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  • Hematological reference intervals of mangrove parrots (Amazona amazonica) maintained in a wildlife management establishment in the Amazon Biome, Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 26/04/2024
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  • The scarcity of laboratory data is a significant challenge in the avian clinic. Therefore, it is essential to study the hematological range of the Amazona amazonica species to guide clinical interventions, monitor specimens in captivity and provide references in research. The objective of the present study was to determine the hematological reference intervals of mangrove parrots kept in a fauna management establishment in the Amazon biome, state of Pará, Brazil. 32 Amazona amazonica parrots were evaluated. After clinical evaluation, blood samples were collected for hematological evaluations. The average values found for the analyzed analytes in the blood count were: erythrocytes 2.42 million/µL; hemoglobin 15.92 g/dL; hematocrit 50.31%; VCM 205.4667 fL; CHCM 31.7%; HCM 66.73 pg; total leukocytes 6281.4 cells/µL; heterophils 2671.1 cells/µL; Lymphocytes 3452.2667 cells/µL; eosinophils 0 cells/µL; basophils 22.6333 cells/µL; monocytes 106.4138 cells/µL; Thrombocytes 29.44; PPT 6.71 g/dL. The morphological characteristics of the cells under study were similar to those of other parrots. This research is pioneering in determining hematological reference intervals of mangrove parrots (Amazona amazonica) kept under human care in a holding facility in the Amazon biome and can be used as a reference for animals of the species raised under similar conditions.

  • Tick infestations and tick-borne hemoparasite infections in dogs and cats living in areas adjacent to forest remnants in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil.

  • Data: 27/03/2024
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  • Tick infestations and blood parasites transmitted by these ectoparasites are recurrent
    in human and veterinary medicine and cause serious harm to the health of patients.
    Therefore, the present study aimed to research tick infestations and blood parasite
    infections transmitted by these ectoparasites in dogs and cats living in areas of forest
    remnants in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. The study was carried out in four rural
    communities adjacent to areas of forest fragments in municipalities in the state of Pará,
    Eastern Amazon, Brazil. Specimens of ticks and blood samples for blood parasite
    research were collected from dogs and cats for subsequent identification using
    taxonomic keys and molecular analyses, respectively. For the detection of DNA from
    Babesia vogeli, Cytauxzoon felis and Hepatozoon spp. PCRs were performed, while
    for the detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA, Nested PCRs were
    performed. 165 dogs and 26 cats were examined and the ixodids collected (n=270)
    belonged to the species Amblyomma cajennense s.s., Amblyomma ovale,
    Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus linnae. The infestation
    rate in animals was 18.84% (36/191), being the first report of infestation by A. varium
    nymphs in domestic dogs and by A. cajennese s.s. in domestic cats in the Neotropical
    region. Regarding molecular analyses, DNA from B. vogeli was detected in 1.21%
    (2/165) of the dogs examined, while DNA from Hepatozoon spp. and E. canis was
    detected in 1.21% (2/165) and 17.57% (29/165), respectively. No cat was positive for
    hemoparasites. The presence of the main vectors of B. vogeli, Hepatozoon spp., E.
    canis and A. platys and some of these hemoparasites in the areas visited serves as a
    warning to owners regarding the circulation of pathogens transmitted by ticks.

  • Potencial antibacteriano (in vitro) do óleo de copaíba (Copaífera officinalis) sobre cepas de Staphylococcus aureus subsp.aureus (ATCC 25923) e Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)

  • Data: 30/01/2024
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  • O uso de produtos naturais como escape aos medicamentos convencionais tem se tornado uma atividade muito comum e que ainda continua por muitos anos.Os óleos essenciais tem sido cada vez mais frequentemente utilizados como fitoterápicos para as mais diversas enfermidades, sejam elas ocasionadas por bactérias ou não. Estudos utilizando óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais tem atraído a atenção de muitos pesquisadores devido a atividade medicinal que estes compostos concentrados apresentam, principalmente para algumas doenças bacterianas de interesse clínico. Assim como os óleos essenciais, constituintes de alimentos ricos em proteínas também tem sido alvo de estudos, como por exemplo a lactoferrina, proteína presente no leite, mais especificamente no soro, de todos os mamíferos, onde a partir do seu isolamento, ela pode ser avaliada e implementada em experimentos devido suas características biológicas benéficas frente a diversos micro-organismos.Levando em consideração as propriedades benéficas que ambos os compostos apresentam, objetivou-se testar a combinação de uma proteína isolada do leite bovino, a lactoferrina, obtida comercialmente, com dois óleo essenciais popularmente conhecidos e largamente utilizados na medicina popular, o óleo de copaíba e o óleo essencial de aroeira, visando a potencialização de seus efeitos antibacterianos frente as cepas de  interesse médico tanto no âmbito veterinário quanto no âmbito de saúde pública , por estarem associadas a muitas patologias de importância clínica e apresentarem mecanismos de resistência frente a drogas antibióticas convencionalmente utilizadas para fins de tratamento, com o intuito de determinar a concentração inibitória mínima para as cepas Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) e Escherichia coli, e partir desta, determinar a concentração bactericida mínima e realizar o teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos convencionais versus as substâncias combinadas.

  • Allergic dermatitis to Culicoides bites in Pêga donkeys (Equus asinos) in the Amazon Biome, Pará, Brazil


  • Data: 12/12/2023
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  • Allergy to the bite of insects of the genus Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) is an occurrence of hypersensitivity to the inoculation of insect salivary antigens at the time of the bite, which results in immune-mediated dermatitis. No data on allergic dermatitis were found in the researched literature in Brazil, therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinico-pathological and therapeutic aspects of the disease, as well as to identify the insects involved in the epidemiology of the disease. This study reports the occurrence of dermatitis in 17 animals of varying ages, from four municipalities in the Amazon Biome, Pará, Brazil. Clinical signs were characterized by restlessness and intense itching. The skin lesions were located on the head, mainly in the depigmented regions of the bevel and ganache, sides, pelvic and thoracic limbs and scrotum, and were characterized by areas of alopecia with the presence of crusts on the epidermis and serosanginous exudate. Furthermore, the skin appears rough, thickened and edematous, with the formation of crusts on the epidermis with serosanguineous exudate. Histologically, the lesions were identified by moderate superficial dermatitis with irregular acanthosis of the epidermis and marked diffuse orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. 378 specimens of diptera of the genus Culicoides were found, with Culicoides ocumarensis (229 specimens) being the most abundant species, followed by Culicoides foxi, Culicoides insignis, Culicoides sp1, Culicoides sp2, Culicoides leopoldoi, Culicoides vernoni and Culicoides sp3. Epidemiological, clinicopathological data and laboratory tests, associated with differential diagnoses, were essential for establishing the diagnosis. Treatment with a mixture of copaiba oil and Scott® emulsion showed promise in the topical treatment of allergic dermatitis caused by insect bites in food. Our study reports a close relationship between allergic dermatitis and Culicoides, however, more robust entomological studies are needed to identify whether other dipterans are involved in the etiology of the disease.

  • Behavior in different intraspecific interactions of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

  • Data: 06/10/2023
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  • Manatees belong to the Order Sirenia and are the only exclusively herbivorous aquatic mammals in existence today. All Brazilian species are internationally considered "vulnerable" to extinction. However, in Brazil there are governmental and nongovernmental institutions working in various states on conservation strategies for the protection of the species and the growth of populations, as well as collaborating with knowledge about the behavior of these species. Since records of behavior among wild manatees are limited, the aim of this study was to report the learning of an Antillean manatee calf (Trichechus manatus manatus), where the younger animal learned movements performed by the older one, even though they were separated in different enclosures. This is the first study to demonstrate the learning of a native animal in rehabilitation by an animal in captivity. In addition, the study reports on the abandonment behavior by the mother of a manatee neonate with hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was the main aggravating factor found and considered the cause that led to the mother's abandonment, as the condition made it difficult for the calf to perform normal behaviors, bringing risks to the survival of the calf and the mother herself.

  • Descriptive analysis of physiological parameters, anesthetic times, quality, anesthetic recovery and electrocardiogram using the midazolam-ketamine-dexmedetomidine protocol in three spider monkey species (Ateles paniscus, Ateles chamek and Ateles belzebuth).

  • Data: 04/10/2023
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  • Spider monkeys are among the largest representatives of neotropical primates, from their large size weighing up to 11 kg, to the place where they occupy among the canopies of large trees between 1,000 and 2,000 meters in height. They are also known for their demanding eating habits regarding ripe fruits, being excellent seed dispersers, needing large tracts of primary vegetation cover for reproduction and social interaction, rarely using the terrestrial environment, making use of it when they need to hydrate or even for
    activities in For specific groups, all the factors mentioned related to anthropic action such as deforestation for agricultural fields, land ownership projects and exploitation of hardwoods make this group threatened in terms of the degree of extinction. Among the four species of Ateles that occur in the legal Amazon biome, three were studied, Ateles paniscus, Ateles chamek and Ateles belzebuth in the anesthesiological context for the midazolam-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (MiCeDex) protocol, through responses in the physiological parameters, periods, recovery anesthetic and electrocardiogram. For latency period (PLATENCY), the average time was 2.6 minutes (min.) and the maximum between species was 3 min. for A. belzebuth, in the first 30 minutes after PLATENCY, muscle relaxation and antinociception were evaluated with a maximum degree in 100% of the animals. Recovery (PRECOVERY) scored an average time of 38.23 minutes, classified as calm for all individuals of the three species in phases I and II of recovery after reversal. There was significance (p=0.0393) between times for heart rate in species and between species, there was also significance for systolic blood pressure (p=0.049) and blood glucose (p=0.0208). There was significance for Q-T (p=0,0303) and T (p=0,04495; p=0,004998) in two moments for species. The studied protocol revealed timely effect, significance in some parameters between species and safety regarding physiological parameters, added to the quiet and uneventful reversal, it proves to be safe and easy to apply for short procedures that require safety of the team and animal of the studied species.

  • Frauds in cheese marketed in Brazil: integrative review and study of tourist seasonality of Marajó Cheese

  • Data: 15/09/2023
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  • Food fraud is a global topic that has been gaining worldwide attention due to being a threat to public health and food safety. This illegality encompasses intentional activities aimed at economic gains, directly impacting consumers with financial losses and health risks. Fraud is mainly observed in the dairy sector, especially in cheeses produced with milk from sources other than bovine, due to fluctuations in raw material availability and higher prices compared to cow's milk-derived products. The present study had the following objectives: 1 - integrate and discuss information on fraud related to cheeses marketed in Brazil regarding the adulteration of undeclared raw material origin; 2 - investigate whether tourist seasonality influences fraud occurrence, commercial activity, and physicochemical characteristics of Marajó Cheese commercialized in the Marajó Archipelago, Pará state. Data on fraud in Brazil were collected through an integrative literature review based on scientific articles, dissertations, and theses in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, published from January 2003 to March 2023. Fraud identification was carried out using a multiplex PCR capable of amplifying DNA fragments from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and bovine (Bos taurus) species, and pH, titratable acidity, moisture, total ash, proteins, and lipids determinations were performed using conventional methods. The analyses were conducted through a census of commercial establishments located in the municipalities of Soure and Salvaterra during high (July) and low (May) tourist seasons. Each commercial point was georeferenced for later illustration and determination of spatial distribution. The results from the first study revealed the presence of eight scientific works concerning the identification of fraud in cheese samples in Brazil, which analyzed samples without the declaration of species or their quantity on the packaging label. In the second study, from the census of establishments, 18 samples of Marajó Cream Cheese were acquired from 13 defined locations during the periods. Fraud was observed in 69.23% (9/13) of the analyzed cheeses during the high tourist season and 20% (1/5) during the low season. No association was found between fraud cases and tourist periods, but a strong association was observed between these periods and the quantity of product sales points. Regarding physicochemical characteristics, significant differences were observed in moisture and acidity percentages of the collected products between the periods and in acidity between frauded and non-frauded product groups. Research on fraud detection in commercial cheeses in Brazil is still in its early stages, and it is necessary to enhance and intensify inspection actions on cheeses in Brazil to ensure proper labeling of these products. Additionally, preventive measures should be implemented to ensure the quality, authenticity, and safety of marketed cheeses, ensuring the health and well-being of consumers.

  • Silent circulation of seven arboviroses zoonotics in equids Piauí, Northeast, Brazil

  • Data: 31/08/2023
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  • Arthropod-borne viruses” are ecologically distinct from other pathogens, as hematophagous vectors (arthropods), host animals and reservoir animals are involved in their transmission cycle. Surveillance of epizootics in equids, through serology, can contribute to the efficiency of early detection of these infectious agents, as they are good sentinel animals. In this sense, through a cross-sectional epidemiological study, we sought to assess the total prevalence of antibodies (HI) in equids for four zoonotic viral genera, often associated with neurological syndromes: Orthobunyavirus, Orthoflavivirus, Phlebovirus and Alphavirus. 377 animals were sampled, among 8 municipalities in Piauí: Água Branca, Amarante, Barro Duro, Lagoa Alegre, Parnaíba, Piripiri, Teresina and Valença do Piauí. Between 2019 and 2021. More than 75% of serum samples were positive for any of the viral genera surveyed. The most prevalent genera were: Orthoflavivirus, Orthobunyavirus and Alphavirus respectively. There was no reagent sample for Phlebovirus. 16.43% were monotypic reactions and 2.09% seroconversion. ILHEV, SLEV, ROCV, MAGV, TCMV, CARV e EEEV have been infecting equids in Piauí, Northeast, Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed in order to verify the association between the predictor variables and the outcome (p<0,05 and C.I - 95%). Odds ratio has analysed too. In fact, this is the first report showing the silent circulation and distribution of these pathogens in northeastern Brazil for Equus caballus, Equus asinus and hybrids. Since there are no reports of epizootics in these animal populations, together with the presence of asymptomatic or subclinical infections in that period. Within a single health approach, it is hoped that this article can alert Brazilian public health authorities to the implementation of routine diagnoses for other neglected arboviruses (non-dengue, Zika and Chikungunya)

  • Occurrence of the main toxinotypes of Clostridium perfringens in wild mammals attended at the Veterinary Hospital for Wild Animals of the Federal University of Pará, in the Amazon Biome

  • Data: 31/08/2023
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  • Clostridium perfringens is a versatile pathogen of humans and animals, causing histotoxic infections, enteritis, enterocolitis or enterotoxemias. There are already reports of its occurrence in wild animals causing pathological conditions, as well as its presence in asymptomatic and commensal form, but there are still no studies of its occurrence in wild species present in the Amazon region. Thus, the objective of this work was to investigate the occurrence of C. perfringens and its main toxinotypes in samples of feces and anal or cloacal swabs of wild mammals attended at the Veterinary Hospital of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Pará, in the Amazon Biome. Thirty-two samples of feces and 33 samples of anal and cloacal swabs were collected from XVI species and 3 genera of wild mammals in situ and ex situ, asymptomatic and some with diarrhea. The swab and feces samples were immersed in BHI broth and incubated in an anaerobic chamber at 37 ºC for 24 h, and later, 10 μL aliquots of each broth were inoculated in SFP Agar and, again, incubated in an anaerobic chamber at 37 ºC for 48 h. After incubation, at least three characteristic colonies were submitted to a multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of genes that encode the main C. perfringens toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin). Of the 65 samples, 40 (61.5%) were positive only for the gene encoding alpha toxin, with 25 (38.5%) being negative for all genes encoding major C. perfringens toxins. The stool samples showed greater positivity than the swab samples, with 25 (38,5%) being positive compared to 15 (23%), respectively. The percentage of positive ex situ animals, 31 (47.7%) was higher than that of in situ animals, 9 (13.8%). Thus, C. perfringens type A is the most prevalent toxinotype in these species. It was predominantly identified in 36 (55.4%) asymptomatic animals, and in the species of N. nasua (South American Coati), P. yagoaroundi (Jaguarundi), S. apella (Guianan Brown Tufted Capuchin) and, the genus Didelphis sp. (Opossum), in situ who presented with diarrhea 4 (6.1%). These results demonstrate that C. perfringens commonly occurs in some species of wild animals within the Amazon Biome, and can be considered as part of the normal microflora in these species. This seems to be the first study that identifies the occurrence of toxinotype A in the species B. variegatus (Brown-throated Sloth), C. didactylus (Linnaeus’s Two-toed Sloth), P. flavus (Kinkajou), T. tetradactyla (Southern Tamandua), S. collinsi (Collins’ Squirrel Monkey), S. niger (Western Black-handed Tamarin), S. apella (Guianan Brown Tufted Capuchin) and in the genus Didelphis sp. (Opossum).

  • First molecular finding of Brucella spp. in humans, pets and farm animals from a forest fragment in an Amazon biome

  • Data: 31/08/2023
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  • Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonosis caused by bacteria of the Brucella genus. Transmission occurs between animals and humans through direct contact and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. It is a disease of relevance in public health and for the economy because it presents health problems and economic impacts. In humans, clinical signs are nonspecific, and may include fever, weakness and weight loss. In addition, due to the disease's own characteristics and inaccurate diagnoses, it can be confused with other diseases, making it an underreported and neglected disease. In animals, it mainly affects the reproductive system, causing damage to the production chain. As the bacterium has multiple routes of infection and with mammals being the main natural hosts, it generates a scenario that is difficult to control and a real threat to public health and quality of life for people and animals. Thus, the objective of this work was to perform a molecular analysis of Brucella spp. in humans, companion and production animals from a forest fragment in an Amazonian biome. For this, samples from the DNA bank of the Laboratory of Zoonoses and Public Health, at the Federal University of Pará were used. These samples had been subjected to extraction with a commercial kit ReliaPrepTM Blood gDNA Miniprep System, Custom (Promega Corporation®) and stored at -20ºC. A total of 566 blood DNA samples were selected, from dogs (296), pigs (22), cats (13), cattle (9), horses (9), buffaloes (8), sheep (3), goats (1) and humans (205). A conventional PCR was conducted using primers B4 and B5 that amplify a 223 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The DNA of Brucella spp. was detected in 1.95% (4/205) of human samples, whereas in samples from domestic animals and production animals, the DNA of the bacterium was not detected. This is the first detection of Brucella spp DNA. in humans in the Amazon biome. It is concluded that, in the investigated forest fragment, only human samples were attested to the presence of Brucella spp.

  • Hematological profile and investigation of hemoparasites in cactus parakeets (Eupsittula cactorum) kept in captivity in Northeast Brazil.

  • Data: 30/08/2023
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  • The processing of blood samples and the creation of hematological data are important in establishing reference values for different animal species, allowing the veterinarian to make a deeper assessment of the health status of that individual. Despite this, for most avian species, hematological references have not yet been documented. The caatinga parakeet (Eupsittula cactorum) is a species of parrot that is widely traded, often illegally, a victim of trafficking. This demonstrates that they are animals that can be treated at the veterinary clinic, therefore, it is extremely important to know their physiological parameters. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematological profile and research hemoparasites in caatinga parakeets kept in captivity in the state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out on 31 captive specimens of E. cactorum from two properties located in the State of Ceará. After physical evaluation, blood was collected from all animals for hematological evaluation and research for hemoparasites. The erythrocytes were presented as cells with an elliptical shape and cytoplasm with a coloration ranging from lilac to light pink. The nucleus followed the same shape as the cell and had intense basophilic staining. Thrombocytes were found isolated or forming aggregates and consisted of small cells, with a round nucleus with densely aggregated chromatin and basophilic staining. Heterophils were cells of various shapes, generally rounded, with transparent cytoplasm and lilac-colored lobulated nucleus with small light pink granules with ellipsoid or spindle shapes. Eosinophils had similar morphology and size, however, they had more grouped and rounded cytoplasmic granules, with more pronounced eosinophilic staining. Basophils were found in few animals and were cells with intensely basophilic staining granules, transparent cytoplasm and non-lobulated nucleus. Lymphocytes, on the other hand, were similar to what is seen in mammals, with a rounded shape, smaller size than heterophiles, non-lobulated basophilic nucleus and light blue cytoplasm. Monocytes were large, irregularly shaped cells, some with vacuoles in the cytoplasm and lilac colored nucleus. All birds were negative for the presence of hemoparasites. Due to the lack of reference values for hematological parameters of Eupsittula cactorum in the literature, the present work becomes important as it allows veterinarians to use the results obtained in their clinical routine.

  • Growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken meat

  • Data: 29/08/2023
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  • Chicken meat is rich in nutrients, in addition to high water activity and a pH close to neutrality, which makes it susceptible to contamination by microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken breast subjected to different conditions of heat treatment and storage. For this, chicken breast samples were experimentally contaminated with 1 CFU/25g with a standard strain (Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028). Subsequently, the samples were subjected to thermal treatments (frying 180 ºC/10min) and (cooking 99 ºC/15min) and stored at 4, 29 and 37ºC for up to 48 hours. Bacterial counts, pH measurements and sensory evaluation were performed at 0, 24 and 48h. Microbial growth curves were compared with models generated by the Pathogen Modeling Program, from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), version 7.0. Salmonella Typhimurium was inhibited only in the fried samples and, under cooking, reached titers of 8 log CFU/g. In addition, a supposed competition between the accompanying flora and this pathogen was observed. The pH reached the highest value at 4 ºC. Sensory changes were noted only after 24 hours of contamination. The microbial growth curves obtained in this work were different from those generated by the program. With the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of thermal treatment with temperatures above 100 ºC enabled the inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken meat and that care with the storage of this food must be taken in order to maintain its microbiological quality.

