1 (33,33%) cepa ao fluconazol, 1 (33,33%) a flucitosina, 1 (33,33%) ao voriconazol e 3 (100%) à anfotericina B. Os Fatores de resistência, fosfolipase e proteinase, estiveram presentes somente nas espécies de C. albicans com positividade de 87,5% e 50% respectivamente. Conclusão: A espécie C. parapsilosis é um agente emergente de onicomicose, apresentando cepas resistentes aos antifúngicos. C. haemulonii apresentou perfil multirresistente. C. albicans, ainda que sensível a todos os fármacos testados foi a única espécie que apresentou os fatores de virulência estudados.
  • NATALIA PONTES LIMA
  • Caracterização dos efeitos do extrato de folhas de Swietenia macrophylla em modelo experimental de doença de Parkinson.
  • Data: 13/02/2014
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  • Estudos prévios indicam que o extrato de folhas de mogno Swietenia macrophylla possui composição química rica em substâncias antioxidantes com efeito neuroprotetor em cultura. Um dos principais mecanismos envolvidos na neurodegeração da Doença de Parkinson (DP) é o estresse oxidativo. Portanto, substâncias antioxidantes são candidatas potenciais para terapias que retardem o processo neurodegenerativo da doença. Este estudo tem por objetivo caracterizar os efeitos do extrato de folhas de mogno frente à degeneração nigroestriatal e alterações comportamentais de camundongos expostos a uma única injeção intraestriatal de 6-OHDA unilateralmente. Foram utilizados camundongos machos, os quais foram submetidos à cirurgia estereotáxica para a injeção de 20 μg de 6-OHDA no estriado esquerdo. Os animais foram subdivididos em 4 grupos, de acordo com a dose de extrato de mogno administrada. O extrato foi aplicado por via intraperitoneal nos 7 primeiros dias após a injeção de 6-OHDA nas doses de 0,0 (controle), 0,5 (G1), 1,0 (G2) e 5,0 mg/kg (G3). O grupo controle (GC) recebeu injeções de salina a 0,9% (veículo). Foi feita análise da ambulação no campo aberto antes, no 7º e no 21º dias e do número de rotações induzidas por apomorfina no 7º e no 21º dias após a cirurgia. Avaliação da neurodegeneração foi realizada através da contagem de neurônios dopaminérgicos TH+ na substância negra por estereologia. Como resultado, encontrou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa no 21º dia, onde os grupos G2 e G3 apresentaram redução no comportamento ambulatório em relação aos grupos G1 e GC; este dois últimos tiveram comportamento ambulatório equivalente entre si. Em relação às rotações induzidas por apomorfina, no 21º dia, o G1 apresentou média de rotações significativamente menor do que os grupos GC, G2 e G3. Na contagem de células, G1 apresentou diminuição na perda dos neurônios dopaminérgicos estatisticamente significativa em relação ao controle. Assim, concluímos que o extrato de mogno na concentração de 0,5 mg/kg promoveu neuroproteção na neurodegeneração do sistema nigroestriatal induzida por 6-OHDA.
  • SANDERSON CORREA ARAUJO
  • ATIVIDADE ANTIINFLAMATÓRIA E NEUROPROTETORA DA EDARAVONA NO CÓRTEX SENSÓRIOMOTOR PRIMÁRIO DE RATOS ADULTOS SUBMETIDOS À ISQUEMIA FOCAL EXPERIMENTAL.