  • Reproductive disorders and profile of companion animals assisted by the population control program in the municipality of Cametá, PA, Brasil

  • Data: 28/08/2023
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  • For better management of the dog and cat population, a set of well-developed strategies is essential, which seeks to understand the dynamics of these populations, and thus promote environmental balance, community health, human and animal well-being, through actions that control overpopulation and abandonment. In this context, population control through surgery is a measure of great importance for public health to reduce the population of stray animals, abuse and zoonoses. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the profile of the breeding of dogs and cats benefiting from the castration program in the city of Cametá-Pará, and from this to diagnose the main reproductive disorders assisted by the castration program. Data were collected through a questionnaire specific to breeding in general, with data related to species, breed, sex, age, diet, number of animals at home or semi-domiciled, history of vaccination and previous deworming, and questions specific to the reproductive characteristics that included pregnancy history, identification of heat, use of contraceptives, presence of vaginal cartilage, pseudocyesis and breast tumor, applied to a total of 137 owners. In this study, it was possible to establish a profile of the animals and owners, and characterize, in a quantitative and qualitative way, the canine and feline population served, with females (felines) benefiting most, avoiding the birth of new puppies and abandonment. Furthermore, the majority of assisted owners have only one animal at home, but a specific number of owners have five or more animals, which requires attention to public health. Pyometra was the most common reproductive condition in dogs and cats, being contraceptive an option widely used by these owners as a form of population control.

  • Leucoderma in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the Amazon Biome

  • Data: 31/07/2023
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  • Leucoderma is a condition that affects the skin and hair of animals, causing depigmentation and acromotrichia. In buffaloes, this condition results in significant economic losses for the production chain due to its impact on leather trade. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of leucoderma in buffaloes in the Amazon biome and describe the prophylactic treatment to control the disease. The study included 40 buffaloes, 16 males and 24 females, aged between 1 and 10 years, of the Murrah, Jafarabadi, Mediterranean, and Murrah x Mediterranean crossbreed breeds. The animals were raised without mineral supplementation. The clinical signs observed in the animals included acromotrichia and depigmentation, with varying degrees and distribution of skin lesions. Histological examination of the epidermis showed interruption of melanin production, mild dermal fibrosis, mild perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, and pigmentary incontinence. None of the animals had the genotype for albinism. After 120 days of mineral supplementation based on the use of copper sulfate, the clinical signs of leucoderma regressed. There was no predisposition by breed, sex, or age for the occurrence of the disease. The regression of skin lesions after proper mineral 38 supplementation suggests that copper deficiency may be considered an important factor for the occurrence of leucoderma in buffaloes in the Amazon biome.

  • Iatrogenic defect for umbilical hernia repair with mesh placement: Study in bovine fetus cadavers

  • Data: 14/06/2023
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  • The main objective of this study was to create a laparoscopic technique for umbilical hernia correction with placement of a viable mesh for neonates of large animals, a study was carried out on cadavers of bovine fetuses. The experiment was carried out at the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Pará - Campo de Castanhal - Brazil, in the study of the experiment, 12 bovine fetuses donated by a legal slaughterhouse in the municipality were used, these were divided into two groups, the first control group (GC: 6), the open conventional surgical iatrogenic technique was performed for correction of umbilical hernias in large animals, placing the surgical mesh in an external muscular way, the experimental group (GV: 6), the videosurgical group the iatrogenic technique was performed with placement of intra-abdominal surgical mesh. The GV was worked with three laparoscopic portals, after creating the defect, its edges were approximated by video-assisted suturing, using percutaneous passage of the thread. Next, the screen was introduced into the cavity, already with a thread fixed at 3 and 9 o'clock, at its ends. The mesh was fixed to the defect, followed by video-assisted fixation with percutaneous passage of the wire. The control group was performed by conventional laparotomy, correction of the defect using a double-breasted suture, and placement of the mesh in the muscle layer, followed by dermarrhaphy. In both groups, three operative steps were established: establishment of the access (13.55 ± 20.40 and 4.83 ± 0.77 min, GC and GV), creation of the hernia defect (34.16 ± 57.29 and 3.92 ± 3.54 min GC and GV), closure of the hernia defect (18.46 ± 3.99 and 39.65 ± 15.55 min 1 GC and GV) (p≥0.05). The technique was feasible, without time variations in relation to the conventional technique, with excellent access, visual field and execution in a practical and applicable way.

  • Authentication of raw material and determination of the viability of the development and elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium in food matrices

  • Data: 31/03/2023
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  • The state of Pará stands out in the national scenario regarding the consumption and production of fish. Its well-known and diverse cuisine includes a mixture of flavors and cultures, where local foods are used in traditional dishes from the region and in those originating from cosmopolitan cuisines. One of the cultures that make up Pará is Japanese and since then it has been spreading in the state. Likewise, the use of crustaceans in different dishes is widely accepted by consumers and the use of crab mass in its compositions deserves to be highlighted. Although the concern from the hygienic-sanitary and technology point of view regarding these foods is similar, some peculiarities call attention, with regard to scientific knowledge. It is observed that several authors discuss the presence of pathogenic agents in sushi and base their research on the greater possibility of contamination of this food, as they are traditionally dishes based on raw fish, and on the presence of fraud in the fish used in their production. In addition, in Brazil there is a large offer of adaptation known as hot sushi, where conventional sushi is subjected to frying, in order to guarantee the elimination of pathogens, but regarding the viability of the growth of more aggressive Salmonella species in humans in this product, data scientific data are not yet available. Furthermore, authors report the importance of crab meat as a vehicle for bacteria belonging to the same genus, but studies referring to growth conditions or control of Salmonella spp. in the crab mass are incipient. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to propose the authentication of matter and determine the viability of the development and elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium in three fish-based food matrices: sushi, hot sushi and crab (Ucides cordatus) meat. To this end, this document was divided into scientific articles. Article 1 aimed to propose a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of DNA from salmon (Salmo salar) and Salmonella spp. and analyze samples of sushi sold in shopping malls. Article 2 aimed to determine whether Salmonella Typhimurium resists frying temperature during hot sushi production. Article 3 evaluated the survival of S. Typhimurium in crab mass under refrigeration temperature at 8°C. The proposed mPCR was able to identify Salmonella spp and Salmo salar simultaneously and of the analyzed commercial sushi samples, 22.2% did not contain the Salmo salar species in their preparation and in 5.5% it was possible to identify Salmonella spp. The frying process applied to hot sushi demonstrates that this time and temperature condition was not adequate for the elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium, mainly in high titers of initial contamination. Refrigeration of contaminated crab meat failed to limit the growth of the bacteria, expressing titles of 4.6 log CFU/g in the first 24 hours after inoculation. Consumers are exposed to fraud by replacing the fish used in the preparation of sushi, in addition, Salmonella Typhimuirum showed potential for survival and growth in the tested products, offering a risk to collective health.

  • Aplicação de uma PCR quadriplex para a detecção de fraude e de contaminação por Salmonella spp. e 
    Listeria monocytogenes em amostras comerciais de queijo de búfala
  • Data: 31/03/2023
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  • Buffalo milk is a food that stands out for its great nutritional richness. One of its main derivatives is cheese, which is widely accepted by consumers. Due to the low availability and seasonality of the production of this raw material, frauds in its derivatives are commonly reported, mainly due to the indiscriminate addition of bovine milk to the product. Another relevant factor with regard to this food is the proliferation of various pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. from the milk of this species, such as Cheese do Marajó. This product has an artisanal nature and is regulated by Ordinance No. 0418/2013 of the Agricultural Defense Agency of the State of Pará, which determines that the inclusion of bovine milk may occur during production, provided that it does not exceed 40% of the raw material and that the incorporation be stated on the label. Among the fraud and microbial agents detection methods, the multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction is considered an important tool for the simultaneous detection of several DNA sequences. Therefore, the research group on Food Hygiene and Quality of the Institute of Veterinary Medicine at UFPA proposed a quadriplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of the presence of bovine, buffalo, and Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in buffalo cheese and, although the proposed technique has proven to be efficient at the laboratory level, its efficiency at the field level still needs to be tested. Based on this, the objective of the present work was to apply the previously proposed quadriplex PCR in buffalo cheeses sold in Ilha do Marajó-PA, in order to validate the technique for use by inspection services. The results obtained indicated that the technique was able to identify the DNA of the species analyzed in commercial cheeses and that fraud by incorporating buffalo milk and contamination by Salmonella spp. are present in the target region of the study. We conclude that the presented technique is capable of identifying fraud and contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in commercially available buffalo cheeses and that this can be an important tool to be used by inspection agencies.

  • Epidemiological aspects of arthropod infestations and infections by hemotropics Mycoplasma spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in captive Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus kabomani (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in the Amazon Biome

  • Data: 30/03/2023
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  • The tapirs are large terrestrial mammals, anatomically and physiologically adapted to almost all habitats and ecosystems. These mammals are significant seed dispersers and contribute to the preservation and reconstruction of habitats. Despite its ecological importance, information on ectoparasites and infectious agents that affect these animals is incipient. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the species of ectoparasites and detect the natural infection by Mycoplasma spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in captive tapirs (Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus kabomani) in the Amazon biome. Biological samples were collected from captive tapirs in Zoo-botanical Parks, breeding facilities, conservationists, and environmental compensation areas in the states of Amapá, Amazonas, and Pará. After visual inspection, ticks and fleas were collected from 54.5% (18/33) of the tapirs, identifying four species of ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongogutattum, Amblyomma pacae) and three species and/or subspecies of fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis, Rhopalopsyllus australis australis and Tunga penetrans), according to dichotomous keys. Blood smears were prepared for microscopic examination of infectious agents, while whole-blood samples were collected for blood culture and hematological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Genomic DNA extraction from blood samples was performed with a commercial kit and Mycoplasma spp. and Trypanosoma spp. was performed by PCR's with specific primers. Microscopic analysis of blood smears revealed epierythrocyte forms suggestive of Mycoplasma spp. in 7.4% (2/27) of tapirs, no trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma spp. were found. The isolation of Trypanosoma sp. was obtained in 3.8% (1/26) of the animals, while Mycoplasma spp. and Trypanosoma spp. was detected in 42.9% (12/28) and 21.4% (6/28) of the analyzed blood samples, respectively. The sequencing confirmed the results obtained by PCR's and the phylogenetic analysis revealed the homology of the tapir isolates with the isolates available in GenBank. It is concluded that tick and flea infestations and infections by hemotropic species of Mycoplasma and by Trypanosoma terrestris occur in captive tapirs in the Amazon Biome.

  • Health and management of natural oyster banks (crassostrea spp) in Curuçá, northeastern mesoregion, state of Pará

  • Orientador : ISIS ABEL BEZERRA
  • Data: 30/03/2023
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  • Extractivism is still widely practiced by the estuarine and coastal populations of Pará. Since 2004, there have been reports that natural banks are experiencing a reduction in these molluscs due to predatory extraction, which does not consider their recovery time. It should also be considered that oysters are very perishable and can be infected by pathogenic bacteria, being examples of sources of infection by Salmonella spp. in humans when consumed in natura. This study is part of a thesis composed of chapter 1, which deals with oyster extraction (Crassostrea spp.) in the Amazon: characterization and perception of extractivists about the conservation of natural banks. And in chapter 2, it is a study of molecular detection of Salmonella spp. in experimentally contaminated oysters (Crassostrea spp). In Chapter 1, to reach the extractivists who worked in the region, the snowball sampling method was applied, with 38 extractivists being interviewed, the interviews took place from September 2019 to January 2020. Most were men (78.9%), heads of household (84.2%) and half of them were over 40 years old (50%). Most (94.7%) live in the city of Curuçá, and 36.8% work from 7 to 11 years in the activity. The activity is the main source of livelihood for 65.8% of extractivists and none of them has an environmental license. The majority (62.2%) reported never having received any training regarding oyster collection, however 84.2% stated that they were interested in receiving it. As for work-related health problems, 61.1% said they had not had any type, and (16.7%) had cuts on their bodies. Among the oyster banks, the most exploited at the moment is that of Marauá (45.7%), and the bank Front of the village of Lauro Sodré (47.5%) was the most used. Lack of training was a risk factor for collecting during the rainy season (OR=1.52), while having received training was a protective factor for collecting seeds (OR=0.64). Therefore, this study reveals the need to encourage extractivists to organize themselves into associations or cooperatives, along with support from public development policies so that they can receive training aimed at oyster extraction, without overexploiting natural banks, carrying out an extraction of oysters. sustainable way. In chapter 2, the objective of the research was to propose a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to identify the presence of Salmonella spp. in raw oyster tissues, as an alternative to the conventional method. First, the experimental contamination of the oysters was carried out with 1, 2 and 3 CFU/250ml of Salmonella spp. in order to simulate the real contamination and detect the sensitivity of the technique, as well as to apply the proposed conventional PCR protocol. Our results demonstrated that the proposed conventional PCR was able to identify the referred bacteria, when the samples were contaminated with an initial concentration of 1CFU/250ml after 8 hours of pre-enrichment. Thus, the proposed methodology is efficient, presenting itself as an excellent alternative to the conventional method for Salmonella detection, proving to be affordable, easy to apply and fast.

  • Antimicrobial activity of chitosan membrane associated with andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) to enterobacteria – in
    vitro assay.

  • Data: 10/03/2023
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  • The use of biomaterials in healthcare is increasing. Researches about the versatile potential of these materials are in constant development, among the numerous biomaterials of scientific interest, chitosan demonstrates great potential for use in dressings for contaminated wounds, due to its antimicrobial action and stimulator of healing. The development of dressings with antimicrobial potential is of paramount importance, with emphasis on devices that act against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Among the substances of scientific interest, andiroba (Carapa guianensis) and chitosan stand out for the treatment of wounds. This study addresses the resistance of
    enterobacteria to antibiotics and the antibacterial activity of chitosan polymer associated with andiroba oil on Escherichia coli, demonstrating that bacterial resistance is a factor of great importance in public health and that there is a need for alternatives that impede the progression of this problem. The antibacterial activity of chitosan polymers associated or not with andiroba was studied using the macrodilution technique, where fragments of these polymers, divided into 3 different weights (treatments) and grouped into 3 groups according to composition, were added to BHI broth containing E. coli, and after a period of 48 hours these treatments were diluted and transferred to Petri dishes. After 24 hours, colony-forming units were counted, which provided the basis for calculations for comparison between treatments and analysis of variance, followed by the Mann-Whitney test with p≤0.05. As a result of the study of the antibacterial activity of the composite biomaterial, an important control was obtained in the number of E.coli colonies, with a reduction of up to 98% of effectiveness
    on the growth of bacteria, however there was no important difference between the groups in the different concentrations tested, being necessary further studies regarding the concentration of andiroba. It is concluded that the association of chitosan membrane with andiroba oil is promising for use in dressings for infected wounds.

  • Detection of pathogenic Leptospira in Kinosternon scorpioides in the Brazilian Amazon

  • Data: 25/11/2022
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  • Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global impact and One Health importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Its occurrence has been neglected by underreporting, misdiagnosis, and socioeconomic stigmatization. On the genomic aspect, the leptospiral taxonomy has been reordered into pathogenic and saprophytic species groups, with subgroups P1, P2, S1 and S2, as for serovaerity, more than 290 serovars have already been characterized. These bacteria can interact differently with hosts and the environment. Infection can occur directly or indirectly in humans and domestic animals, through contact with an environment contaminated with leptospires eliminated in the urine of renal carriers. After penetrating a susceptible host, the clinical outcomes may vary from infection without clinical compromise to fulminant cases that evolve to death and present two phases called leptospiremia (multiplication through the body fluids) and leptospiuria (elimination through urine). In the environment, new findings point to the predilection of leptospires for soil, survival in saline environments and even under conditions of high acidity with nutrient poverty, and, unusually, growth in waterlogged soil. Diagnosis is also complex; among the direct methods are molecular detection, culture, and dark field visualization. But the gold standard test is the indirect method Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Such diagnostic methods are detecting the exposure of non-conventional hosts to Leptospira spp., with isolates prevalent in South America, mainly involving the orders Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Rodentia. Non-mammalian reservoirs, such as chelonians, have been used as research models in the epidemiological chain of leptospirosis, in summary, because they are semi-aquatic organisms that transit in soil and water. Therefore, the objective of this work is to investigate the presence of Leptospira spp. in samples from captive Muçuãs (Kinosternon scorpioides) in the Brazilian Amazon. Blood, urine, cloacal lavage and stomach lavage samples were collected from 40 specimens belonging to the Bio-Fauna project at UFRA, totaling 147 samples, extracted using the IllustraTM Tissue and Cell Prep Mini Spin Kit (GE Healthcare®) and subjected to amplification of 16s rRNA gene using the primers Lep1 and Lep2. The amplified leptospiral DNA was submitted to sequencing, BLASTn and phylogenetic analysis. Among the chelonians tested, 40% (16/40) presented at least one or two positive samples for Leptospira spp., considering the number of samples collected, 12.24% (18/147) were positive, thus, eleven samples were susceptible to sequencing and presented 97.35% to 100% identity with sequences of Leptospira interrogans, a result confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This is the first molecular detection of Leptospira spp. in Kinosternon scorpioides in the world and also of leptospiral DNA in urine (spontaneous urination), blood clot, cloacal and stomach lavage in chelonians in the Brazilian Amazon, and the highest number of positive chelonians in Brazil using this method. With the above, we infer that the Muçuãs tested were exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and were able to harbor DNA of the bacteria in their body fluids, signaling their potential role as reservoirs.

  • Identification of pathogenic Escherichia coli for poultry in chicken meat

  • Data: 30/09/2022
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  • Brazil is the country that most exports chicken meat and is the second largest producer in the world. In order to guarantee the increase in production, it is necessary to control poultry health that pose a risk to public health. Associated with large numbers of diseases, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains are responsible for a large number of infections, which may cause a risk of contamination of carcasses with the pathogen during processing, causing concern to health surveillance agencies. Due to the importance of this microorganism, studies aimed to characterize strains of E. coli, in addition to standardizing, identifying and detecting virulence genes of serum resistance (iss) and hemagglutination (tsh) through a multiplex PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). ) and finally to apply the antimicrobial susceptibility test in broiler carcasses in the state of Pará. In the first moment, the standardization and application of the multiplex PCR technique was carried out using virulence genes (iss and tsh), in which 16 samples of trachea from chickens ready for commercialization in fairs were randomly collected for convenience. 16 municipalities in the Bragantina-PA micro-region. In the second moment, 30 carcasses of birds condemned with suspicion of airsacculitis were collected in a poultry slaughterhouse in the state of Pará, where fragments of organs such as trachea, liver and lung were used to identify E. coli strains, followed by the application of mPCR technique of virulence genes (iss and ths) and histopathological examination. Finally, 14 samples of chicken sold at fairs (7 samples) and supermarkets (7 samples) in the metropolitan region of Belém were collected, randomly for convenience, where they were subjected to microbiological analysis and multiplex PCR to identify risk factors. iss and tsh virulence, trachea, lung and muscle tissue fragments from each chicken sample. After the identification of the E. coli strains, they were submitted to the antimicrobial test, in which they were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cephalexin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, penicillin and sulfamethoxazole). The results obtained by the technique applied to all the samples collected, was efficient to genotypically characterize the E. coli isolates, where it was found that in the samples collected at fairs in the municipalities of the Bragantina-PA microregion, 87.5% of the samples at least one of the genes researched, followed by separately evaluation, the virulence factors, with the diagnostic results in 6.25% of the samples presented the amplified gene iss and 87.5% positive result for the tsh gene, and only a sample of the analyzed birds presented the virulence genes iss and tsh simultaneously. For the 30 condemned chickens, using the PCR multiplex, the tsh (670pb) and iss (720pb) genes were duly amplified in the three organs of birds 1, 19 and 22, characterizing a mixed infection, as well as 7 /30 birds the two virulence factors only in Organs respiratory organs, the most frequent virulence gene was tsh amplifying 670bp in 7/30 birds in the respiratory organs, emphasizing that in the 17 livers studied there was no amplification of any of the virulence factors, certifying that the birds did not have septicemia. Furthermore, using the histopathological diagnosis, a predominance of heterophils and mononuclear cells was detected in the trachea (30/30), in the lung (27/30) and in the liver (4/30), where practically no alteration was diagnosed, unlike the respiratory organs. As for the samples collected at fairs and supermarkets in the metropolitan region of Belém-PA, the results of the microbiological analysis indicated a total prevalence of 71.42% (10/14) of E. coli in chicken carcasses, the prevalence for at least one of the genes evaluated was 100%, the iss gene being present in all samples and tsh in 85.7% (12/14). Of the 25 E. coli isolates, distributed between the organs of the birds and the fair and supermarket, 76% were resistant to enrofloxacin, 64% to doxycycline, 60% to amoxicillin and 40% to sulfamethoxazole. It is concluded, given the results obtained, the Multiplex PCR for the virulence genes tsh and iss has great potential in the characterization of E. coli isolates, with this we can propose as an alternative analysis for the prevention and surveillance of this agent in commercialized chickens, attributing the use of technologies for the identification and prevention of E. coli in aviaries and poultry slaughterhouses. In this way, it emphasizes the importance of consuming healthy and slaughtered poultry carcasses in an adequate hygienic-sanitary way

  • Polioencephalomalacia in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a feedlot

  • Data: 31/08/2022
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  • Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) is a complex nervous disease that affects ruminants, has a worldwide distribution and causes significant economic losses. PEM is abundantly described and studied in cattle and small ruminants, but there is little information about the disease in buffaloes, especially in Brazil. The objective of this work is to describe the clinical and pathological aspects of an outbreak of PEM in buffaloes in a feedlot in the state of Pará, Brazil. The outbreak occurred in a flock of seventy-six Murrah buffaloes, with an average age of five months, in feedlot fed exclusively with corn silage. Twenty-eight of these buffaloes became ill and thirteen died (morbidity and mortality of 36.8% and 17.1% respectively), having presented neurological clinical signs such as depression, tetraparesis, nystagmus, opisthotonos, pedaling movements and lateral recumbency. Two buffaloes were necropsied by the responsible veterinarian, and no macroscopic changes were reported. The brain and fragments of various organs of the abdominal and thoracic cavity were fixed in formalin 10% and sent to the Laboratory of Animal Pathology at UFPA for histopathological examination. In the brain, flattening of the convolutions of the dorsolateral regions and yellowing of the same were observed, affecting mainly the superficial part of the cerebral cortex, with a clear line of demarcation between the superficial and deep layers. On histology, the intermediate layers of the cerebral cortex showed mild to moderate vacuolization of the neuropil, moderate increase in perivascular, perineural and periastrocytic spaces, moderate swelling and edema of astrocytes and a large number of necrotic neurons. The diagnosis of PEM was based on epidemiological data, clinical and pathological signs. The disease was associated with non-adaptation of buffaloes to a high-carbohydrate diet. The work demonstrates that, despite being poorly documented in Brazil, PEM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological syndromes in buffaloes.

  • Research of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 in birds from Piauí, 2022.

  • Data: 30/08/2022
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  • Influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen with a high degree of transmissibility, infecting birds and mammals, including humans. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is another causative agent of respiratory infection, which also represents a major threat to public health, and may also infect other animal species. Wild animals play an important role in the spread of this disease, as they are potential reservoirs and vectors of these infectious agents, and migratory birds are responsible for the spread of the influenza virus over long distances. The potential participation of wild birds in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 was investigated because, at the time of sample collection, there was no information on the susceptibility of birds to the virus. Only after the analysis of this study it was shown that birds are not susceptible to the virus. Thus, the objective of this work is to investigate the presence of Avian Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 in wild birds in the State of Piauí. For this, oral/tracheal swabs and fecal swabs were collected for investigation of both. The samples were stored in lots of cryogenic micro tubes and then deposited in liquid nitrogen cylinders and later frozen in a freezer at -80C. The following molecular techniques were used to detect viral RNA: reverse transcriptase reaction, followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and subsequent nucleotide sequencing. A total of 174 samples from the respiratory and digestive tracts of birds were analyzed, all samples being negative for both viruses. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the influenza virus was not circulating in wild birds at the time of collection in the State of Piaui. As it is part of migratory routes, new studies with serological and molecular tests must be carried out for the control and prevention of influenza in the country.

  • Molecular monitoring of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and animals from forest remnants in the Brazilian Amazon

  • Data: 18/08/2022
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  • The Amazon rainforest contains the greatest floristic and faunal biodiversity in the world, which makes this region in terms of territorial expansion, climate and biodiversity the most important for global well-being. Despite its great importance, the Amazon has been suffering from forest fragmentation, which is the division or reduction in size of a large forest area into small forest remnants. These deforestation processes alternative animal and plant ecosystems, because of which there are numerous negative impacts such as loss of biodiversity, alteration of natural river courses, climate change and these can favor the maintenance and possible transmission of infectious agents. Thus, the work aimed at the molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood samples from humans and domestic animals from Vila do Ananin, Peixe-Boi municipality, a forest remnant in the Brazilian Amazon, as the first molecular monitoring in the state of Pará. 205 blood samples were collected from humans (120 females and 85 males), 152 from dogs (94 males and 58 females) and 10 from cats (7 males and 3 females). The molecular method was used through Nested PCR, using the B1 gene. Thus, we found the T. gondii DNA that was amplified in 0.97% (02/205) human samples, using the BLASTn algorithm, with the partial sequences obtained showing high identity and overlap only with T. gondii DNA and in none of the animals, protozoan DNA was detected. In conclusion, it was possible to detect T. gondii in human blood samples using the Nested PCR technique and it became the first report of molecular monitoring using this technique.

  • Presence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Wild and Domestic Animals in Piauí - Brazil

  • Data: 05/07/2022
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  • The inappropriate and irrational use of antibiotics led to the emergence of bacteria resistant to these drugs in the 20th century, causing risks to human health and other animals by making it difficult to treat bacterial infections. The lack of basic sanitation or sanitary landfills, low levels of human development, poverty, little medical and veterinary technical assistance, and others, are factors that favor environmental pollution, causing damage to human and animal health. The environment also plays a fundamental role in the dispersion and maintenance of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, demonstrating the need for a focus on One Health actions to control this contamination. In Brazil, studies on antibiotic resistance in animals are scarce, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (ESBL), a type of resistance that is easily transferred between bacteria and described worldwide, in domestic animals and wild birds in the state of Piauí, Brazil, and suggest health education strategies on the use of antibiotics in the cities visited, seeking a One Health approach. A total of 387 fecal samples of wild birds and domestic animals were collected from five municipalities (Amarante, Água Branca, Lagoa Alegre, Parnaíba and Teresina) in Piauí. During the collection of samples of domestic animals, a brief interview was also made with the tutors to know the clinical history of the animals and if they had already used any preventive or therapeutic medication. Using antibiogram and PCR tests, the presence of ESBL was confirmed in 61 (15.24%) of these samples. Statistical analyzes were performed using multivariate linear regression models. The municipalities of Teresina and Parnaíba concentrated the highest prevalence of ESBLs, with 32.1% and 27.1%, respectively. Cities with poor or reasonable sanitation had a similar prevalence in terms of the presence of resistant bacteria. Among the wild birds, the presence of three positive individuals was identified, being a specimen of Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) and two specimens of Semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), a Near Threatened species. The MALDI-TOF technique identified the resistant bacteria as 57 samples of Escherichia coli and two samples of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most frequent resistance gene was blaCTX-M (76.2%) and all beta-lactam antibiotics used showed a high prevalence of resistance in the antibiogram test. This is the first study that confirms the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in domestic animals and wild birds in Piauí, with the need for further analysis to better understand the topic, the causes and risks that these bacteria can cause to human and animal health.

  • Evaluation of the antimicrobial action of essential oils from Piper aduncun, P. Reticulatum and P. Callosum on Escherichia about growth

  • Data: 30/06/2022
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  • Microorganisms are constantly evolving, through spontaneous mutations or horizontal gene transfer, leading to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, which is a natural biological phenomenon that causes difficulties in the management of infections and contributes to the increase in health system costs. Thus, the exploitation of natural resources becomes an alternative to search for safe, efficient decomposers that are capable of controlling infections. In this sense, plants have bactericidal potential to be tested and essential oils are being an important target of study due to their chemical composition. In view of the above, the study aims to evaluate whether the oil extracts based on Piperaduncum, Pipercallosum and Piperreticulatuma have an inhibitory action on the growth of E. coli. the broth microdilution method in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results obtained indicate that the essential oils used had an antimicrobial effect on the growth of E. coli strains. Having the MIC from 4.5mg/mL. We conclude that the Piper species used are a potential target for use in the inhibition and control of bacterial infections

  • Epidemiological profile of human toxoplasmosis in the State of Pará from 2010 to 2017

  • Data: 01/04/2022
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  • Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals, including man. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of patients confirmed for the disease and notified in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) of the Pará State Health Department (SESPA) from 2010 to 2017. Data were provided by the State Health Department of the State of Pará and did not present patient identification, due to confidentiality. An average incidence that ranged from 0 to 260.48 cases/100,000 inhabitants was evidenced. Being reached 9.92% (166/1,674) of confirmed cases, where the highest frequency was female (71.69% n=119), in the age group from 20 to 29 years (31.93% n=53) , of mixed race (82.53% n=137), schooling up to complete high school (39.58% n=522) and living in urban areas (71.69% n=119). In the group of women, it was found that of the 119 women diagnosed with toxoplasmosis, 46.22% (55/119) were pregnant, in the second pregnancy trimester 58.18% (32/55). The year 2013 was the year with the highest percentage of confirmed cases of the disease 48.19% (80/166). It is suggested that these findings are associated only with the group of pregnant women who undergo prenatal care. It is concluded that the state of Pará presented reduced notification of toxoplasmosis in a period of eight years, suggesting failure in the notifications, which causes damage to the application of adequate public policies for the prevention of the disease.

  • Videolaparoscopy of the umbilical structures of bovine fetuses: marsupialization of the umbilical vein and percutaneous suture in an experimental model

  • Data: 31/03/2022
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  • Newborn calves affected by umbilical disorders can undergo treatment for omphalophbitis and liver abscesses from marsupialization of the umbilical vein and in cases of umbilical herniorrhaphy, both by laparotomy. The laparoscopy allows the complete and fast visualization of the abdominal view, with less damage compared to conventional techniques. The objective of this work is to describe a video-assisted umbilical vein marsupialization technique, establish a study model and evaluate the feasibility of the video-assisted percutaneous suturing technique in bovine fetuses (corpses), compared with a conventional technique. In 01, 16 bovine fetuses were used, experiments determined in the control group, selected for the technique of marsupialization of the umbilical vein by laparotomy and in the videosurgical group. In experiment 02, 16 calves were divided into the control group, selected for the technique of umbilical abdominorrhaphy by laparotomy and in the video-surgical group, the technique of percutaneous  suturing of the abdominal wall. A lesion was created in the abdominal wall to perform a laparoscopic correction. In both techniques there was a statistical difference in the time of access to the abdominal, faster by laparotomy. The creation of the study model for performing the technique of suturing the abdominal wall in a video-assisted way. For the execution of the techniques, there was no statistical difference between the groups. The closure of total abdominal surgery influencing the largest number of rapid surgical surgical videos. The techniques proposed for herniorrhaphy in our study allowed the performance of handling, dieresis and marsupialization of the umbilical vein, in addition to the creation of a study model for performing video-assisted percutaneous suturing with two portals with less surgical time compared to the conventional technique.

  • Consumers' perception of the handlers' hygienic-sanitary practices and the sanitary conditions of standards that sell fish in the state of Pará

  • Data: 16/03/2022
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  • Fish is a food widely consumed by the world population, with data related to an average increase in fish consumption over the annual consumption of meat from animals, with emphasis on the northern region of Brazil as a producer from continental extractives. Considering the importance of the largest fishermen producers in Pará as a sight fishing on a study of their perception of the consumer's vision in relation to the hygienic-sanitary practice of the handlers and establishments that commercialize, Ananindeua, Marabá and Santarém, on the level of hygiene knowledge of the environment and food. The project was Ethics in Research and approved by the Science Committee of the Federal University of Pará – CEP of the Health Institute of the Federal University of Pará. With a total application of 270 packages, via online. Data were selected for statistical analysis, by square test and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The results of three that are the higher education of female residents of neighborhoods, between 18 to full upper neighborhood residents. Most participants claimed to identify non-compliance in research maintenance, food handling and countertop adornments, irregular cutting equipment and failure to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in most trade segments. We conclude that, among the commercial segments, fairs and urban markets were the most critical, presenting mostly unsatisfactory percentages regarding the maintenance of the lack of care with the quality of the products and hygiene failures of the local handlers.

  • Consumption profile and consumer perception in regarding the commercialization of fish in the state of Pará

  • Data: 15/03/2022
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  • Fish is considered an important source of essential substances for human beings and, for this reason, it is a food highly recommended by health professionals. Considering the studies described in the literature, the relevance of the state of Pará in fisheries production is remarkable, however, there are few more comprehensive reports on the consumer profile of this food, thus highlighting the need to strategically evaluate the profile of the consumer population of this food. pescado.This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic and consumption profile of fish consumers in the four most populous municipalities in the state of Pará: Belém, Ananindeua, Marabá and Santarém. The project was submitted and approved by the Research Ethics Committee - CEP of the Institute of Health Sciences of the Federal University of Pará. For the development of this study, online questionnaires were applied using the Google Forms platform to 271 volunteers (96 from Belém, 70 from Ananindeua, 59 from Marabá and 45 from Santarém). Data were analyzed descriptively and subsequently submitted to Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results showed that consumers in the target region of the study reside predominantly in urban areas, are female, have a high level of schooling, and are aged between 18 and 30 years (with the exception of Santarém, which had a larger public aged between 18 and 30 years). between 31 and 40 years old). As for preferences, there was a difference between the municipalities with regard to the place of purchase, frequency of consumption and reasons that lead respondents to consume fish. Consumers in the four municipalities, for the most part, stated that they prefer to consume fresh fish and at their own residence and indicate that they did not feel sick after consuming fish. In ACM, regarding the relationship between the variables of the interviewees' education and knowledge about food fraud, those who answered Yes (have heard about food fraud) are strongly related to respondents with complete higher education and residents of Belém and Ananindeua. Those who answered no (never heard of food fraud) are more related to respondents who have only completed high school. We conclude that consumption habits and preferences among participants in the municipalities of Belém, Ananindeua and Marabá are similar and that consumers in the municipality of Santarém presented different characteristics from the others and that the study was fundamental to generate data and contribute to the scientific community, especially regarding the municipalities of Ananindeua and Marabá, considering the scarcity of information on the subject.

  • Detection of non-conformities in the labels of Marajó cheeses marketed in northern Brazil

  • Data: 28/02/2022
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  • A produção mundial de alimentos de origem animal vem crescendo e produtos como os queijos vem se destacando e, como consequência, os rótulos tem sido cada vez mais considerados pelos consumidores na hora da escolha dos produtos. A fraude e a adulteração de alimentos são caracterizadas pela substituição, adição, modificação de alimentos ou ingredientes com a finalidade de obter ganho econômico. Estas irregularidades tem impacto tanto local quanto internacional, e levam a perdas econômicas significativas, gerando dúvidas ao consumidor sobre o produto que está adquirindo, além de serem um risco à saúde pública. Este estudo tem por objetivo detectar e descrever possíveis fraudes por rotulagem indevida em queijos comercializados na região metropolitana de Belém, estado do Pará. Para tal, estabelecimentos que comercializam queijo de búfala na região alvo do estudo foram visitados e amostras do referido produto foram colhidas. Para a realização da análise da conformidade da rotulagem foram utilizadas as legislações referentes à rotulagem dos alimentos industrializados e um check list com informações obrigatórias. Foram encontradas divergências nas rotulagens de duas amostras da marca A, referente a uma amostra de queijo mozzarela de búfala (Bola) e uma amostra de queijo mozzarela de búfala (Cunha). Concluimos que o processo de rotulagem dos queijos de búfala comercializados na região metropolitana de Belém deve ser aperfeiçoado, devido a grande quantidade de não conformidades com a legislação brasileira vigente.


  • Exploratory laparoscopy of umbilical structures of bovine fetuses: access, surgical time, and feasibility of intra-abdominal resection of the umbilical vein and urachus

  • Data: 16/02/2022
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  • Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed with the use of laparoscopic instruments and equipment fitted with multimedia accessories. This technique is an alternative to conventional surgical procedures and can contribute to animal welfare and improve patient recovery, thereby causing less productive impact  when applied to exploratory procedures in livestock production. In addition to its application for therapeutic purposes, laparoscopy can be used in clinical practice for diagnostic purposes and for applying reproductive biological techniques. Umbilical disorders are one of the leading problems in newborn calves. In many cases, surgical therapy is indicated, and laparoscopy is a viable alternative to be considered. Hence, this study aimed to identify the best approach for the placement of laparoscopic portals to explore the umbilical structures in the abdominal cavity of bovine fetuses and to analyze the feasibility of laparoscopy applied to the intra-abdominal surgical resection of these fetuses’ umbilical vein and urachus. The procedures to identify the best approach for the resection of the umbilical vein and urachus were performed in fetuses from cows slaughtered in a legal slaughterhouse using conventional and laparoscopic surgical instruments fitted with multimedia accessories (trocars, laparoscopic prehension forceps and scissors, insufflator, light source, monitor, etc.). In the first stage, the lateral and ventral approaches were analyzed to establish the laparoscopic access portals. In the second stage, surgical resections of the umbilical veins and urachus were performed by laparoscopy, comparing the surgical time and feasibility with open surgery. The lateral approach was more appropriate for exploring the umbilical structures as it allowed better visualization and manipulation of the structures. Laparoscopic resection of the umbilical vein and urachus was shown to be feasible, presenting a shorter surgical time and less tissue damage when compared with open surgery. Laparoscopy, using the lateral approach, applied for the exploration of the umbilical structures of bovine fetuses proved to be feasible, ensuring the intra-abdominal resection of the umbilical vein and urachus.

  • Measurement over 1 Year of Neutralizing Antibodies in Cattle Immunized with Trivalent Vaccines Recombinant Alpha, Beta and Epsilon of Clostridium perfringens

  • Data: 17/12/2021
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  • The alpha (CPA), beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins of Clostridium perfringens are responsible for causing diseases that are difficult to eradicate and have lethal potential in production animals. Vaccination of herds is still the best control strategy. Recombinant clostridial vaccines have shown good success at inducing neutralizing antibody titers and appear to be a viable alternative to the conventional production of commercial clostridial toxoids. Research is still needed on the longevity of the humoral immune response induced by recombinant proteins in immunized animals, preferably in target species. The objective of this study was to measure the humoral immune response of cattle immunized with trivalent vaccines containing the recombinant proteins alpha (rCPA), beta (rCPB) and epsilon (rETX) of C. perfringens produced in Escherichia coli at three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400g) of each protein for 12 months. The recombinant vaccines containing 200 (RV2) and 400g (RV3) yielded statistically similar results at 56 days. They performed better throughout the study period because they induced higher neutralizing antibody titers and were detectable for up to 150 and 180 days, respectively. Regarding industrial-scale production, RV2 would be the most economical and viable formulation as it achieved results similar to RV3 at half the concentration of recombinant proteins in its formulation. However, none of the vaccines tested induced the production of detectable antibody titers on day 365 of the experiment, the time of revaccination typically recommended in vaccination protocols. Thus, reiterating the need for research in the field of vaccinology to achieve greater longevity of the humoral immune response against these clostridial toxins in animals, in addition to the need to discuss the vaccine schedules and protocols adopted in cattle production.

  • Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of polymeric hybrid matrices based on poly (lactic acid), polycaprolactone and pracaxi oil (Pentaclethra macroloba)

  • Data: 14/12/2021
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  • The search for alternatives to combat microorganisms has intensified and new materials have been tested to accelerate the healing process of various human and animal diseases. The development of polymeric matrices with tissue bioactivity is a highlight in tissue engineering, especially in support of the control of bacterial resistance, which is an important problem in public health. In this sense, the objective
    of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a hybrid polymer matrix developed a base of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL) and pracaxi oil (Pentaclethra macroloba), a plant native to the Amazon. The biomaterial was produced rotary jet spinning in a 1:1 ratio of PCL and PLA plus pracaxi oil, and its technique was tested against Escherichia coli by the broth microdilution method. The results and the concentration of PCL against the polymer matrix of PC+PLA enriched with praxi oil showed antimicrobial action of E. coli in in vitro Minimum Inhibitory assay at 2.5mg/ml. Future studies are encouraged to transpose these results in vivo, and so will provide a fight against a resistant alternative to a more alternative alternative.