  • Data: 12/02/2014
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  • O acidente vascular encefálico (AVENC) é uma desordem neural iniciada a partir da redução ou interrupção do fluxo sanguíneo, tornando inadequada a demanda energética para a região, promovendo assim um dano tecidual. O AVENC é classificado em hemorrágico ou isquêmico. O AVENC isquêmico tem maior prevalência e pode ocorrer por trombose ou embolismo. A patologia isquêmica tem múltiplos eventos interrelacionados como excitotoxicidade, despolarização periinfarto, estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo, inflamação e apoptose. Um elemento de fundamental importância na patologia isquêmica é a célula microglial, cuja atividade está intimamente ligada à progressão do ambiente lesivo. Uma alternativa terapêutica no tratamento do AVENC é um pirazolona denominada Edaravona. O presente trabalho avaliou a o efeito neuroprotetor da Edaravona na dose de 3mg/kg no córtex sensóriomotor primário após lesão isquêmica focal. A indução isquêmica foi induzida através da administração de 40pM do peptídeo vasoconstritor endotelina 1 diretamente sobre o córtex sensóriomotor primário. Foram avaliados animais tratados com Edaravona (N=10) e animais tratados com Água Destilada (N=10) nos tempos de sobrevida 1 e 7 dias após o evento isquêmico. O tratamento com edaravona evidenciou através da análise histopatológica com violeta de cresila uma redução de 49% e 66% na área de infarto nos animais nos tempo de sobrevida 1 e 7 dias respectivamente. Os estudos imunohistoquímicos para micróglia/macrófagos ativos (ED1+) demostraram uma redução na presença de células ED1+ em 35% e 41% para os tempos de sobrevida 1 e 7 dias respectivamente. A redução na presença de neutrófilos (MBS-1+) foi significativa apenas nos animais com tempo de sobrevida de 24h onde se observou a redução em 56% na presença dessas células. A análise estatística foi feita por análise de variância com correção a posteriori de Tukey com p <0,05.

  • GABRIELA SANTOS ALVAREZ SAMPAIO
  • SINTOMAS NÃO MOTORES NA DOENÇA DE PARKINSON: MODELO DE LESÃO INTRAESTRIATAL POR 6-OHDA EM CAMUNDONGOS
  • Data: 10/02/2014
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  • A doença de Parkinson (DP) é a segunda doença neurodegenerativa mais comum em idosos, caracterizada pela neurodegeneração de neurônios dopaminérgicos da substância negra (SN), com etiologia não claramente estabelecida, entretanto as causas podem estar associadas a exposição de toxinas ambientais e fatores genéticos. Os processos patológicos envolvidos na DP são disfunção mitocondrial, estresse oxidativo, inflamação e excitotoxicidade. A sintomatologia da DP são alterações motoras, cognitivas e autonômicas. Contudo, poucos estudos analisam os sintomas não-motores da DP, principalmente em modelos animais. Nesse contexto o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sintomas não-motores da DP em modelo animal com lesão provocada pela neurotoxina 6-hidroxidopamina com duas doses diferentes, injetadas bilateralmente no estriado. Para alcançar nossos objetivos realizamos os testes de campo aberto, apomorfina, labirinto aquático de Morris e testes de discriminação olfativa, além de análises histológicas. Nossos resultados mostraram alterações motoras, déficits de memória e aprendizado, associadas a diminuição de células dopaminérgicas na SN, neurônios estriatais e neurônios da região hipocampal CA1. Dessa forma, esse modelo para os sintomas não-motores da DP pode ser utilizado para a compreensão dos mecanismos que envolvem a doença, assim como para avaliar medidas terapêuticas que possam retardar ou interromper a progressão da DP.