  • Consumption profile and perception in relation to the sale of açaí in the Archipelago of Marajó, state of Pará

  • Data: 31/08/2021
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  • Açaí, the fruit of the açaí palm, is used to obtain the juice or pulp of açaí and its derivatives. This product is rooted in the gastronomy of the population of Pará and has been incorporated into the marketing of tourism in the state, with emphasis on the Archipelago of Marajó. However, although it has been studied by several authors, so far there are no reports on the profile of açaí consumption in the region in question. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the consumption profile of açaí and derivatives in the municipalities of Soure and Salvaterra, Archipelago of Marajó - PA, regarding the sociodemographic profile and the perception of consumers regarding various aspects associated with the consumption of açaí. The project was submitted and approved by the Research Ethics Committee - CEP of the Health Sciences Institute of the Federal University of Pará. For the development of this study, randomly chosen questionnaires were applied to 382 volunteers (192 from Soure and 190 from Salvaterra). . Data were descriptively analyzed and later submitted to Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Our results showed that most of the interviewees were local residents, male, over 40 years old, who live in the urban perimeter and who have completed high school. Most prefer to consume açaí pulp or juice instead of derivatives, the product being purchased mainly from artisanal beaters. People who declared themselves from the rural area were associated with the consumption of açaí beaten at home. In both cities, knowledge about food contamination and food fraud was observed. A large part of the interviewees demonstrated to have knowledge about Chagas Disease and reported that they obtained the information mainly through television. We conclude that in the cities studied, açaí is a highly consumed product and that the interviewees demonstrated knowledge about the risks associated with its consumption, especially due to the influence of the media

  • Genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale in infected calves under natural transmission conditions in dairy farms

  • Data: 31/08/2021
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  • Anaplasma marginale is an intraerythrocytic rickettsia, transmitted by ticks, hematophagous diptera, through fomites and by transplacental route. It causes the disease Bovine Anaplasmosis, which is characterized by fever, weight loss, lethargy, jaundice, decreased milk production and death. The present study aimed to detect A. marginale and identify its genetic diversity in naturally infected calves, under the same management conditions, in a dairy farm located in the municipality of Castanhal, northeastern region of Pará state, Eastern Amazon. Thus, the study was carried out in 24 calves, evaluated weekly, through blood sampling, with the first collection 24 hours after birth, repeated 20 days later and then once a week, totaling 192 samples, until they were 60 days old. The results obtained allowed us to prepare two scientific articles, the first one entitled "Detection of Anaplasma marginale in calves from dairy farms in the Eastern Amazon: blood smear and nPCR" and the second one entitled "Genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale (Theiler, 1910) in naturally infected calves in dairy farms in the Eastern Amazon, Pará, Brazil". In the first article, we observed an increasing frequency of rickettsemia by A. marginale in calves from 20 days of age until 60 days, with a peak of infection at 47 days, and the presence of clinical signs was compatible with rickettsemic levels and decrease in globular volume over the days. In the second article there was a diversity of strains found in the herd and these have been diagnosed in more than one region in Brazil, with possible association to the movement of animals between places and the association between sequences. Based on the agent studied we can conclude the increasing frequency of rickettsemia by A.marginale in calves from 20 days of age until 60 days and a peak of infection at 47 days, with the presence of compatible clinical signs and decrease in globular volume over the days. Using the blood smear and nested PCR techniques, both proved efficient in identifying the agent. The diversity of strains found may be associated with the intense movement of animals and the possible association between sequences.

  • Acurácia diagnóstica e viabilidade de ácidos nucléicos em tumores mamários caninos usando fixação coagulante e processamento histológico rápido em micro-ondas doméstico

  • Data: 30/08/2021
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  • Breast neoplasms are relatively common in dogs. The diagnosis of this disease is made through histopathology using formalin as standard fixation. Alternative methods exist, but they are little used, as is the case of coagulant fixation and domestic microwave processing. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fragments fixed with coagulant fixative and processed in domestic microwaves, as well as to evaluate whether this material is viable for molecular biology. Breast tumors were cleaved into two parts and a small part was cryopreserved. The diagnostic accuracy was determined in the histopathological examination of the microwave-processed fragment. In addition, all samples were extracted from DNA for amplification of the GAPDH gene and then electrophoresed. The diagnostic accuracy obtained was 66.6% and the paraffin samples of all fragments fixed in coagulant fixative and processed in microwave were positive for the GAPDH gene in electrophoresis. The results showed that the rapid processing technique in a domestic microwave oven using coagulant fixation is a viable alternative for short-term diagnosis of breast cancer in dogs. The paraffin blocks served as excellent sources of DNA extraction for molecular biology.

  • Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein as a means of diagnostic inflammatory processes in dogs clinically evaluated in the city of Curuçá, Pará state

  • Data: 27/08/2021
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  • Complementary tests are of paramount importance to aid in the diagnosis, prognosis and proper treatment of animals. Based on this, the study aims to assess the importance of plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein as a marker of the inflammatory response in dogs, correlating them to the white blood cell count and clinical suspicion of the animal. For this, 149 dogs from the city of Curuçá - Pará were evaluated, where 53% were male (79/149) and 47% female (70/149), with ages ranging from one to 19 years. Of the total, 17.4% had hyperfibrinogenemia (26/149), 39.6% had a positive reaction in the c-reactive protein test (59/149) and 48.3% had leukocytosis (72/149); and in 63.8% (46/72) of the animals the leukocytosis was due to neutrophilia. When the PPT:Fib ratio of animals with hyperfibrinogenemia was evaluated, it was found that of the 26 animals, in 84.6% the increase was related to inflammatory processes (22/26), the others, 15.4% (4/26) , were related to dehydration. Although there is no statistical agreement between the three parameters evaluated, increases in PCr and Fib were observed in animals without clinical signs, characteristic of acute phase proteins. Suggesting its importance as a marker of the inflammatory response in animals from the onset of symptoms and during disease progression.

  • Pathological alterations in palatine tonsils of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) slaughtered for consumption

  • Data: 27/08/2021
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  • The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are important in the pathogenesis of several infectious diseases, as they can be the gateway for many agents. With the advent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the tonsils of ruminants were considered specified risk materials (MER) for the disease, and its removal from carcasses, segregation and destruction was recommended. This regulation provided an opportunity for morphological studies of tonsils. This study aims to investigate macroscopic and histological lesions in palatine tonsils of buffaloes slaughtered for consumption. The results of the work will be presented in the form of one article: "Pathological findings in palatine tonsils of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) slaughtered for consumption" In the study, both palatine tonsils of 327 buffaloes (32.30% of the total annual slaughter in 2018) clinically healthy sent for slaughter were collected. The collections took place during nine visits made for convenience to the slaughterhouse located in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil, between December 2, 2019 and April 1, 2020. The buffaloes in the study were, in their vast majority (90.64%), from the municipalities of Ilha de Marajó, in the state of Pará, Brazil. After collection, the palatine tonsils were refrigerated and fixed in 10% buffered formalin in the laboratory for 24 to 48 hours, routinely processed for histopathology and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Special stains were performed on selected cuts. The main histopathological findings observed in the palatine tonsils of buffaloes were mild to moderate follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (93.0%, 304 cases), keratin cysts (96.0%, 314 cases), crypt abscesses (79.8%, 261 cases), tonsillar bodies (31.2%, 102 cases) and tuberculoid granulomas (1.5%, 5 cases). AFB were observed in 16.7% (1 of 6 cases) of tuberculoid granulomas. Von Kossa staining demonstrated calcium in all tonsillar bodies. The study indicates that the pathological evaluation of buffalo tonsils can provide details of structural characteristics of the organ in the species and information on subclinical or asymptomatic tonsillitis.

  • Blood biochemistry in Accipitriforms from the Brazilian Amazon region

  • Data: 26/08/2021
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  • The order Accipitriformes, the most abundant in Latin America, is composed of the families Accipitridae, with the largest number of species, and Pandionidae, with only one species. Veterinary care of birds has grown in recent years, but the veterinarian still faces several difficulties when it comes to blood collection and analysis of the results. In this sense, laboratory tests are useful for screening, diagnosis or prognosis. Thus, the objective of the present study is to supplement the studies in birds with previous data on biochemical analytes of the order Accipitriformes from the Brazilian Amazon region. For this purpose, the animals were submitted to physical and/or chemical restraint, according to the protocol of the site of care. At the University Veterinary Hospital - Wild Animals Sector (HVSAS), inhalational anesthesia with Isoflurane was used in a semi-open circuit, and at the Mangal das Garças, the association of ketamine-dexmedetomidine-butorphanol was used. In animals with guardians, only physical restraint was allowed. Blood samples were collected in a tube without anticoagulant for automated measurement of aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, creatinine, and urea. The mean biochemical values of AST (282.86 U/L), uric acid (12.10 mg/dL), creatinine (0.37 mg/dL), urea (14.04 mg/dL) and glucose (258.38 mg/dL) did not show significant differences among the species of Accipitriformes studied in eastern Amazonia (Gampsonyx swainsonii, Rupornis magnirostris, Geranoaetus albicaudatus, Parabuteo unicinctus). This is the first report of serum biochemistry data of Accipitriformes specimens received in care centers in the Amazon biome and constitutes preliminary results in order to provide a benchmark for veterinarians attending birds in similar conditions.

  • Causes of broiler mortality in an intensive production system in the Northeast region of Pará

  • Data: 10/08/2021
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  • The identification of the most frequent diseases that occur in poultry production establishments in a region offers valuable information for both producers, veterinarians and animal health officials, and allows establishing sanitary measures for biosafety and control of these diseases. There are different parameters that allow evaluating the performance of a poultry flock, the mortality rate being one of the most representative. In the northeast region of Pará, there are no studies that establish mortality rates and especially their most important causes. The aim of this study is to determine the causes of mortality in broilers reared in an intensive system in a commercial farm in the northeast region of Pará. A batch of 34 thousand birds was followed, in a 42-day production cycle, during which necropsies and histological analysis of samples of birds that died spontaneously were performed. The causes of mortality were classified into 3 groups: infectious changes, non-infectious changes and indeterminate. Some birds had more than one diagnosis, which is why the number of diagnosed alterations is higher than the number of necropsied birds. During the period, a mortality of 1,508 birds was registered, representing 4.4%, of which 447 birds (29.4%) were refuse. A total of 237 birds were necropsied, and 338 alterations were diagnosed, of which 170 (50.3%) were classified as infectious and 168 (49.7%) non-infectious. Of the 237 necropsied birds, 129 had some infectious alteration. The main infectious changes observed were aerosaculitis (28/8.3%), polyserositis (23/6.8%), pneumonia 22 (6.5%), omphalitis/yolk sac infection (21/6.2%), pododermatitis (20/5.9%), necrotic hepatitis (17/5.0%), vegetative endocarditis (14/4.1%) and fibrinous pericarditis (10/3.0%). The main non-infectious changes diagnosed were ascitic syndrome (40/11.8%), femoral head degeneration (36/10.7%), tracheitis (34/10.1%) and cachexia/starvation (23/6 .8%). Although the mortality rate was not considered high, the main causes of mortality were infectious alterations, different from what was observed in other studies. This demonstrates the need to identify the epidemiological and etiological factors responsible for these changes, in order to implement adequate control and prophylaxis measures.

  • Evaluation of the susceptibility to insecticides of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) populations in Belém, state of Pará, Brasil

  • Data: 02/07/2021
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  • In Brazil, Aedes aegypti mosquito is the common vector responsible for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus transmission. To prevent virus transmission, the main strategy adopted is vector control through the use of insecticides. Pyriproxyphen and pyrethroids are the most widely used insecticides. However, the continuous and widespread use of these chemical compounds can induce the occurrence of resistant mosquito populations. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether the populations of Aedes aegypti in the area of the Park Zoobotanical Mangal das Garças and Park States of Utinga Camilo Vianna, two areas in the municipality of Belém, Pará, are susceptible to the larvicide pyriproxyphen and adulticide permethrin. The collections were performed using ovitraps, and the bioassays were performed according to the WHO recommendations with pyriproxyphen in L3larvae from the F1 generation submitted to  0.05 ppm and 0.5 ppm concentrations. The dose-response bioassay for permethrin was provided according to CDC and WHO guidelines, using adult F1 generation mosquitoes exposed to permethrin at a concentration of 15µL/mL. Mosquitoes captured at Park States of Utinga Camilo Vianna had the highest Ovitrampas Positivity Index (OPI) 91.67% (11/12) compared to mosquitoes at Park Zoobotanical Mangal das Garças, which imposed an OPI of 19.05% / (21 / 4) and the mosquitoes captured in the Park Zoobotanical Mangal das Garças  obtained the highest Egg Density Index 75.25 (301/4) compared to the Park States Utinga  Camilo Vianna 20.82 (229/11). Both mosquito populations tested were susceptible to permethrin. However, in relation to pyriproxyphen, both are resistant to the indicated dose. We conclude that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti from the studied areas are susceptible to pyrethroid permethrin and resistant to pyriproxyphen.

  • Spatial distribuition of culicids (Diptera: Culicidae) in tourist spots in the municipality of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 27/05/2021
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  • Culicids are díptera that are importante for public health because they are carriers of pathogens that affect humans and outher animals. Mosquitoes diferente eating and reproductive habits. The presence of these dipterans in tourist spots may represent a risk in the dissemination og pathogens or the introduction of exotic pathogens, due to the large circulation of people from different geographical origins. The objective of this work was to identify and cary out the analysis of the spatial distribution of the culicidae fauna in touristic points of Belém, PA. For this puporse, mosquitoes were captured at the Parque Zoobotânico Mangal das Garças, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi and Parque Estadual do Utinga Camillo Viana. The collections of larvae and adults mosquitoes were made using a Pasteur pippete and entomological plugs. The specimens were stored, latter identified, the collection points were georeferenced for construction of the maps by Kernel estimation. Culicids were found in all collection points, with 338 specimens identified belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex and Limatus. The breeding sites found were a tire containing standing water and bromeliads. We conclude that culicids are present in all tourist parks studied, with the genus Aedes being the most abundant.

  • Clinical, gastroscopic, ultrasound and histopathological findings in dogs with gastrits

  • Data: 31/03/2021
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  • Stomach inflammation is a pathology usually mentioned, but hardly identified and investigated with a complete diagnostic apparatus, such as an association of history, clinical signs, abdominal radiography, abdominal ultrasound and gastroscopy in cases of anorexia and vomiting in small animals. In addition, there is a divergence and subjectivity of the research published on the efficiency of ultrasonography in the evaluation of gastric changes. The present study aimed to evaluate and correlate the ultrasound, gastroscopic and histopathological findings obtained from canine patients with clinical suspicion of gastritis and to verify the techniques Warthin-Starry and immunohistochemistry to detect Helicobacter bacteria in the stomach of these dogs. The study population consisted of 10 dogs of different breeds, aged between 3 months and 12 years old, referred to the Videosurgery, Obstetric and Reproductive Diseases Group at the Federal University of Pará (VOR / UFPA) to perform the examination of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, gastric symptoms like vomiting, melena and anorexia. All animals were submitted to abdominal ultrasound exams, gastroscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of samples stained with Hemotoxilin-Eosin (H&E), for analysis of probable gastric lesions, and Warthin Starry staining and immunohistochemistry to detect Helicobacter spp bacteria. Then, the patients were classified into two categories for ultrasound, gastroscopic and histopathological exams, being Positive Diagnosis (PD) and Negative or Inconclusive Diagnosis (DN/I) regarding the suspicion of gastritis and the suspicion of Helicobacter spp. Using histological findings as the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of gastritis, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ultrasound and gastroscopy exams were analyzed; And according to the standards of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association, the samples would be classified based on the severity of gastritis and with immunohistochemistry - Streptavidin biotin peroxidase technique. And the classification made by the semi-quantitative system model described by Lanzoni et al. (2011).

  • Research of Leptospira spp. in humans, domestic and wild animals from areas of forest remnants in the Brazilian Amazon

  • Data: 26/02/2021
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  • Research that relates human-animal interaction in forest remnant environments is necessary to understand the complex epidemiological chain of leptospirosis in the Brazilian Amazon, so this research aimed to diagnose Leptospira spp. in wild animals, humans and their domestic animals and identify the most frequent serovars and verify if there is correlation between findings in humans and domestic animals. For this, two rural communities were selected in the municipalities of Santa Bárbara and Peixe-Boi, both in the state of Pará, located near areas of forest remnants. A total of 713 biological samples were collected in these locations. In Santa Barbara (118 dogs, 10 cats, 80 humans, 14 rodents and 11 marsupials) and Peixe-Boi, 480 samples (168 dogs, 16 cats, 221 humans, 22 pigs, one goat, eight buffaloes, nine cattle, nine horses, three sheep, 16 marsupials and seven wild rodents) were collected. The blood collection of humans and their domestic animals was performed by venous puncture in tubes without and with anticoagulant to obtain serum and whole blood. The capture of wild animals was done using containment traps of the Sherman, Pitfall and Tomahawk type installed in the interior, edge and urban-rural area adjacent to the remaining forests. The captured wild animals were euthanasia to collect fragments of liver, kidney and spleen tissue. With the serum samples, the MAT was performed using 19 serogroups of leptospires to detect anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, while the samples of whole blood and tissue fragment of wild animals were submitted to DNA extraction to perform PCR in order to detect the DNA of Leptospira spp., using the genes 16S rRNA and "LipL32".  DNA of agent was detected in 12% (3/25) of the renal fragments of two species of marsupialis (Didelphis marsupialis and Marmosops pinheiroi) and in a liver fragment of a rodent species (Echimys chrysurus) in the municipality of Santa Bárbara. It was also observed that the DNA of Leptospira was detected only in samples of 13 dogs, which demonstrated 100% of identity with the DNA of L. interrogans deposited in the GenBank. Regarding the MAT, 24.03% (50/208) of serum samples from humans and dogs from Santa Barbara were reactive, where the most prevalent serogroups in the human and animal population were Canicola, Djasiman, Cynopteri and Sejroe. In the municipality of Peixe-Boi the DNA of Leptospira was detected in 16 human and domestic animal samples. 12.61% (56/444) of the samples of dogs, cats, horses, pigs and humans reagents for the serogroups Canicola, Celledoni, Sejroe and Icterohaemorrhagiae in the MAT, in addition, it is concluded that there is presence of Leptospira spp. in samples from rural communities studied, observing the natural infection by the agent in humans, domestic animals and wild from areas of forest remnants of eastern Amazonia.

  • Corpos Estranhos (CE) em cães tratados por endoscopiadigestiva alta: descrição de casos

  • Data: 22/02/2021
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  • falta

  •  Percutaneous Ruminostomy: study in an experimental model in bovine fetus

  • Data: 22/02/2021
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  • The aim of this work is to describe a minimally invasive technique of rumenostomy, using the endoscope, working on five corpses of calves (n=5) as an experimental model. The technique consists of performing an endoscopy-guided rumenostomy, in which the calves were positioned in the right lateral position to perform an oral rumenoscopy and access the rumen, which was inflated with the endoscope air pump. Through transabdominal lighting and palpation of the flank, the exact location for insertion of the catheter mandrel for passage of the tube guide, nylon wire, was established. The guide was apprehended by the endoscopic grasping forceps, which was passed through the endoscope's working channel. Then the guide was taken to the calf's mouth, and the outer tip of the gastric tube was attached to the guide. The guide was then pulled, taking it into the rumen until the guide insertion point on the flank. Under traction of the guide, the entrance orifice was enlarged, just enough for the exit of the tube. Finally, the tube was fixed with stitches. The use of the endoscope, its lighting and air pump, and the decubitus used provided a good anatomical visualization of the rumen, making it possible to evaluate several regions of the organ. The average time to perform the procedure was 11.15 min. The technique of endoscopic rumenostomy using anatomical pieces of calves was possible, being carried out in a simple and efficient way, especially regarding the proposal to value animal welfare as it is a minimally invasive procedure.

  • Laparoscopy in buffaloes: Access techniques study for topographic description of the species and highlight for liver biopsies performance with three different instruments

  • Data: 18/02/2021
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  • Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that allows the visualization of the abdominal cavity, for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic purposes, causing less trauma to the animal, when compared to conventional laparotomy. In ruminants, liver biopsy is a very important tool in the diagnosis of liver diseases, in which histopathology helps in the diagnosis. Endosurgery makes this process less traumatic for the patient, mainly due to the possibility of collecting materials from representative areas with diffuse and focal lesions in the liver parenchyma, as other techniques such as needle biopsy, allows to obtain material from areas that are not always representative of the lesion, while endosurgery guarantees a collection of the injured site. Surgical techniques for the Bubalus bubalis species have been scarcely described, especially endosurgery, which is not yet widely used, with few reports of techniques in the literature. In addition to therapeutic applicability, laparoscopic observation of the abdominal cavity helps to describe the topography of this species and diagnose possible conditions. In the present study, 10 adult healthy buffalo of the Murrah + Mediterranean breed were submitted to clinical examination and evaluated. The ain of the study was to establish a minimally invasive endosurgical technique to access the buffalo abdominal cavity and to verify and define the topography of the organs and their structures and to perform liver biopsies with three different instruments.

  • Intestinal microbiota of wild Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pictipes and Rhodnius robustus infected and uninfected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the Eastern Amazon

  • Data: 02/02/2021
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Triatomines are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects have a microbial community in their gut that can interfere with the ability to transmit pathogens. However, little is known about the topic, as several species of triatomines with different habitats can transmit T. cruzi, and each of them possibly has a different intestinal microbiota. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the intestinal microbiota of wild triatomines captured in the Eastern Amazon, emphasizing comparative assessment of microbial diversity among the different species captured and among individuals infected and not infected by T. cruzi. Triatomines were captured in different communities in the rural area of the municipality of São Domingos do Capim - Pará. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples of the digestive tract of these insects for the research of T. cruzi DNA using Nested-PCR, and for identification of bacterial diversity of the digestive tract through metagenomic analysis, from amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and new generation sequencing (NGS). In total, 93 triatomines were captured, 25 identified as Panstrongylus geniculatus, 36 as Rhodnius robustus and 32 as R. pictipes. The frequency of infection by T. cruzi was 72% in P. geniculatus and 75% in R. pictipes and R. robustus. In general, Pseudomonas was the most abundant and most uniform microbial genus in the study, which suggests a symbiosis relationship between the taxon and the studied triatomine species. Also, the genus Wolbachia is part of the intestinal microbiome of the species analyzed, and was reported for the first time in the intestine of triatomines of the genus Panstrongylus. There was a significant difference between the P. geniculatus microbiota in positive and negative samples for T. cruzi, but the same did not occur in R. pictipes and R. robustus.

  • Retrospective study of the causes of conviction of a federally inspected slaughterhouse located in Southeast Pará

  • Data: 23/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The quality and safety of products of animal origin are strictly dependent on the technological and hygienic-sanitary processes carried out throughout its production chain, from obtaining and receiving the raw material, to the dispatch of the finished product. The present study aimed to evaluate the causes of convictions, verifying possible flaws in the slaughter flowchart and suggesting possible improvements, in addition to analyzing and evaluating the economic losses caused by total and partial condemnations of food from industry with official federal inspection service. . The study was carried out in a slaughterhouse located in a municipality in the southeastern region of Pará, evaluating the number of condemnations of the viscera of 378,157 slaughtered cattle, with contamination by gastrointestinal content being the most condemned cause, where the prevalence of conviction was 98, 05% in the head, 99.79% in the tongue, 82.89% in the heart, 45.03% in the liver, 100% in the stomachs and 58.25% in the intestines. We conclude that in the present study that contamination by gastrointestinal content is the main cause of condemnation of bovine viscera, suggesting the urgent need to improve the collaborating class involved in the slaughter process, the correlations between the production flowchart of the industries, the main critical points of operational risk and microbiological hazards that involve processing, and that post-mortem inspection is essential in maintaining public health, ensuring food safety and the safety of products that reach the consumer's table.

  • Electrocardiographic evaluation of Sagui-una (Saguinus ursulus) under chemical containment with ketamine and dexmedetomidine

  • Data: 22/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Saguinus ursulus is a primate species endemic to Brazil, classified as vulnerable to
    extinction. S. ursulus constantly needs anesthesia to perform diagnostic and
    therapeutic procedures, therefore, monitoring cardiorespiratory function during
    anesthesia is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish
    electrocardiographic parameters and reference values for S. ursulus, in the right
    lateral decubitus (RLD) and dorsal decubitus (DD) positions, under the effects of
    anesthetics ketamine and dexmedetomidine. Ten specimens of S. ursulus were
    used, four males and six females, young and adults, weighing between 375 and 574
    g. Electrocardiograms revealed that male and female S. ursulus showed normal
    sinusrhythm in 100% of the animals studied. There was no statistical difference
    between the parameters extracted from the electrocardiogram in the RLD and DD
    positions. However, it was observed that gender influenced the results of the P wave
    amplitude parameter in both positions (p = 0.047). In conclusion, the ECG values
    obtained in the present study in S. ursulus, can be used as a reference source to
    veterinarians and researchers, demonstrating that chemical immobilization with the
    combination of ketamine and dexmedetomidine is safe and effective for the species
    at the dose used in the study

  • Radiographic evaluation of the thoracic cavity and use of the VHS (Vertebral heart size) measurement method in Saguinus ursulus

  • Data: 22/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Saguinus ursulus is a newly discovered neotropical primate species and, to this date,
    no radiographic- anatomical parameters of the thoracic cavity have been published.
    The aim of the study was to determine an objective cardiac size parameter in healthy
    Saguinus ursulus specimens using the Vertebral Heartsize (VHS) radiographic
    measurement method and to provide reference values for structures present in the
    thoracic cavity. Eleven specimens of S. ursulus were used, six females and five
    males, young and adult, healthy, weighing between 375 and 574 g, born in wildlife
    and held captive at the National Primate Center (CENP), in the city of Ananindeua,
    state of Pará, Brazil. Chest radiographs in the latero-lateral right (LLR), latero-lateral
    left (LLL) and ventro-dorsal (VD) projections were used to determine a lung pattern
    and assess the cardiac silhouette using the VHS measurement method, as well as to
    describe biometric values associated with the cardiac silhouette and thoracic
    structures. Multiple radiographic parameters of the S. ursulus thoracic cavity were
    presented. The pulmonary fields generally presented a diffuse interstitial pattern with
    variations for the bronchial pattern.There were no statistical differences in the VHS
    values obtained between males and females and between LLR and LLL projections,
    but significant differences in heart length in VD and LL were observed. The mean
    value of the estimated VHS for the species was 9.14 ± 0.11 (variation of 7.2-10.3v). It
    was concluded that chest radiography as a non-invasive imaging modality allowed an
    accurate and safe assessment of the cardiac silhouette and structures of the chest
    cavity of Saguinus ursulus. The method of measuring the vertebral heartsize (VHS)
    proved to be effective and applicable for the species. This study provides an
    overview of the normal thoracic radiographic anatomy and primary reference
    parameters for the clinical evaluation of the chest of Saguinus ursulus, generating
    data that will facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases that affect the
    species cardiorespiratory system.

  • Search for natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi, Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. in wild carnivores (Carnivora: Canidae, Felidae and Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

  • Data: 18/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Trypanosoma cruzi, Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. are etiological agents of diseases important for both public and animal health, however there are few studies on these agents in wild carnivores in the Amazon biome. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect the natural infection Trypanosoma cruzi, Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. in procionids, canids and wild felids in the Amazon biome. Biological samples were collected from free-living and captive wild carnivores in the Brazilian Amazon. For the detection of T.cruzi DNA, Nested PCR was performed with primers D71 / 72 and D75 / 76 and blood smears were made. For the detection of Rickettsia spp. Nested PCR was performed with primers 17k-5 / 17k-3 and 17k-1 / 17k-2, with some products sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. For the detection of Borrelia spp. Nested PCR was performed with FlaLL / FlaRL and FlaLS / FlaRS primers. T. cruzi DNA was detected in 38.2% (42/110) and trypomastigote forms were detected in 6.4% (7/110) of wild carnivores. DNA of Rickettsia spp. was detected in 3.7% (4/109) of the animals and there was no detection of Borrelia spp. in the analyzed samples. It is concluded that T. cruzi and R. felis infect free-living and captive wild carnivores in the Amazon biome. Continuous surveillance of the health of these carnivores in zoobotanical parks and adjacent forest fragments is necessary to prevent the occurrence of new infections in these populations and the transmission of these agents to the human population in the regions visited.

  • Epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in wild rats and of Histoplasma capsulatum and Mycoplasma spp. in small wild mammals and companion animals in remaining forest areas in the eastern Amazon.

  • Data: 17/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Trypanosoma cruzi, Histoplasma capsulatum and Mycoplasma spp. are etiological agents of diseases important for public and animal health. However, there are few studies about these agents in domestic and wild mammals in the Amazon biome. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect the infection and to evaluate the cardiac changes caused by T. cruzi in wild rats in the Amazon biome and to detect infections by H. capsulatum and Mycoplasma spp. in small wild mammals from peri-urban forest remnants and dogs and cats reared in peridomicile in the Eastern Amazon. Biological samples were collected from free-living rats and marsupials captured in three peri-urban forest fragments. Dogs and cats residing in rural communities adjacent to these fragments were also examined. Detection of T. cruzi DNA on cardiac musculature of wild rats was performed a nested-PCR with the primers D71/72 and D75/76, histopathological exams, and immunohistochemistry analysis. For the detection of H. capsulatum DNA was performed a nested-PCR with the primers HCI/HCII and HCIII/HCIV and for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. DNA was performed a PCR with the HBT-F and HBT-R primers, being some products sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. T. cruzi DNA was detected in 84.61% (33/39) of wild rats. Histopathological changes in cardiac musculature were observed in 34.61% (9/26) of positive animals, and amastigote nests were marked by immunohistochemistry in tissue of one specimen of H. megacephalus. H. capsulatum DNA was detected in 9.5% (12/126) of small wild mammals and rats showed a higher frequency of positive animals 25.6% (10/39) when compared to marsupials 2.3% (2/87). The frequency of positive comestic animals was 2.2% (3/139), being 1.6% (2/121) for dogs and 5.5% (1/18) for cats. Mycoplasma spp. DNA was detected in 18.7% (6/28) of rats, in 13% (9/69) of marsupials, 28.4% (37/130) of dogs, and 28.6% (6/21) of cats examined. M. haemomuris infections in rats of the species H. megacephalus, Neacomys sp. nov. and P. cuvieri and Mycoplasma sp. in M. murina and Marmosops cf. pinheiroi are reported for the first time in Brazil. It was concluded that T. cruzi infection can cause cardiac lesions in wild rats of the species P. cuvieri, H. megacephalus, Neacomys sp. nov. and O. paricola. Rats, marsupials, dogs and cats can be infected by H. capsulatum and different species of hemotropic mycoplasmas in the Amazon biome.

  • Analysis of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geo-helminths in the municipality of Primavera / Pará

  • Data: 11/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Among the parasitic infections of great importance in global public health, schistosomiasis mansoni and geohelminthiasis, prevalent in underdeveloped and developing countries, stand out. In Brazil they mainly affect the poorest communities without access to drinking water and adequate basic sanitation. The use of geoprocessing offers the spatial analysis of cases, allowing epidemiologists to identify areas of coverage, facilitating the taking of appropriate intervention measures through a more accurate situational diagnosis. The present study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution and the profile of schistosomiasis and geohelminths in the municipality of Primavera / Pará. The data were obtained from the DECIT 40/2012 project. The country, state and municipality limits of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) were obtained. In the data analysis, the map of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminthes and the Kernel density estimate (KDE) were used. The predominant profile of the studied population was female (50.98%) and adult (33.82%). However, in those infected, the majority was male (57.84%). The presence of infection by S. mansoni (10.78%), A. lumbricoides (4.90%), T. trichiura (2.21%) and hookworms (41.91%) were identified. The presence of coinfection was observed in 12.5%, with the largest coinfection between S. mansoni and hookworms (8.33%). KDE identified clusters of high intensity in the locations of Pedrinhas and Canaã. The use of geoprocessing enabled the mapping and identification of areas at risk of contamination from schistosomiasis, geohelminthesis and co-infection, thus helping to make assertive decisions in the control of these infections.

  • Epidemiological, socio-environmental and serological study of determining factors for the occurrence of  bat bitten in two populations in areas of Extractive Reserve (RESEX) northeast of  Pará

  • Data: 10/12/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Human rabies transmitted by bats re-emerged in the northern region of Brazil in the years 2017/2018, after 14 years with no records of the disease. This re-emergence is worrying for the populations of the Amazon region, since reports of spoliation by blood-sucking bats are common in the region, in communities that live in isolation and on the margins of forest fragments. Transmission of the virus from bats to people occurs mainly through biting. In this context, knowledge of the epidemiological aspects related to bat attacks is essential for the adoption of protective measures by vulnerable human populations and the prevention of deaths. Thus, the present study aims to: i) characterize spoliation by blood-sucking bats in humans in two municipalities in the Salgado micro-region; ii) check the seroprevalence for the rabies virus in battered individuals. Descriptive analyzes were conducted based on information from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) regarding anti-rabies care in the municipalities of São João da Ponta and Curuçá, with data from the state of Pará. A questionnaire was applied to characterize the victims. semi-structured for all 124 individuals in the study, while the titration of antibodies to the virus was performed using the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) and Enzyme Linked Immunono Sorbent Assay (ELISA) methods, in 58 individuals, residents of the municipality of Curuçá-PA. In São João da Ponta, for each individual registered with SINAN, there are 12.2 individuals who do not seek medical attention after batting by bats. These individuals were bitten more than four times during the study period (range 1-23 bites) and were unaware of the risk of contracting rabies from bites (95.4%). A new profile of the attacked was described, highlighting men, crab scavengers or fishermen, in adulthood, as the most vulnerable. Still, a behavior of the hematophagous bat that has not yet been described was reported by interviewees, which would be the attack of bats on humans in vessels close to the coast. The Mãe Grande de Curuçá Extractivist Reserve (RESEX) was the location most mentioned as an area conducive to aggression; therefore, serological analyzes were conducted with individuals living in the municipality of Curuçá. These individuals answered an epidemiological questionnaire in which the answers were the basis for the descriptive analysis of the study. These people were between 03 and 69 years old, the majority of whom were fishermen (60.4%) from mangrove areas, male (75.4%). Among the 100% vaccinated individuals, they had IgG against the rabies virus and 55.5% of them also had IgM. The titer of neutralizing antibodies (AcN) was ≥0.5UI / mL in 50% of the individuals in this group, 81.8% were assaulted once in their lives and 56.4% received an incomplete vaccination schedule (1-4 doses), without application of serum (37.5%). Among those not vaccinated, 35% had IgM and 90% IgG. AcN ≥0.5 IU / mL was detected in 7.5% of them, 17.5% had titers between 0.11 - 0.49 IU / mL and 75% had AcN ≤ 0.10 IU / mL. In this group, 21.5% had already been attacked more than five times in their life, and the last aggression had occurred between 2 months and 1 year (55.9%, while sleeping in huts (51.9%), during fishing activity. The fact that there are individuals with AcN titers for the rabies virus (25%) that are not vaccinated indicates a possible exposure to the virus related to the successive attacks by bats. However, in most of these cases (17.5%) these exposures did not induce a protective immune response. Unvaccinated individuals who presented protective titles need further investigation to rule out unequivocally the possibility of a vaccination that was omitted in the interview. This study proposes necessary changes in the SINAN form to assess the potential areas of bat attacks in the human population in Pará, and thus, promote prophylactic or early intervention strategies to help minimize treatment costs and to prevent the resurgence of human rabies. in the micro region of Salgado in the state of Pará, Brazil

  • Anatomopathological and Parasitic Study in Dwarf Sperm Whale (Kogia sima) From a Stranding Event on the Coast of Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 27/11/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) is a small whale measuring approximately 2.7 meters that is found in tropical seas. There are no records of stranding event of this species on the Amazonian coast and this is mainly attributed to its proximity to the Amazon River mouth. Thus, stranding events are excellent opportunities for biological, ecological and sanitary studies. This work describes the first stranding of the Kogia sima whale on the Amazonian coast, in the northern region of Brazil. In the whale's stomach, erosions and ulcers, a large amount of bloody fluid and free parasitic helminths were observed in the content and fixed in the gastric mucosa. Nematodes were classified based on morphological,  morphometric and molecular aspects and they are compatible with fourth-stage larvae and adults belonging to the two genera of the Anisakidae family: Anisakis and Pseudoterranova. The main histological lesion observed was characterized as eosinophilic, chronic, multifocal, accentuated gastritis associated with intralesional nematodes. The pathological findings of the case suggest that the parasitic gastritis has contributed significantly to the stranding.

  • Epidemiological factors associated with rabies virus neutralizing antibodies in owned animals in the urban-mangrove interface, Eastern Amazonia

  • Data: 30/09/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Rabies urban cycle presents companion animals as the main transmitters and, although cases of canine and human rabies transmitted by dogs have decreased in recent years in Brazil, the proximity of the human population to these animals makes them important sources of infection for humans. Vaccination is considered as the most effective method in the control of the disease. A coverage of 70% is recommended where rabies is endemic and its effectiveness is monitored by the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) quantification. The municipality of Curuçá is in Salgado microregion and is a neighbor of the Bragantina region, where there were cases of human rabies transmitted by hematophagous bats in 2004 and 2005. There are informal reports of bat aggression in domestic animals and dogs are the main aggressor for humans in this locality. In this sense, the monitoring of canine rabies in this municipality is essential for an effective control of the disease. Thus, the present study aimed to describe the epidemiological factors associated with the production of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies in the population of owned dogs and cats in this municipality. The sample size calculation directed the search for 352 dogs, at random. Cats (n=46) were analyzed in homes that also had dogs. A questionnaire was directed to the animal's guardian and a blood sample was collected for NAbs search. Animals population size was also estimated. The animals were mostly males, aged between 1-3 years old, who had unrestricted access to the street. 48.8% of the dogs and 32% of the cats were not vaccinated in the last anti-rabies campaign and 4.7% of the dogs were already aggressed by bats. Among the analyzed samples, only 21.1% presented NAbs titers ≥0.5 IU/mL. The variables specie, veterinary care andparticipation in annual campaigns were considered as risk factors for non-participation in vaccination campaigns (OR = 0,46, 2,55, 15,67 respectively). Animal population was estimated at 18,620 dogs and 4,556 cats. The man: dog relationship was 2.1:1 and man: cat was 8.7:1. This study revealed that estimation of dogs based on human population is underestimated for communities in the Amazon region. It was possible to quantify for the first-time dogs that are attacked by bats. Health education with an emphasis on responsible ownership and periodic and semiannual rabies vaccination are recommended for the region.

  • Survival and development of Haemonchus contortus larvae in diferent forage species in the Eastern Amazon.

  • Data: 25/09/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The purpose of this research was to assess the development and survival of third stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus in different grasses in the Eastern Amazon. Four patches were used, composed of Brachiaria humidicola, B. brizantha cv. Marandu, Panicum maximum cv. Massai and P. maximum cv. Mombasa, which were divided into 13 parcels each. Sheep feces containing 10,000 eggs of H. contortus were deposited in each plot. Grass, feces and soil samples were collected on the 7th, 15th, 30th days after contamination (DPC) and then, sequentially every 30 days until the 330th DPC. Noticeable recovery of infective larvae in the grass and soil samples in all plots were observed, from the 7th to the 330th DPC. The recovery of infective larvae from the pasture was higher from the 7th to the 30th, 180th and 240th DPC and in the soil recovery was primarily attested from the 7th to the 60th, 300th and 330th DPC. The forages that demonstrate lower bioavailability of infective larvae in this study are B. brizantha cv. Marandu and P. maximum cv. Mombasa.

  • Molecular, physical-chemical and microbiological methods for assessing the quality and authenticity of bovine, buffalo and goat milk

  • Data: 22/09/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • The control of milk quality and authenticity is of paramount importance, mainly due to the wide consumption of this food. Therefore, the development and improvement of techniques that identify flaws and adulterations during product processing is essential. The standards for this control are generally based on bovine milk. However, the demand for milk from other sources, such as buffalo and goat, also makes it necessary to analyze methodologies that may be applicable to these other species. The incorporation of raw milk into pasteurized milk, either intentionally or due to failures during pasteurization, can promote the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms, among them Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, which must be absent in some foods, given their high pathogenicity and the numerous outbreaks already reported. Another concern is the fraud for mixing milk of different species not reported on the product label, which in addition to harming the consumer can pose a risk to the health of individuals who have allergic conditions. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate methods for the analysis of the quality and authenticity of milk of different species. For this, it was verified the sensitivity of methodologies for the detection of alkaline phosphatase and, thus, the control of pasteurization in bovine, buffalo and goat milk. The fraud detection capacity was evaluated by adding small percentages of bovine milk incorporated into the buffalo through a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Microbial growth kinetics in milk submitted to different processing and storage conditions were verified. In addition, a PCR was standardized for simultaneous detection of bovine, buffalo, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes and application to experimentally contaminated and fraudulent samples. Among the tests used to detect the residual activity of alkaline phosphatase, the methodology proposed by the Brazilian legislation was the most effective to identify the presence of small portions of raw milk in the samples, whereas the other methods were less sensitive and improvement is still necessary. for use in milks of other species. The Polymerase chain reaction can be used to investigate fraud by mixing milks of different species, as well as to identify L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., Reducing the time and cost of analysis. Milk is a nutrient-rich food that favors the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in different storage conditions and, therefore, ensuring the safety of this food is of fundamental importance

  • Evaluation of the efficiency of Clostridium perfringens α and β recombinant toxoids in equine immunization

  • Data: 31/08/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Clostridium perfringens has been rated as the main gastrointestinal pathogen in foals up to age 10 days old, although enterocolitis is more common in neonates, young and adult animals may also be affected. The clinical picture which manifests itself in a form of colic, bloody diarrhoea and progresses rapidly towards a circulatory shock, is caused by the action of β toxin (CPB) of C. perfringens type C. This bacterial agent is also associated with severe myonecrosis, usually fatal, due to the involvement of α toxin (CPA) of C. perfringens type A. For equinoculture, the importance of these diseases is due to the high mortality and the absence of commercial vaccines, which ensure immunization, the main form to prevent. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to be pioneer in using and to analyse the longevity of humoral immune response in the period of one year, in horses immunized with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400µg) of recombinant toxoids CPA and CPB of C. perfringens types A and C, respectively, as well as compare to results acquired from inoculated animals with commercial toxoid. Fifty horses were used, Mangalarga Marchador breed, of both sexes, from the age of one year and up, no vaccine history against clostridiosis. The animals were randomly divided into five groups of ten horses: Recombinant Vaccine Group 100µg (G1), Recombinant Vaccine Group 200µg (G2), Recombinant Vaccine Group 400µg (G3), Commercial Vaccine Group (G4) and Negative Control Group (G5). G1, G2 and G3 horses have been vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine containing different concentrations of recombinant toxoids CPA and CPB 100, 200 and 400µg, respectively, G4 with commercial vaccine and G5 received sterile saline (NaCl 0.9%). All animals received two doses of 2ml, intramuscularly, in the neck, on days zero and 28 after the first dose. Blood serum samples were collected on days zero, 28, 56, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330 and 360 after the first vaccination. The serum obtained after centrifugation was submitted to the serum neutralization technique in mice. The potency test held on day 56 has demonstrated that the formulations of 200 and 400µg were able to induce an immune response in all inoculated horses, according to levels required by legislation, as well as, when assessing the longevity (efficiency test) of the immune response, the same concentrations presented levels of detectable antibodies until day 180, without significant differences between the results obtained. The recombinant vaccine in above concentrations 200 µg was able to stimulate a satisfactory humoral immune response in horses.