  • LANE VIANA KREJCOVA
  • INFLUÊNCIAS DO TAMANHO DA NINHADA E DA ATIVIDADE FÍSICA SOBRE A PLASTICIDADE GLIAL NA FORMAÇÃO HIPOCAMPAL EM MODELO MURINO
  • Data: 07/02/2014
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  • Estudos anteriores demonstraram efeitos importantes do estresse perinatal no desempenho cognitivo na vida adulta e durante o envelhecimento. Entretanto permanece por ser estudado em detalhe como o exercício físico em diferentes fases da vida contribui para reduzir esses déficits. Isso é particularmente verdadeiro quando se trata de documentar as alterações da matriz extracelular e das células da glia, largamente ignoradas nesses estudos. Assim o objetivo geral do presente trabalho é o de investigar as possíveis influências do tamanho da ninhada e da atividade física sobre a memória de reconhecimento de objetos na vida adulta e possíveis alterações associadas à plasticidade glial e da matriz extracelular da formação hipocampal em modelo murino. Para alcançar esses objetivos alteramos o tamanho da ninhada de ratos Wistar de modo a acentuar o grau de competição entre os filhotes por tetas funcionais e diminuir a quantidade de cuidado materno por indivíduo. Durante o período de aleitamento quantificamos o cuidado materno em ninhadas de diferentes tamanhos. Em várias janelas temporais submetemos grupos selecionados de sujeitos ao exercício em esteira durante 5 semanas adotando o mesmo protocolo de treinamento. Após o exercício alguns grupos de animais adultos e senis foram submetidos ao teste de memória de reconhecimento de objetos que é dependente do hipocampo, sendo sacrificados e processados para imunohistoquímica seletiva para micróglia. Outros grupos de animais adultos não submetidos aos testes comportamentais foram igualmente sacrificados sendo um dos hemisférios empregado para registro de parâmetros difusionais no hipocampo enquanto que o outro foi empregado para imunohistoquímicas seletivas para astrócitos, células NG2 e reelina. Encontramos que o aumento do tamanho da ninhada está relacionado à redução do cuidado materno, ao declínio cognitivo, à proliferação e alteração da morfologia microglial, astrocitária e de células NG2 positivas, assim como às alterações nos padrões de difusão encontradas no tecido hipocampal. Além disso que tais alterações podem ser revertidas pelo menos de forma parcial pela atividade física e que esse efeito é tanto maior quanto mais jovem é o sujeito. O envelhecimento agrava as alterações morfológicas microgliais induzidas pelo aumento do tamanho da ninhada e reduz o desempenho nos testes de memória de reconhecimento de objeto. Os mecanismos moleculares associados a esses efeitos permanecem por ser investigados.
  • LUANA MELO DIOGO DE QUEIROZ
  • "TOXICIDADE IN VITRO E IN VIVO DO ORTOBENZAMOL, ANÁLOGO DO PARACETAMOL"
  • Data: 23/01/2014
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  • O paracetamol (PAR) é um dos medicamentos de venda livre mais utilizado em todo o mundo. A sua popularidade se deve, principalmente, às suas atividades analgésicas e antitérmicas semelhantes a dos anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs). Entretanto, têm sido demonstrado em estudos pré clínicos e clínicos, que doses elevadas do PAR produzem toxicidade hepática e/ou renal. No intuito de minimizar a toxicidade do PAR e obter melhor atividade analgésica e anti-inflamatória, um estudo prévio realizou modificações na estrutura química do PAR por modelagem molecular, dando origem ao ortobenzamol (OBZ) - análogo do PAR. Este composto demonstrou melhores resultados teóricos para as atividades analgésica e anti-inflamatória e ainda, menor toxicidade quando comparado ao paracetamol. Assim, o OBZ foi sintetizado e avaliado em modelos de nocicepção e inflamação em animais. O estudo demonstrou atividade analgésica central do OBZ, com potência superior ao PAR. Além disso, nos testes de inflamação essa droga apresentou inibição significativa no processo inflamatório. Entretanto, para que o OBZ possa ser considerado uma alternativa terapêutica nova e importante para o tratamento da dor e/ou da inflamação é necessário determinar sua toxicidade. Assim, este estudo se propõe avaliar a toxicidade in vitro e in vivo do OBZ e, compará-la com a do PAR. Para isso, a neurotoxicidade foi avaliada in vitro em culturas primárias de neurônios corticais, através de ensaios de viabilidade celular, determinação dos níveis de glutationa total e reduzida, assim como a possível capacidade neuroprotetora frente ao estresse oxidativo. Foram realizados estudos in vivo em camundongos, iniciados pela determinação da dose efetiva mediana (DE50) do PAR, a fim de compará-la com a do OBZ nos modelos de toxicidade estudados. Realizou-se a determinação da toxicidade aguda e, avaliaram-se alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos através do hemograma, leucograma e plaquetograma. A possível disfunção hepática e renal foi determinada, por meio da análise dos níveis plasmáticos das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST), de alanina aminotransferase (ALT), gama glutamiltransferase (GGT) e, da creatinina no sangue. Finalmente, também foi determinado o estresse oxidativo hepático e cerebral pela análise dos níveis de nitritos e peroxidação lipídica. Assim, obtivemos o perfil de toxicidade do OBZ para avaliar se seria adequado como alternativa terapêutica ao PAR.