  • Aspectos epidemiológicos da leptospirose humana na América do Sul e no Pará

  • Data: 31/08/2020
  • Mostrar Resumo
  • Leptospirosis is a disease that affects people in socioeconomic vulnerability and
    animals around the world, causing a public health problem. Thus, this study aimed to
    carry out a systematic review of 10 years on the situations that contribute to the
    neglect in the occurrence of leptospirosis in the countries of South America, to
    characterize epidemiologically the occurrence of leptospirosis in people living in the
    state of Pará (period from 2007 to 2017 ), as well as to identify the incidence of the
    disease in the Regional Health Centers (CRS), and to analyze the medical care and
    clinical evolution profile of patients who evolved to cure or die from leptospirosis in
    the state of Pará in the same period. In the systematic review, 682 studies were
    found, of which 88 articles were included. The countries that presented the most
    studies were Brazil 45.45%, followed by Colombia 21.59% and Peru 11.36%, to the
    detriment of Bolivia and Suriname, which did not present results. The frequencies of
    epidemiological variables referring to leptospirosis were also investigated in the 13
    Regional Health Centers, where the average incidence ranged from 0 to 30.69 cases
    / 100,000 inhabitants, whose highest frequency occurred in the months from January
    to July (71.95% ), in men (76.65%), aged 20 to 39 years (40.03%), education up to
    elementary school (39.58%). The occupational activity of students (18.8%), contact /
    cleaning of the place with signs of rodents (63.61%) and home infection environment
    (46.70%) in urban areas (88.17%) were the most frequently asked questions.
    Additionally, we used the Bayesian technique to assess cases of human
    leptospirosis in patients who had a cure or progressed to death in the state of Pará
    (period 2007 to 2017). We found that in cases where there was a cure, it was more
    likely to use clinical laboratory criteria (80.91%), to the detriment of those who died
    and had a clinical diagnosis (51.72%). Despite the greater probability of having been
    less than 14 days in the stages of medical assistance, the cases in which there was
    an evolution to death were more likely to have more complex symptoms such as
    respiratory failure (57.12%) and renal failure (49.85%). In both cases, the most likely
    area of infection was the urban one, in the domestic environment, with contact with
    rodents, and contact with water or mud being more likely. We conclude that
    exposure to environmental water, floods and soils contaminated with the bacteria, as
    well as exposure to occupational activities and in an environment with poor
    sanitation, favor human infection in South America. In the state of Pará, leptospirosis
    is related to the deficiency of basic sanitation, the need for training of health
    professionals in the suspicion of cases and laboratory confirmation. Additionally, it is
    necessary to reduce the time interval in health care assistance and to implement the
    clinical diagnosis complemented by the laboratory, for greater efficiency in the
    therapeutic treatment and reduction of deaths. Finally, we suggest the adoption of
    public policies in order to avoid incomplete registration of information in the Brazilian
    leptospirosis notification system and effective public policies against the disease.

  • Vertebral alterations in Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis, of the Amazon coast, Brazil

  • Data: 15/07/2020
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  • The present study aims to describe bone alterations in the vertebral column of 169 Sotalia guianensis from the osteological collection of aquatic mammals deposited from January 2005 to December 2017 in the Mammal Collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG). The animals were collected from the coast of Pará State, in the municipalities of Soure, Salvaterra, Maracanã, Marapanim, Curuçá and Bragança. The animals were classified as immature and mature. The age range was estimated by the vertebrae analysis, considering that the immature ones had at least one non-consolidated symphysis. The macroscopic alterations were classified into malformation (congenital), degenerative (senile), inflammatory/infectious, and hyperostosis (bone remodeling): Congenital alterations were observed in 47 (27.8%), including 24 mature and 23 immature animals. Degenerative alterations were observed in 7.7% (13/169) of the animals, all of them in the mature category. Inflammatory or lithic lesions were present in 6.5% (11/169) of the S. guianensis, affecting 7 mature and 6 immature animals. Alterations of bone remodeling were observed in 4.1% (7/169), involving 5 mature and 2 immature animals. Two of these cases were compatible with injury of traumatic origin. The other alterations from this group were classified as idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the health threats of the Guiana dolphin of the Northern region of Brazil, particularly concerning to vertebral injuries.

  • Comparison of ketamine-meperidine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-meperidine-xylazine associations in the responses of physiological parameters, anesthetic periods and anesthetic recovery of capuchin monkeys of the genus Sapajus Kerr, 1792 (Primates: Cebidae)

  • Data: 15/06/2020
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  • This study comparatively evaluates the effects of two anesthetic protocols in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.), on the physiological variables, quality of anesthesia and anesthetic recovery. Sixteen specimens of capuchin monkeys participated in the study, which were randomly divided into two experimental groups: SX (10 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride + 3 mg/kg meperidine + 0.5 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride) and SD (10 mg/kg of ketamine hydrochloride + 3 mg/kg of meperidine + 0.005 mg/kg of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride). Physiological parameters were measured for 45 minutes in the trans-anesthetic: heart (HR) and respiratory rates (RR), internal body temperature (BT), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), peripheral venous oxygen saturation (Svo2) and blood glucose. For the referred parameters, it was not possible to observe a significant change between the SX and SD groups, p>0.05. However, there was a considerable difference between the anesthetic moments of the SX group for the variable (HR) and of the SD group for the variables (HR, RR, BT, SBP and DBP), with regression in the mean values during the measurements. The parameters glycemia and Svo2 did not show significant physiological changes within or between groups. For the monitored primates, the SX group had a longer latency period (LP) and SD a longer period of anesthetic recovery (AR). They were monitored on anesthetic return until the start of normal ambulation, with no significant difference (p>0.05) between groups for the proposed recovery scores. For the two specimens anesthetized with the SD protocol, it was not possible to perform monitoring due to the absence of adequate muscle relaxation, sialorrhea and opisthotonos. The depth of the anesthetic plan was satisfactory for the execution of safe, short-term and non-invasive procedures, in fourteen individuals of the genus Sapajus sp., for groups SX and SD.

  • Evaluation of the susceptibility to insecticides of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) populations in Belém, state of Pará, Brasil

  • Data: 31/03/2020
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  • In Brazil, Aedes aegypti mosquito is the common vector responsible for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus transmission. To prevent virus transmission, the main strategy adopted is vector control through the use of insecticides. Pyriproxyphen and pyrethroids are the most widely used insecticides. However, the continuous and widespread use of these chemical compounds can induce the occurrence of resistant mosquito populations. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether the populations ofAedes aegypti in the area of the Park Zoobotanical Mangal das Garças and Park States of Utinga Camilo Vianna, two areas in the municipality of Belém, Pará, are susceptible to the larvicide pyriproxyphen and adulticide permethrin. The collections were performed using ovitraps, and the bioassays were performed according to the WHO recommendations with pyriproxyphen in L3larvae from the F1 generation submitted to  0.05 ppm and 0.5 ppm concentrations. The dose-response bioassay for permethrin was provided according to CDC and WHO guidelines, using adult F1 generation mosquitoes exposed to permethrin at a concentration of 15µL/mL. Mosquitoes captured at Park States of Utinga Camilo Vianna had the highest Ovitrampas Positivity Index (OPI) 91.67% (11/12) compared to mosquitoes at Park Zoobotanical Mangal das Garças, which imposed an OPI of 19.05% / (21 / 4) and the mosquitoes captured in the Park Zoobotanical Mangal das Garças  obtained the highest Egg Density Index 75.25 (301/4) compared to the Park States Utinga  Camilo Vianna 20.82 (229/11). Both mosquito populations tested were susceptible to permethrin. However, in relation to pyriproxyphen, both are resistant to the indicated dose. We conclude that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti from the studied areas are susceptible to pyrethroid permethrin and resistant to pyriproxyphen.

  • Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of iron Libidibia férrea extracts and fractions against biofilm-forming microorganismis in hospital equipament

  • Data: 25/03/2020
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  • The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and failures in the hygiene and cleaning of
    surfaces and equipment in hospitals, favor the adherence of residues and
    proliferation of microorganisms, in addition to the appearance of multi-resistant
    strains. Biofilm is one of the adapted, organized and adapted forms that
    microorganisms use to guarantee their proliferation and protection of the external
    environment. This form of microbial community has been studied because it is a
    possible source of infection for immunosuppressed patients who perform procedures
    in hospitals. Therefore, the use of herbal medicines as an alternative to eliminate
    these microorganisms has become more common. A Libidibia ferrea plant has its
    potential already reported with antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action.
    Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether extracts and fractions of Libidibia
    ferrea have antimicrobial activity against microorganisms present in biofilms formed
    in hospital equipment. To obtain the leaves and bark of Libidibia ferrea collected and
    taken from the UFPA Microbiology Laboratory - Campus Castanhal, where they were
    washed, sanitized and then placed in an alcoholic solution for seven days, filtered
    and the retiree via a rotary evaporator. phytochemical prospecting and fractionation
    of increasing polarity was carried out. Samples were collected by scraping
    equipment used in the HOVET-UFPA operating room and then the microorganisms
    were isolated. For the antimicrobial profile, the bacterial suspensions were
    standardized to 0.5 on the Mcfarland scale, the extracts and fractions were diluted
    from 100 to 0.39 µg / mL and then the tests were performed by means of diffusion
    in microplates. The study was carried out in duplicate and 2% chlorhexidine was
    used as a positive control. Spectrophotometer reading was performed at 0hr and
    24hr. The results of the phytochemical profile showed the metabolic classes of
    saponins, steroids, terpenes, purines, reducing sugars, anthraquinones and
    catechite tannins. The following samples were collected from HOVET: Enterobacter
    sp. Enterbacter agglomerans Staphyococcus aureus Cronobacter sp. Salmonella
    sp. Serratia marcens bio. Shigella sp. Enterobacter aerogenes Klebsiella
    pneumoniae Yersinia enterocolítica. In the antimicrobial sensitivity profile, significant
    responses were observed in inhibiting the growth of these microorganisms mainly
    by the crude extract of the peel in all concentrations, followed by dichloromethane of
    the leaf, methyl alcohol fraction of the peel and leaf, ethyl acetate peel fraction and
    hexane fraction respectively. , with effective MICs ranging from 0.39µg / ml to 100µg
    / ml. According to the results obtained Libidibia ferrea can be a basic alternative for
    the development of an efficient product in the asepsis of hospital equipment, since it
    presented similar and sometimes superior antimicrobial activity, when compared to
    the degermante used as control.

  • Evaluation of diferente DNA extraction protocols, in a non-lethal Apis Melífera ligustica, Melipona Rufiventris e Melipona Fasciculata (Smith, 1858)

  • Data: 16/03/2020
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  • Bees are known for their importance in the pollination process and for the synthesis of the various bee products. However, studies with Amazon bees are scarce, mainly regarding their genetic characteristics. In this context, the study of non-lethal DNA extraction methods and especially the use of molecular biology techniques for the identification of species producing beekeeping and meliponiculture derivatives are of paramount importance. Thus, the present work aims to propose a method of non-lethal DNA extraction from bees and a PCR to identify the species Apis Melifera ligustica, Melipona Rufiventris and Melipona Fasciculata (Smith 1858). To this end, the present study used dead bees and tested three extraction methods. For PCR standardization, two primers were designed to identify Apis meliferous species and the genus Meliponas bees. The results showed that the three extraction protocols used resulted in low purity DNAs and high concentrations and that the proposed PCR was efficient for detecting the different types of bees. Moreover, from the amplifications, it was observed that the best methods for obtaining genetic material from bees were commercial kits. In this way commercial kits provided better quality DNA for bee extraction, making it possible to use dead bees. The primers developed in this study were efficient for identification of the studied species, and could also be used for authentication of products produced by the amplified species

  • Analysis of the sociodemographic profile and consumer perception of food security in two municipalities in the Marajó Archipelago, state of Pará

  • Data: 28/02/2020
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  • The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of consumers of dairy products of buffalo and bovine origin in the municipalities of Soure and Salvaterra (Ilha do Marajó-PA), regarding the sociodemographic profile, the level of knowledge about hygienic-sanitary quality and fraud in these products. For data collection, questionnaires were applied to volunteers, all chosen at random. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively and subsequently submitted to multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The data collection resulted in a total of 403 interviews. Our results showed that for consumption of products of buffalo origin the interviewees were mostly male, over 40 years old, who consume mainly from rural producers those who consume bovine products were women aged 21 to 30, who consume in commercial establishments such as supermarkets and bakeries. The main sources of animal protein in the region of the Marajó archipelago are mainly from buffalo farming, which reveals the region's cultural factor.

  • Phytochemical prospecting and in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of extracts and fractions of the medicinal plant Libidibia ferrea on microorganisms

  • Data: 28/02/2020
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  • The goal of the research was to realize phytochemical prospecting and to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and fractions of the leaf and bark Libidibia ferrea about microorganisms isolated from otitis and canine pyoderma. Therefore, leaves and back of the specie were macerated in hydroalcoholic solution at 70% in a proportion of 10g plant for each 100mL of the solution for 7 days and concentraded in Rotaevaporator to remove the solvent at pressure of 54mbar and temperature of 39ºC. The crude extracts obtained were subjected to phytochemical prospecting and sequential fractionation by liquid/lquid partition with solvents of increasing polarity Hexane, Dichloromethane, Ethyl acetate and Methanol. The microorganisms used for the determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) were: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Hafnia alvei, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter aglomerans and Shigella sonnei. The results of the phytochemical analysis identified Saponins, Steroids, Terpenes, Purines, Reducing sugars, Anthraquinones and Fhenols and Tannins. The results of the antimicrobial activity, demonstrated antibacterial activity on Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. Therefore, the use of leaves and bark of the plant species can be a promising source in the development of new drugs with antibacterial properties.

  • Evaluation of the quality and authenticity of commercial samples of honeys from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil and molecular detection of Salmonella spp. in honey from experimental contamination

  • Data: 27/02/2020
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  • Honey is a highly appreciated product, due to its nutritional and therapeutic properties, as it is a product that is easily accessible and obtained in a natural way. Due to production and market characteristics, this product may be subject to physical and microbiological contamination, in addition to being exposed to different fraudulent actions. The present work aimed to evaluate the quality of furniture commercialized in the Northeast region of the state of Pará, as well as to standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction to detect Salmonella spp. in honey. For this, 14 honey samples were analyzed, seven produced by Apis melífera ligustica and seven Melipona fasciculata, from the municipalities of Bragança, Capanema, Nova Timboteua, São João de Pirabas, Salinópolis and Tracuateua. The samples were evaluated for authenticity, the samples were subjected to reactions by Fiehe, Lund and Lugol, according to the methodology of the Adolf Lutz Institute, in addition to pollen analysis. The samples were also submitted to microbiological analysis for the counting of molds and yeasts (CFU / g), coliforms at 35 ° C (NMP / g) and physical contamination at macro and microscopic level, to detect dirt. To detect Salmonella spp, a proposed Polymerase Chain Reaction was standardized, starting from an experimental contamination of a honey sample with Salmonella Tiphymurium strain (ATCC 14028) and culture samples were collected at different hours from zero hours of culture until 48 hours later, samples of this culture were collected for DNA extraction and counting. Then, the samples were subjected to PCR, using a pair of primers that amplify a 429 bp fragment. The results obtained with the application of qualitative tests of authenticity, demonstrated that only 21.42% (3/14) of the samples were considered authentic honey. However, through pollen analysis, it was possible to observe adulterated samples among those considered authentic and this perceptual was reduced to 14.28% (2/14), since it was possible to observe that a sample had a protein mixture. The results obtained showed the presence of microorganisms from the group of coliforms and molds and yeasts in disagreement with the current legislation, in 63.63% and 81.81% of the samples, respectively. Through experimental contamination of honey, it was possible to observe the amplification of Salmonella spp. from the sixth hour of experiment. The analyzed samples of samples were found adulterated through the results of qualitative tests and pollen analysis, as well as showing contamination by microorganism indicators even within the limit established by current legislation, showing flaws in the hygienic process of harvesting, processing and marketing that honey. As for the proposed PCR, it was possible to conclude that the standardized method may be a viable alternative for the detection of Salmonella spp. in honey.


  • Data: 20/02/2020
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  • A raiva é uma doença neurológica viral zoonótica, que acomete todos mamíferos e caracteriza-se por um quadro clínico de encefalite aguda progressiva, que ocasiona a morte em quase a totalidade dos casos. Apesar de o ciclo urbano estar aparentemente controlado, não se descarta a possibilidade de o cão atuar como transmissor secundário da variante do morcego. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo teve por objetivo realizar uma distribuição espaço-temporal dos casos de raiva canina ocorrido entre os anos de 1994 a 2014. A partir dos dados a respeito dos casos de raiva canina por ano em cada município do estado do Pará procedeu-se com a análise descritiva dos dados. As análises espacial e temporal levaram em consideração a incidência por ano e a compreensão da distribuição do agravo se deu pelo método de interpolação. No período analisado foram analisadas 10.057 amostras de sistema nervoso central de cães, sendo que 3,3% (333/10.058) foram positivas para raiva. Verificou-se ainda uma redução de casos positivos no final do período estudado (2012, 2013 e 2014). Contudo, essa redução acompanha uma queda nos envios de amostras nestes mesmos anos. Dentre os 46 municípios com casos de raiva canina no período descrito, Marabá foi o mais recorrente com um total de 92 casos, foi também o município com maior número de amostras enviadas para análise (n=3.268). Outros munícipios com número elevado de material enviado para análise foram Belém (n=2.792) e Castanhal (n=694), embora casos de raiva canina tenham sido raros. A diminuição no envio de amostras e o número de municípios que não enviaram material biológico para diagnóstico laboratorial, sugerem subnotificação da doença, ocasionando possíveis falhas nas ações de controle e prevenção. Sendo assim, deve-se assegurar a coleta e o envio de material biológico para diagnóstico laboratorial de todos os animais suspeitos, a fim de se conhecer a real situação da raiva canina no estado possibilitando a implementação de ações fundamentais para o controle efetivo da doença.

  • Evaluation of the efficiency of recombinant toxoid against botulism in buffalo.

  • Data: 22/01/2020
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  • Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rearing in Brazil is increasingly consolidating itself as an
    important alternative economic source to cattle raising due to its characteristics of
    rusticity and adaptability. The state of Pará stands out for concentrating the largest
    Brazilian buffalo herd with an approximate herd of 519 thousand animals. Botulism in
    cattle is a disease of great economic and sanitary importance, being one of the main
    causes of mortality of adult animals in Brazil. Vaccination with Clostridium botulinum
    toxoids C and D is the most effective way to control this disease, however, despite
    their efficiency, commercial botulinum toxoids have limitations in their industrial
    production: i-C. botulinum produces low levels. botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vitro;
    (ii) large-scale production is laborious, costly and its productivity hardly predictable;
    iii- Industrial production requires the adoption of very demanding biosafety standards.
    From this perspective, vaccines using recombinant proteins have shown promising
    results as an alternative tool in animal immunization. Given the importance of the
    disease and the difficulties in commercial vaccine production, this project aimed to
    evaluate the efficiency of a recombinant toxoid against botulism in buffaloes by
    establishing the neutralizing antibody curve.
    Thirty-five adult buffaloes with no history of botulism vaccination and detectable
    levels of BoNTs C and D antibodies were randomly grouped into five groups of seven
    animals: Recombinant Vaccine Group 100µg (G1), Recombinant Vaccine Group
    200µg (G2), Recombinant Vaccine Group 400µg (G3), Commercial Vaccine Group
    (G4) and Negative Control Group (G5). G1, G2 and G3 buffaloes were vaccinated
    with the recombinant vaccine containing different concentrations of the 100µg, 200µg
    and 400µg recombinant protein, respectively, G4 with commercial vaccine and G5
    received sterile saline (0.9% NaCl). All animals received two doses, in a volume per
    dose of 5 ml, subcutaneously, on the neck table, on days zero and 28 after the first
    dose. Blood samples were collected on days 56, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 279,
    300, 330 and 365. The samples were centrifuged and serum were submitted to
    seroneutralization technique in mice. In the potency test at 56 days after vaccination,
    the recombinant formulation with concentration 400µg was the one that was able to
    induce humoral immune response with the highest titers. In the efficiency test
    (vaccine longevity) the 200µg formulation from the cost / benefit point of view was the
    most efficient for large scale production and therefore the formulation to be chosen.

  • Haemochromatosis in Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

  • Data: 13/12/2019
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  • Hemochromatosis is a disease that occurs due to excessive iron accumulation in the body and mainly affects the liver. Hemochromatosis is described in several animal species, including humans, but is rare in tapirs. Although it is a species of Brazilian fauna (Tapirus terrestris), there is only one report of the disease in this captive species in Australia. In the present study, two cases of hemochromatosis were reported in Brazilian tapirs from of a captivity in the south of the state of Pará. The two tapirs were found dead and no clinical signs or macroscopic lesions were described. In the histopathology both presented lesions of chronic and marked hepatopathy associated with a marked accumulation of hemosiderin. The coloration of Perls demonstrated a marked accumulation of iron in the macrophages in the hepatic portal system, Kupffer cells and, to a lesser extent, hepatocytes in the periportal region. There was still marked portal fibrosis evidenced by Masson's trichrome. The findings demonstrated that hemochromatosis should be considered in tapirs with hepatic impairment. The pathological mechanisms of the disease in tapirs are not yet well established. It has been suggested that tapirs may have different mechanisms of absorption and elimination of iron, so being sensitive to elevation in dietary levels of this metal. Therefore, studies related to the disease in tapirs kept in the areas of origin of the animals of this study are important to investigate the possibility of affection of other tapirs.

  • Brucella spp. detection in refrigerated raw milk and different types of cheeses from cattle and buffaloes from the legal Amazon

  • Data: 10/10/2019
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  • Brucellosis is an important chronic infectious, widespread in the Brazilian territory and
    causing great economic losses in the meat and milk production chain. This condition
    causes reproductive disorders such as miscarriage, placental retention and infertility.
    The route of transmission to humans is mainly through the consumption of milk or milk
    products that are not passed to the appropriate heat treatment for the elimination of
    pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of anti-Brucella
    abortus antibodies in milk from Pará herds and try to identify possible risk factors for
    positive serology by using an epidemiological questionnaire to look for statistical
    associations (p <0.05); also sought the identification of the main Brucella vector's
    species of epidemiological importance, B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis in milk
    and cheese, besides detecting B. abortus vaccine strain B19 in milk and cheese. Were
    collected 125 milk samples and 166 cheese samples. The techniques used were the
    Milk Ring Test (MRT) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The MRT results
    showed that 13.6% (17/125) of the samples were reagents but no statistical
    association was observed between the results of the MRT (p> 0.05) and the PCR with
    the answers obtained in the questionnaire. The sample was PCR from the DNA
    obtained from the milk and cheese samples, and their results showed that 71.2%
    (89/125) of the milk samples were positive for Brucella of these 19.1% (17/89) were
    positive for B. abortus. Compared with the cheese samples, 14.5% (24/166) were
    positive for Brucella spp. and 33.3% (8/24) were found as B. abortus, from which, in a
    cheese sample, DNA from vaccine strain B19 was detected. The DNA’s presence from
    these bacteria in milk and cheese reminds us of the risk to consumers' health and also
    reinforces the importance of adequate heat treatment in these foods.

  • Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Histoplasma capsulatum in bats in the Amazonian biome, Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 10/09/2019
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  • Several pathogens may be kept in the wild by one or more reservoir species, mostly
    wild animals. The great diversity and dispersion of bats, associated with the methods
    of exploitation of nature by man, end up facilitating the contact of these animals with
    humans and their domestic animals, making possible the transmission of infectious
    agents. The present study aimed to investigate natural infections by Trypanosoma
    cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Histoplasma capsulatum in bats from urban areas and
    forest fragments that suffered anthropic changes, and to analyze the epidemiological
    aspects that may contribute to the occurrence of these infections in municipalities of
    the state of. Pará. The thesis was divided into three articles. The first article aimed to
    investigate the natural infection by H. capsulatum in bats from forest fragments and
    urban areas of the state of Pará. Biological samples from 100 bats from 22 species,
    captured in 18 municipalities were submitted to nested PCR for DNA amplification. of
    H. capsulatum. The second article proposed to investigate the occurrence of natural
    infection by T. cruzi and L. infantum in bats of urban areas of municipalities of the state
    of Pará. 69 bats of 15 species, captured in 14 municipalities, were evaluated. Biological
    samples were submitted to PCRs for amplification of L. infantum and T. cruzi DNA.
    The third article aimed to investigate the occurrence of natural infection by T. cruzi and
    L. infantum in forest fragment bats. Thirty-four bats from three municipalities from the
    northeastern mesoregion were evaluated. Biological samples were submitted to PCR
    for L. infantum DNA amplification, and using a nested PCR protocol (24Sα rRNA) for
    T. cruzi DNA amplification and blood samples from 20 specimens were submitted to
    trypanosomal isolation in NNN / LIT and four (20%) parasitic forms compatible with
    those of the subgenus Schizotrypanum. In the first article we detected two H.
    capsulatum-positive bats in nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed which
    showed 99-100% identity with H. capsulatum alone. In the second article,
    trypanosomatids were detected in 7.2% of the bats analyzed. Of these, 5.8% were
    positive for T. cruzi and 1.4% positive for L. infantum. The third article showed that of
    the 34 bats analyzed, 5.9% showed DNA from L. infantum. The relative frequency of
    T. cruzi DNA detection was 26.5%. The positive samples for T. cruzi were submitted
    to sequencing, being possible the analysis of the sequences obtained from only four
    bats. Of these, three sequences when compared to those available on GenBank
    revealed that the samples had 99-100% identity with T. cruzi marinkellei, and the
    sequence obtained from a bat showed 99-100% identity with T. cruzi. The results show
    that H. capsulatum and trypanosomatids are present in bats in urban and forest
    fragment areas of the studied region. This shows that bats should not be excluded as
    potential reservoirs for these infectious agents of public health interest

  • Use of conventional and quantitative Polymyrase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in a food matrix.

  • Data: 30/08/2019
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  • Chagas Disease is a parasitic disease transmitted by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, considered of great importance for public health and which requires attention, which has been presenting increasingly frequent oral transmission outbreaks. Thus, the development of effective methods for the diagnosis of the pathogen in food, especially in acai samples, becomes necessary. For the laboratory diagnosis of the acute phase of the disease, those based on the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) stand out studies that address the research of T. cruzi by this technique directly from acai pulp samples are still recent and scarce. The aim of the present study was to validate a conventional PCR and a Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the identification and quantification of T. cruzi directly from experimentally contaminated acai samples and application of technique for the detection of T. cruzi DNA from acai pulp in samples commercialized in Eastern Amazon. For this, the Discrete Typing Units (DTU) TcI was used, containing 3.5 x 104 cells/mL for the contamination of the fruit pulp and DNA extraction was used to standardize the techniques. Afterwards, samples of acai pulp from establishments marketed in the states of Pará and Amapá were collected and evaluated by conventional PCR. The proposed qPCR method showed good efficiency and precision for detection and quantification of T. cruzi DNA, as well as specificity and detection limit of 13.36 fg DNA. Already from the conventional PCR technique it was possible to detect the presence of T. cruzi DNA in acai pulps commercialized in the main states of Pará and Amapá. We concluded that the PCR and qPCR methodologies applied were able to detect T. cruzi in acai pulp and could be used to make rapid diagnosis in outbreaks, serving as a control measure for Chagas disease caused by oral transmission.

  • Epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs, cats, marsupial, rats and vectors from areas with human Chagas disease in the state of Pará, Brazil.

  • Data: 30/08/2019
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  • The aim of the present study was to analyze the epidemiological aspects of T. cruzi infection in dogs, cats, wild reservoirs and vectors from areas with human Chagas disease in the state of Pará, Brazil. Captures and identification of triatomines and collection of biological samples from dogs, cats, marsupials, rats and vectors were performed to investigate T. cruzi infection. The diagnosis of infection caused by this agent was performed through blood smears, blood culture, cultivation of marsupial anal gland secretion in NNN and LIT medium, histopathological examination and Nested-PCR using primers D75/D76 and D71/D72. Identifications of T. cruzi DTUs were also performed by PCRs with the Tc1/Me (DTU TcI), Tc2/Me (group II-V-VI DTU) and Tc3/Me (group III-IV DTU) primers. The species of triatomines R. pictipes, R. robustus, E. mucronatus, P. geniculatus, P. lignarius and P. rufotuberculatus were captured in the study area. Infection by T. cruzi was detected in domestic and wild reservoirs and triatomine bugs, being observed the circulation of the DTUs TcI and the group II-V-VI in the region. It can be concluded that the presence of domestic and wild mammals, and triatomine infected favor the circulation of T. cruzi in the studied area. Additionally, this is the first report or T. cruzi infection in the secretion of the P. opossum anal glands and detection of TcI DTU in Oecomys cf. bicolor in Brazil.

  • Conventional histochemical and lectin study of intestinal lesions caused by poisoning by black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

  • Data: 29/08/2019
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  • The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a grain commonly used in human food and in monogastric animals, which is gaining ground in the nutrition of ruminants in climatic regions. Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of grains, which makes the use of surplus production or by-products in animal feed an alternative. Phaseolus vulgaris is a legume that has a high protein content and has a lower production cost compared to animal protein. However, its grains have some limits, such as anti-nutritional factors in their composition. One of these factors is a phytohemagglutinin (PHA), a class capable of causing poisoning in humans and animals. Intoxication occurs through the ingestion of unprocessed grains, being a cooking or most used method of denaturing anti-nutritional factors such as PHA. Intoxication is widely studied in humans and monogastric animals, however, studies in ruminants are scarce. The follow-up of an outbreak of natural poisoning by P. vulgaris in buffaloes for some years possible for this project, which aims to deepen some histochemical aspects of intoxication in this animal species. Through the technique of lectino-histochemistry and histochemistry or this work, it aimed to identify which classes are indicated for the detection of glycoconjugates present in intestinal fragments with intestinal damage by beans in naturally intoxicated buffaloes. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining demonstrated an increase in the number of goblet cells in the crypts of intoxicated buffaloes. A lectin-histochemistry also showed that the goblet cells showed a reduction in affinity glycoconjugates with a SWGA lectin in the cytoplasm.

  • Detection of the Zika virus in wild rodents in the Eastern Amazon Forest

  • Data: 29/08/2019
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  • The Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil in 2015, causing outbreaks of acute
    febrile illness with neurological changes, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and
    congenital microcephaly in humans. Research on the presence of the virus in possible
    reservoirs and / or wild hosts is scarce in the country, with few reports of detection in
    free-living non-human primates. The wild circulation of ZIKV in Brazil could generate a
    persistent risk of outbreaks in urban areas. Although non-human primates have been
    considered the main reservoir hosts for the wild ZIKV transmission cycle in Africa, other
    animal species may be important in the dynamics of virus transmission. Therefore, the
    objective of this work was to investigate the presence of ZIKV in small rodent mammals
    of the Eastern Amazon through the immunohistochemistry technique. For this, we used
    tissue samples of 33 rodent from forest fragments, located in the metropolitan region
    of Belém and northeastern Pará, from march 2014 to december of 2015. Fragments
    of all organs were collected in 10% formaldehyde and routinely processed for
    histopathology. Immunohistochemistry for the ZIKV was performed on fragments using
    of lung, heart, liver, stomach, kidney and intestines. Immunostaining was observed in
    the renal, cardiac, stomach, small and large intestinal of seven (7) animals of species
    Echimys chrysurus, Makalata obscura, Oecomys paricola, Hylaeamys megacephalus
    e Proechimys cuviere. The present work demonstrates the presence of Zika virus
    antigens in wild rodent tissues, indicating that these rodents can harbor the virus, and
    / or amplifiers. The results of the present study provide an indication of virus circulation
    before the first description in humans in Brazil.

  • Bioactivity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Quassia amara L. leaves against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Data: 17/07/2019
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  • The mosquito Aedes aegypti is part of the cycle of different arboviruses of global importance, and the main form to control these insects led to the selection  of resistant individuals to chemical insecticides. This factor led to the search of other components for the control of this mosquito, in this context, Quassia amara L., a native plant in the Amazon with other biological activities, appears as a viable alternative and still few studied as an insecticide. The objective of this study was to verify if the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Q. amara L. has some bioactivity against larvae of Ae. aegyti. Four concentrations of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Q. amara L. were tested on larvae of Ae. aegypti, the extract was subjected to liquid chromatography coupled to the diode arrangement detector and mass spectrometer (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) to identify the secondary   metabolites. The extract had no larvicidal activity at the concentrations tested in the first 24h, however, the concentrations of 10ppm, 7.5ppm and 5ppm had a statistical association with larval mortality in 120 hours of exposure to the extract (p <0.0001), there was also a statistical association between concentrations of 10ppm  and 7.5ppm and the generation of adults (p <0.0001). In the phytochemical analysis the quassinoid soulameanone was identified like major compound. We conclude that crude hydroalcoholic extract of Q. amara L. leaves presented bioactivity on Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions

  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of health professionals regarding rabies in an Amazonian community vulnerable to bat aggression

  • Data: 11/07/2019
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  • Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus of the genus Lyssavirus, which is transmitted through the bite, licking or scratching of an infected mammal, mainly dogs, cats, bats and other wild mammals. The municipality of Curuçá, a northeastern in meso-region of Pará, has numerous reports of aggression by hematophagous bats in humans, raising concern about the probable exposure of these citizens to the rabies virus and recognizing the need for more intense prophylaxis and education about rabies in humans. To this end, it counts on the help of the health professionals of the region, who are the biggest disseminators of information on the health of the population and, therefore, need to be well informed. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the effect of an educational intervention on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of health professionals in the municipality of Curuçá in relation to rabies. For that, interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire were applied and 105 health professionals from the municipality, with the purpose of obtaining demographic information, in addition to KAP information regarding rabies. Next, a training was offered to the team in which aspects about the etiological agent, forms of virus transmission and prophylactic measures were discussed through lectures and workshops. Six months later the same questionnaire was applied to these individuals. The descriptive analysis of the data was developed in SPSS v24 and Bayesian analysis was applied to verify the effects of the intervention from the score attributed to the participants' responses. The results indicate that the training was able to change the level of knowledge of the majority of participants (60.5%). However, since the initial KAP was considered unsatisfactory (score 21,20), few health professionals (67.3%) achieved a satisfactory level (score greater than 31,00) after the intervention. The best results were observed among those professionals over the age of 40 and with more than 16 years of service. Capacity building interfered mainly with the Attitude and Practice of these individuals. This study demonstrated that continuous training on rabies is necessary for these professionals, and that lectures and workshops are effective in increasing the KAP of these professionals. Other studies are needed to verify the effects of these practices on the day-to-day life of communities in the long run.

  • Standardization of a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of the presence of Salmonella spp. and authenticity of Salmo salar in dishes of Japanese cuisine

  • Data: 02/07/2019
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  • The world consumption of fish has undergone significant growth in recent years, due to population increase and the search for healthier food. Among the most consumed these products, are inspired by Japanese cuisine, such as sushi and sashimi. In these dishes, the fish of greater commercial and nutritional value is a salmonídeo belonging to salmon species Salmo salar, which at high added value has been the target of fraud by substitution. Another aggravating factor in relation to this type of food is its susceptibility to microbiological contamination, such as Salmonella spp. contamination, due to being highly manipulated foods and eaten raw. For this reason, the objective of this study was to standardize a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of S. salar and Salmonella spp. and apply this Protocol on sushi samples from experimental contamination by checking your efficiency and sensitivity. For Standardization, were purchased fish of the species s. salar, authenticated from the molecular PCR technique, which were used as positive control, and standard strain of Salmonella spp. To the standardization of the methodology proposed, tested various times and temperatures of denaturation, annealing and extension, until they take parameters common to both species, enabling simultaneous detection. Then, lots of sushi of type Makizushi were produced and contaminated with standard strain of s. Typhimurium from inoculation of 1, 2 and 3. Samples of experimental infection were collected on hours 0, 6, 12 and 18. Concomitantly, some dilutions were performed to detect the limit of concentration of the bacterium in produced sushi. The results show that it was possible to detect Salmonella spp. from 6h inoculation and that Salmo salar DNA was amplified at all hours. Therefore, it was concluded that the protocol presented here is efficient and can be a very reliable and fast tool in detecting fraud and contamination by Salmonella spp. in Japanese cuisine foods that use Salmon in its composition.

  • PCR application for the detection of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in chicken samples obtained in municipal markets of Microregion of the State of Pará

  • Data: 14/06/2019
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  • As foodborne diseases are diseases that affect the world population, mainly caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction, have been increasingly used to detect the agents involved in food diseases. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli are two of the figuring microorganisms or the main causes of this type of infection. The aim of this study was to apply a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Salmonella spp. and Eschericia coli in chicken samples collected from municipal markets located in cities of the Bragantina Microregion, located in the state of Pará, using a faster and more efficient alternative, when compared to conventional methods used. The results obtained were positive for some bacterial samples. Thus, a PCR technique shows an efficient tool for detecting these microorganisms.

  • Molecular investigation of Toxoplasma gondii in oysters (Crassostrea spp.) sold on beaches in the State of Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 14/06/2019
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  • The state of Pará encompasses a huge ecosystem, highlighted by its great biodiversity, which enables the implementation of sustainable development activities, such as oyster farming. This activity is carried out by oyster farmers' associations located in the municipalities of the northeastern region of Pará. The oysters produced are distributed and traded on beaches, and their consumption is preferably in natura form. Oysters are bivalve mollusks considered as environmental bioindicators due to their ability to filter and bioaccumulate, and morphological structures such as gills and gastrointestinal tract are able to retain pathogens during the filtration process. The consumption of fresh oysters can cause infections in humans and cause diseases such as toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. For this reason, the present study aimed to research T. gondii DNA in oysters Crassostrea spp. commercialized in beaches of the state of Pará. The study area comprised seven most frequented beaches of the state of Pará, located in the metropolitan region of Belém and mesoregion of northeastern Pará, from which the samples were purchased from street vendors. A total of 60 oyster sample pools consisting of 30 gill tissue pools and 30 gastrointestinal tract pools were used. The samples were stored and conditioned until the time of DNA extraction, using a combination of two DNA extraction kits (Norgen® and IllustraTM Tissue and Cell Prep Mini Spin-GE Healthcare®), and the extracted product. was submitted to nested-PCR technique, using Toxo 3 and Toxo 4 primers for 155 bp amplification. From the molecular analysis it was concluded that all samples were negative for the presence of T. gondii DNA in oysters from commercialization in beaches.

  • Avaliação gastroscópica dos efeitos adversos do firocoxib sobre a mucosa gástrica em equinos confinados e alimentados com 100% de concentrado da cavalaria da Policia Militar do Pará.

  • Data: 25/04/2019
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  • O presente trabalho objetiva avaliar o efeito do anti-inflamatório Firocoxib na mucosa gástrica em equinos por meio de endoscopia, onde espera-se diminuir os fatores de risco provenientes do uso de antiinflamatórios não seletivos para Cox2 já utilizados na rotina da cavalaria. Os animais serão mantidos em regime totalmente confinados e alimentados apenas com ração peletizada e passarão por uma prévia avaliação clinica e endoscópica para verificação dos parâmetros fisiológicos e mucosa gástrica de cada animal. Serão utilizados 20 equinos divididos em dois grupos com quantidades iguais, o primeiro grupo utilizará Firocoxib uma vez ao dia por cinco dias consecutivos e o segundo grupo será o grupo controle que utilizará Flunixina Meglumina na mesma frequência e dias que o primeiro grupo. Todos participarão de quatro etapas: triagem dos animais, o inicio do tratamento com o anti-inflamatório, avaliação clinica e endoscópica após o término do tratamento e avaliação clinica e endoscópica 15 dias após o término do tratamento. Os animais serão avaliados quanto aos parâmetros fisiológicos, lesões gástricas ausentes ou presentes, grau de lesão, avaliação hematológica e pH gástrico. Espera-se que os equinos tratados com o Firocoxib não apresentem lesões gástricas pelo uso do fármaco, possibilitando estabelecer protocolos terapêuticos que dê mais qualidade de vida aos pacientes.