  • LILIANE DIAS E DIAS DE MACÊDO
  • ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO COMPARATIVO DO DECLÍNIO COGNITIVO SENIL APÓS ESTIMULAÇÃO MULTISSENSORIAL E COGNITIVA EM IDOSOS INSTITUCIONALIZADOS E NÃO INSTITUCIONALIZADOS
  • Data: 21/01/2014
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  • O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar, empregando testes neuropsicológicos selecionados, a duração dos efeitos benéficos do programa de estimulação multissensorial e cognitiva realizado em idosos vivendo em instituições de longa permanência ou em comunidade. Os participantes do estudo foram idosos institucionalizados (n=20, 75,1 ± 6,8 anos de idade) e não institucionalizados (n=15, 74,1 ± 3,9 anos de idade), com 65 anos de idade ou mais, sem histórico de traumatismo crânio-encefálico, acidente vascular encefálico ou depressão primária, acuidade visual mínima 20/30 mensurada pelo Teste de Snellen e que participaram regularmente do Programa de Estimulação Multissensorial e Cognitiva. Foram realizadas reavaliações em cinco períodos (2, 4, 6, 8 e 12 meses) após a finalização da intervenção multissensorial e cognitiva. Para isso empregou-se o Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM); nomeação de Boston; fluência verbal semântica (FVS) e fonológica (FVF), testes da Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação (MAC), Teste de Narrativa “Roubo de Biscoitos” e testes neuropsicológicos selecionados da Bateria Cambridge (CANTAB) incluindo: Triagem Motora (Motor Screening – MOT); Processamento Rápido de Informação Visual (Rapid Visual Information Processing – RVP); Tempo de Reação (Reaction Time - RTI); Aprendizagem Pareada (Paired Associates Learning - PAL); Memória de Trabalho Espacial (Spatial Working Memory - SWM) e Pareamento com Atraso (Delayed matching to sample - DMS). Os resultados apontaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos revelando taxa de declínio cognitivo maior nos idosos institucionalizados. Esses resultados confirmam sugestão anterior de que o ambiente pobre de estímulos somato-motores e cognitivos das instituições de longa permanência aceleram o declínio cognitivo senil. Além disso, a análise das curvas ROC seguido dos cálculos de sensibilidade, especificidade e eficiência para cada teste revelou que os testes da bateria CANTAB para memória e aprendizado espacial pareado assim como para memória espacial de trabalho permitiram a distinção entre os grupos I e NI em todas janelas de reavaliação. Os resultados demonstraram que uma vez cessado o programa de estimulação, se observa em ambos os grupos declínio cognitivo progressivo, com perdas mais precoces e mais intensas nos idosos institucionalizados do que naqueles vivendo em comunidade com suas famílias. Além disso, observou-se que a duração dos efeitos benéficos sobre o desempenho nos testes neuropsicológicos de ambos os grupos é heterogêneo, e que os efeitos de proteção guardam relação estreita com a natureza das oficinas. Por conta disso os escores dos testes de linguagem declinaram mais lentamente. Os resultados reúnem evidências que permitem a recomendação de programas regulares de estimulação somatomotora e cognitiva para idosos institucionalizados com o intuito de promover a redução da taxa de progressão do declínio cognitivo senil.
  • DANIEL GUERREIRO DINIZ
  • INFLUÊNCIAS DA IDADE E DO AMBIENTE SOBRE O CURSO TEMPORAL DA INFECÇÃO PELO VÍRUS DA DENGUE ACENTUADA POR ANTICORPO HETERÓLOGO EM MODELO MURINO: ENSAIOS COMPORTAMENTAIS E HISTOPATOLÓGICOS
  • Data: 03/01/2014
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  • Por conta de que o ambiente enriquecido (AE) aumenta a atividade de células T e contribuí para imunopatogênese durante as infecções heterólogas do vírus da dengue (VDEN), nós hipotetizamos que animais que crescem em AE em comparação com animais que crescem em ambiente padrão (AP), ao serem infectados pelo vírus da dengue, desenvolveriam formas mais graves da doença. Além disso, como os animais velhos apresentam menor declínio funcional em células T de imunidade adaptativa, testamos a hipótese de que camundongos AE velhos ao serem infectados pelo vírus da dengue apresentariam maior taxa de mortalidade do que animais AP pareados por idade, e isso estaria associado à maior hiperplasia dos linfócitos T. Para testar essas hipóteses implantamos regime de inoculações múltiplas em animais adultos de 9 e 18 meses de idade. Dois regimes de inoculação foram testados: inoculações múltiplas de homogeneizado cerebral infectado por um único sorotipo (IUS) ou inoculações alternadas daquele homogeneizado e de anticorpo heterólogo (ICAH). Em ambos os casos foram feitas inoculações múltiplas intraperitoneais encontrando-se diferenças significativas no curso temporal da doença nos animais submetidos a um ou outro regime de inoculação. Comparado ao grupo ICAH para o qual detectou-se diferenças significativas entre os grupos AE e AP (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0,0025), não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos experimentais AP e AE submetidos ao regime IUS (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0,089). As curvas de sobrevivência dos grupos AE e AP sob o regime ICAH foram estendidas após a injeção de glicocorticoides reduzindo-se os sintomas e o número de mortes e esse efeito foi maior no grupo AE do que no AP (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0,0162). No regime ICAH, o grupo AE mostrou sinais clínicos mais intensos do que o AP e isso incluiu dispneia, tremor, postura encurvada, imobilidade, paralisia pré-terminal, choque e eventual morte. Comparado ao grupo AP, o grupo AE independentemente da idade apresentou maior mortalidade e sinais clínicos mais intensos. Esses sinais clínicos mais intensos nos animais do ambiente enriquecido submetidos ao regime ICAH foram associados à maior hiperplasia de linfócitos T no baço e maior infiltração dessas células no fígado, pulmões e rins. Embora a hiperplasia linfocítica e a infiltração tenham se mostrado mais intensas nos animais velhos do que nos jovens, a imunomarcação para os antígenos virais nos mesmos órgãos foi maior nos jovens VII do que nos velhos. A presença do vírus nos diferentes órgãos alvo foi confirmada por PCR em tempo real. Tomados em conjunto os resultados sugerem que o ambiente enriquecido exacerba a resposta inflamatória subsequente à infecção por dengue acentuada por anticorpo heterólogo, e isso está associado à sintomas clínicos mais intensos, maior taxa de mortalidade e ao aumento da expansão de células T. Os ensaios comportamentais e histopatológicos do presente trabalho permitiram testar e validar novo modelo murino imunocompetente para estudos em dengue permitindo testar numerosas hipóteses oriundas de estudos epidemiológicos e in vitro.
2013
Descrição
  • DEBORAH MARA COSTA DE OLIVEIRA
  • TRIAGEM DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS USADAS NA AMAZÔNIA ATRAVÉS DA ANALISE DE SECREÇÃO DE HISTAMINA
  • Data: 20/12/2013
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