  • Spatial distribution of Culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban area of the municipality of Castanhal, state of Pará

  • Data: 15/04/2019
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  • The culicidae are mosquitoes that have importance in the transmission and dispersion of pathogens that affect humans and other species. Therefore, it is necessary accomplish studies about richness, abundance and geographic distribution of Culicidae with the purpose to help in creation of more efficient control forms. The objective of this research was to realize the identification and determination of spatial distribution of Culicidae fauna in urban area of municipality of Castanhal. The captures of the mosquitoes were realized in 2.127 properties from 21 neighborhoods. The colect of larvae and adults mosquitoes were realized through active search using Pasteur pipette and entomological puça. The specimen were stored and subsequently identified. The maintainers were identified and the colect points were georeferenced for build map of distribution of found species. Culicidae have been found in all researches neighborhoods, and the general Property Infestation Index (PII) was 19% (412/2.127). Were identified 3.346 specimen of culicidae, belong to genders Aedes, Culex and Limatus. The reproduction sites were mainly artificial reservoir of water kept at ground level. We conclude that Culicidae are presents in all studied neighborhoods, and Aedes is the most abundant gender

  • Digestive disorders in cattle associated with the consumption of palm fiber (Elaeis guineensis)

  • Data: 28/03/2019
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  • Digestive disorders in cattle are associated with the breeding system and the type of
    feed provided to the animals. Abomasal compaction is primarily related to the
    ingestion of forage with elevated levels of lignin, low quality and difficult digestibility.
    The excess of fibrous food in the diet can lead to the formation of phytobezoars that
    may be responsible for intestinal obstruction disorders. The objective of this study
    was to describe pathological and clinical aspects of an outbreak of digestive
    disorders associated with consumption of palm fiber (Elaeis guineensis). The
    outbreak struck a herd of 499 animals, raised in a feedlot system, after a change in
    diet that included an increase in the amount of palm fiber. Forty (8, 01%) animals
    showed clinical signs such as fattening and regurgitation during rumination and 21 (4,
    2%) animals died later. The cattle affected by the problem showed signs of apathy,
    emaciation, dehydration, distended abdomen, incomplete or absent ruminal
    movements, and congestive mucosa. Three animals were submitted to necropsy and
    distended rumen and reticulum has a large amount of brownish liquid, long and
    tangled vegetable fibers with sand and stones. In two animals, the omasum had a
    large number of rounded structures measuring approximately 5 cm in diameter,
    made of vegetable fiber (phytobezoars). In the abomasum of the animals there was
    material similar to that of the rumen and one animal presented compacted content. In
    two animals, dilatation was observed in the small intestine and in the opening the
    total obstruction of the lumen by phytobezoar was observed. During the monitoring of
    the slaughter of 76 cattle, 15 (19, 7%) presented phytobezoars of different sizes in
    the abomasum and omasum. The use of large amounts of palm fiber in animal
    feeding favored the occurrence of cases of abomasums compaction and intestinal
    obstruction due to the formation of phytobezoars, causing significant economic

  • Gastroscopic evaluation in equine of the Pará Military Police cavalry, kept in 100% concentrated diet with green incorporated in confinement regime

  • Data: 22/03/2019
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  • The equines gastric ulcer in most cases are asymptomatic, without evident clinical
    manifestations. Of multifactorial cause, among the possible factors are diet, type of
    handling, stress and continuous use of AINEs. The objective in this study was to
    evaluate the equine’s stomach mucosa of the Pará military police cavalry, which
    have a diet solely of concentrated with green incorporated, whose finality was to find
    possible alterations using the gastroscopic technique. Thus, was realized
    gastroscopic exams in 30 adults male equines, selected randomly from two
    battalions of the military police. The study population was divided in two groups,
    Gconf. (n=20) whit animals from the Capital (Belém-PA), kept exclusively confined
    and receiving a diet of only concentrated. The second was Gsemiconf. (n=10) with
    animals from the county of Castanhal-PA, which were kept in a semi-confinement
    regime receiving concentrate and roughage. Those animals were submitted to
    physical and behavior exams, was also evaluated FC, FR, T, TPC, hemogram, PPT,
    VG, FB, corporal score and feces, as well as the use of AINEs, colic’s ocorrences.
    Only one animal presented gastric alteration, classified as mild and none of the
    horses had gastric ulceration. Although the handling utilized in PM-PA won´t be the
    ideal, this study showed that both diet and confinement, weren't the determinant for
    the gastric manifestation in horses.

  • Estudo retrospectivo de afecções traumáticas em aves de rapina atendidas no Hospital Veterinário da UFPA - Setor de Animais Silvestres – no período de 2013 a 2017

  • Data: 21/03/2019
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  • falta

  • Comparative evaluation of the associations of ketamine-butorphanol-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-butorphanol-xylazine in the responses of physiological parameters, electrocardiogram, anesthetic periods and anesthesia recovery of agoutis (Dasyprocta spp.)

  • Data: 18/03/2019
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  • Chemical restraint of agoutis (Dasyprocta spp.) usually resorts dissociatives, of which, ketamine combined with opioids, benzodiazepines and α-2 adrenergic agonists have been used, emphasizing anesthetic times, physiological parameters and electrocardiogram. However, the search for safer protocols that cause milder or nonexistent depressor effects and provide better recovery are desirable. The experiment in question compared the physiological effects, anesthesia quality and anesthetic recovery of two protocols: CeBuDex - ketamine (20mg/kg) + butorphanol (0.02mg/kg) + dexmedetomidine (0.05mg/kg) and CeBuXi - ketamine 20mg/kg) + butorphanol (0.02mg/kg) + xylazine (1.5mg/kg), both intramuscularly. Vital parameters, anesthetic periods and computerized electrocardiogram were analyzed and compared between the groups. The two protocols presented a fast latency period (PLATENCY < 5 minutes). The mean working period for CeBuDex was 83.9 ± 32.9min. and for CeBuXi was 57.1 ± 10.78min. Mean total recovery periods were 48.6 ± 35.3min. for CeBuDex and 44.1 ± 13min. for CeBuXi. Regarding the quality of recovery, in CeBuDex the animals presented a calmer return, while in CeBuXi the animals showed a more agitated return. For the heart rate there was progressive decrease and lower values in CeBuXi. As for SpO2 values CeBuDex, presented lower values than CeBuXi, but without intercurrences as hypocoratous and/or cyanotic mucous membranes, and oxygen saturation levels reached values above 90% from 30 minutes after application of the drugs, in both protocols. Consideration must be taken to the occurrence of possible complications, such as total hypoxia and the need for oxygen supplementation, both of which were not present throughout the experiment.

  • Serological and molecular research for Leptospira spp. in dogs kept in municipal kennel

  • Data: 08/03/2019
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  • Introduction: In public kennels and private shelters it is not uncommon for dogs to be kept under inadequate sanitary conditions. These contribute to a higher risk of exposure or infection by Leptospira spp. In this context, the objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in dogs kept in the municipal kennel of Belém, Pará. Methods: Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 145 dogs without clinical leptospirosis symptomatology. Whole blood samples were processed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serum samples by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results: It was observed that 64.13% (93/145) dogs were seroreactive for one or more Leptospira spp. The most common being: Djasiman with 39.72% (29/73), Canicola 17.8% (13/73), Cynopteri with 12.32% (09/73), Icterohaemorrhagiae 9.59% (07/73) and Seramanga 6.85% (05/73). Serological titers ranged from 100 to 6400. All whole blood samples from 145 dogs were negative for Leptospira spp. in PCR. Conclusion: the animals of the present study presented anti-Leptospira spp. suggesting contact with the bacterial agent. Negative DNA results from Leptospira spp. suggest that these animals were not in the bacteremia phase at the time of sample collection

  • Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. in chelonians kept in captivity

  • Data: 07/03/2019
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  • Little is reported in the literature on the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria in captive-bred chelonians. Among these bacteria, attention is drawn to Leptospira spp., A pathogen with a wide geographic distribution, of a zoonotic character and with more than 260 serovars. Some species of chelonians are of aquatic habitat and are supposed to be more exposed to leptospiras. The development of leptospira in cold-blooded animals and the immune response that these species develop remains largely elucidated in the literature. Thus, this research had as objective to investigate the infection by Leptospira spp. in 148 blood samples of chelonians, distributed in six different species (Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis unicifilis, Podocnemis sextuberculata, Rhinoclemmys punctularia, Chelonoidis denticulatus, Chelonoidis carbonarius), kept in captivity in the Rodrigues Alves Forest. The method of choice was the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using Lep 1 and Lep 2 primers, which amplify 331 base pairs, capable of detecting the DNA of bacteria of the genus Leptospira using as a target sequence the Ribosome 16S. The results of the present study showed that none of the Rodrigues Alves Forest chelonian samples were positive for Leptospira spp., Providing important information about the health of these captive - bred animals, thus contributing to the epidemiological study of leptospirosis in chelonians.

  • Spatiotemporal analysis of human rabies exposure in Colombia during ten years: A challenge for implementing social inclusion in its surveillance and prevention

  • Data: 22/02/2019
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  • In Colombia until the 1970s, human rabies was mainly transmitted by dog bites with variants of the same species involved in the disease. However, between 2005 and 2006; the department of Chocó reported 14 human deaths from rabies in indigenous and Afro-descendant populations, all from bat bites. Since then, human deaths from rabies have been mainly caused by rabies variants of bat transmitted by bat or domestic cat. Based on reports of human rabies exposure to Colombian public health surveillance system between 2007 and 2016, a spatial-temporal analysis was carried out to identify epidemiological scenarios for high exposure to human rabies transmitted by dogs, cats, bats or production animals. The incidence rate of the notification was analyzed using spatio-temporal distribution and Cluster Analysis and Anselin Local Moran's Outlier for all Colombian cities. Throughout the analyzed period, the incidence rate of exposure to human rabies by dogs and cats showed an increasing trend while bats and productive animals' aggression fluctuated, and in two cities in the Pacific region and six in Amazonia there were no reports cases of human rabies transmitted by cat and bat occurred in the Andean and Orinoquia Regions, where the largest scenario was observed. There, the scenario called Urbano showed a high risk for the exposure of human rabies transmitted by cat and dog in cities characterized by the greater human population density and greater economic development of the country. On contrary, in scenario called Rural, a high risk of exposure to human rabies transmitted by productive animals was observed in agroforestry workers (42.7%) exposed to rabies virus by contact of mucosa or damaged skin with infected saliva (74, 5%). In the Inequality scenario, exposure to the virus by production animals showed some outlier cities with high risk, mainly in the Pacific region, where the lowest incidence rates of notification of human rabies exposure were observed in all the studied years and the highest rates of poverty in Colombia. There, Afro-descendants (55%) and indigenous (8.2%) were the most affected. High risk of exposure due to bat bites was observed in indigenous populations (98.5%), located in cities of the Amazon region, with a dispersed population (Amazonian scenario). The scenarios allowed to visualize cities and populations with conditions of social vulnerability or invisible to the health surveillance system, demonstrating the need to develop surveillance programs with a differentiated approach on the vulnerable population and strengthening it in areas with viral circulation of rabies.

  • Infecção natural por Theileria equi em Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) na Amazônia brasileira

  • Data: 29/10/2018
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  • As antas são consideradas um dos maiores mamíferos terrestres, adaptadas anatômica e fisiologicamente a quase todos os habitats e ecossistemas. Esses mamíferos são grandes dispersores de sementes, tendo papel importante na preservação e reconstrução de habitats. No entanto, sofrem grande pressão antrópica, o que representa riscos para a saúde desses animais. O presente estudo tem como objetivo detectar a infecção natural por Theileria equi e Rickettsia spp. e identificar as espécies de carrapatos em antas (Tapirus terrestris) na Amazônia brasileira. As capturas das antas estão sendo realizadas por contenção física e, quando necessário, por contenção química com auxílio de dardos anestésicos. Até o momento, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e confeccionados esfregaços sanguíneos de duas antas oriundas do Amazonas e Pará. A extração de DNA genômico das amostras de sangue está sendo realizada com um kit comercial e para a pesquisa de DNA de T. equi está sendo realizada uma PCR com os iniciadores BEC-UF2 e EQUI-R, que amplificam um produto de 392 pb, enquanto que para a pesquisa de DNA de Rickettsia spp. está sendo realizada uma Nested-PCR com os iniciadores 17K-5, 17K-3, 17KD1 e 17KD2, que amplificam um produto de 433 pb. O DNA de T. equi foi detectado nas amostras sanguíneas das duas antas. No entanto, não foi detectado o DNA de Rickettsia spp. nas amostras. As análises microscópicas dos esfregaços sanguíneos revelaram formas sugestivas de piroplasmídeos em ambos animais examinados. Não foi observada infestação por carrapatos nos animais estudados.

  • Use of geoprocessing as an instrument for surveillance of schistosomiasis in the state of Pará

  • Data: 03/10/2018
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  • Public health and the environment are influenced by the space occupation pattern. Therefore, the use of geoprocessing techniques in the spatial distribution of health problems makes it possible to determine risk areas that bring together vulnerable situations. Schistosomiasis is among the most widespread parasites in the world and represents one of the main health risks to rural populations and the periphery of cities. The objective was to develop models for analysis, representation and construction of spatial scenarios that allow the characterization of phenomena related to the distribution of Biomphalaria snails and schistosomiasis in the municipality of Belém in the state of Pará. Snail data were obtained from the Laboratory of Intestinal Parasitosis, Schistosomiasis and Malacology (LPIEM) of the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC) and schistosomiasis from the Municipal Health Department of Belém (SESMA). The georeferencing was done using a GPS and the georeferenced base of the Belém Metropolitan Area Development and Administration Company (CODEM) and imported into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Kernel Density Estimation (EDK) was applied and multiple regression was performed. The EDK applied to the Biomphalaria foci showed the presence of three medium/high intensity clusters in the neighborhoods of Telégrafo, Sacramenta, Condor, and Guamá. 90 and 92 positive cases of schistosomiasis were obtained in 2015 and 2016, respectively with an infection rate of 1.16% and 1.58%. The risk model using regression showed that the main variables were the presence of B. glabrata infected with S. mansoni; unpaved households; digital model of elevation and temperature difference. The study shows a relevant potential in the application of GIS in the strategies of control and prevention of cases of the disease in the city of Belém, indicating to the secretary of health the areas to be monitored.

  • Efeito antimicrobiano de extratos etanólico de própolis frente a uma cepa de escherichia coli

  • Data: 31/08/2018
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  • Falta

  • Evaluation of a Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of buffalo cheeses in beef cattle and the presence of Salmonella spp

  • Data: 30/08/2018
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  • The bovine ground beef is a food consumed enough by the population in general, due to its more affordable price, practicality and its diversified use in world cuisine. Due to the fact that it is a food available and commercialized in order to reduce costs, some industries have fraudulently added beef or inferior tissues or raw materials with low commercial value. In this context buffalo meat can be included in places where this product has a lower value and a high offer. In addition, because it is a highly manipulated product, ground meat presents a greater risk of contamination. Currently, several authors have been studying several methodologies based on PCR, aiming at the detection of fraud and the presence of microbial agents in food, but to date there is no protocol that recommends the simultaneous detection of fraud and Salmonella spp. For this reason, the objective of the present work was to propose the evaluation of a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of ground meat fraud and the presence of Salmonella spp. For this purpose a multiplex PCR was performed using primers amplifying species specific sequences, bovine and buffalo and for Salmonella spp. The results obtained demonstrated that the proposed multiplex PCR was effective and satisfactory, amplifying the base pairs corresponding to the study targets and concluded that the technique proposed here can be applied in field samples later to assist in the inspection of several products of animal origin.

  • Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in oysters Crassostrea spp. cultivated in the northeastern estuarine region of Paraense.

  • Data: 28/06/2018
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  • The community of Santo Antônio do Urindeua carries out the activity of ostreicultura familiar and the commercialization of oysters occurs mainly in restaurants, as well as beaches of the state. Its main form of consumption is raw. These organisms carry out feeding by filtration, and in the presence of contaminated environments they may retain microorganisms, such as: Toxoplasma gondii. This protozoan presents great importance in the public health, being able to infect animals and humans, having as main route of transmission the oral, through water and contaminated food. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA in oysters Crassostrea spp. of culture. A total of 400 oysters were collected directly from the fixed culture system. Gills, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and intervalvar fluid were separated and pooled into 10 animal pools, resulting in 40 samples of each tissue. For the molecular analysis, the DNA of the samples was extracted and, later, nested-PCR was performed based on the amplification of a fragment of 155bp of the B1 gene of the parasite. Positive samples were sent for nucleotide sequencing to determine the identity of the sequences obtained in relation to those deposited in GenBank. T. gondii DNA was detected in 5.83% (7/120) oyster pools, with 7.5% (3/40) TGI pools, followed by 5% (2/40) positivity in each pool of gills and intervalvar liquid. The samples showed 100% identity and coverage only with T. gondii DNA sequences. In this way the work concludes that the protozoan DNA was detected in oysters of the genus Crassostrea spp. of an estuarine area of northeastern Paraense, being this the first report in oysters of the state of Pará.

  • Nervous form of lysteriosis in buffaloes

  • Data: 28/05/2018
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  • Listeriosis is a disease that affects several animal species, including man, and has three different forms of presentation: nervous, abortive or septicemic. The nervous form is caused mainly by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In Brazil the disease has already been described in sheep, goats, cattle. No reports of the disease have been found in buffaloes in Brazil and worldwide. The objective of this work is to describe an outbreak of nervous listeriosis in buffaloes in the state of Pará, Brazil. The outbreak occurred between May and July 2016, in a property located in the municipality of Bujaru, in the Eastern Amazon. Three buffaloes from a total of 128 animals (cases 1, 2 and 3), younger than 40 days, presented a neurological condition characterized by difficulty in locomotion, paralysis of the four limbs, decreased skin sensibility, lateral decubitus and death. The morbidity was 6.38% and the lethality was 100%. At necropsy no significant macroscopic lesions were found. Samples of the central nervous system were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. The main microscopic changes observed were unilateral microabscesses in the brainstem, composed predominantly of mononuclear cells, with fewer polymorphonuclear cells, and perivascular cuffs composed predominantly of mononuclear cells and few neutrophils. Samples of buffaloes 1 and 2 revealed Gram positive bacteria in the areas of necrosis in the Gram technique. Buffalo 1 samples were positive in immunohistochemistry (IHC) for L. monocytogenes. The diagnosis of the nervous form of listeriosis was based on epidemiological data, on the clinical profile and on the immunostaining for Listeria monocytogenes. The data from the work show that Listeriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in buffaloes with nerve signals.

  • Commercialization of oysters (Crassotrea spp) in Northeast beach Paraense: profile of sellers and consumers, and microbiological analysis of the product.

  • Data: 21/03/2018
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  • The commercialization of oysters has been growing in Brazil and has been highlighting as an income alternative for riparian populations since it requires little or no investment for their development. However, for its expansion the observation of the demands of the local clientele, as well as the safety investigation for the consumption of the food are of fundamental importance. The objective of this study was to characterize the profile of oyster sellers and consumers (Crassostrea spp.) In Northeastern Paraense beach, and consisted of interviews with sellers and consumers of raw oysters on the beach of Atalaia, Salinópolis municipality. profile of both the individuals involved and the sales activity. In addition to this, the work proposed to investigate the contamination of oysters marketed on the beach by Salmonella spp, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli and Coliformes at 45 ° C (CTer). The interviews took place during the holidays, as well as in high season between July 2016 and July 2017. Samples of oysters were purchased on the beach in July 2017 and submitted to microbiological analysis for the investigation of agents besides the reaction in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for confirmation of the Salmonella genus, when necessary. As for the oyster sellers interviewed (n = 32), all were male. The majority had an eight-hour working day (78.1%), and never received any type of training to carry out the activity (90.6%). Commercialized oysters were obtained by extractivism (96.9%), mainly from the municipality of Primavera (68.8%). The purchase of a harvesting or extraction, when the seller made the harvest, used to occur on the day before the sale (71.9%), with 62.5% of these vendors storing the collected molluscs at room temperature until the time of sale . The consumers interviewed (n = 383) were mostly males (65.3%) and reported consuming oysters sporadically (85.4%), on the beach (95.8%). Even in this study, 59.8% mentioned being willing to include oysters in their daily meals if there was an offer. Microbiological analysis of oyster marketed revealed the growth of Salmonella spp. in 33.3% of the sellers samples and this result was confirmed by PCR. All samples analyzed were within the standard for CTer and E. coli, according to Brazilian legislation. For the Coagulase positive Staphylococcus count, 22.2% of the samples presented values above the official standards. This study reveals that oyster extractivism is still a very common activity in the region but needs public policies and improved quality of the product marketed, since oysters marketed on the beach may pose a risk to the population due to issues that can be solved the training of extractors and oyster sellers.

  • Padronização de uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase multiplex (mPCR) para detecção simultânea de fraude por adição de leite bovino e presença de Listeria monocytogenes em queijos bubalinos.

  • Data: 20/03/2018
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  • Cheese is one of the main dairy products, being widely appreciated and consumed by a large part of the population. The production of buffalo milk and its derivatives has recently been gaining prominence because, when compared to bovine milk, buffalo milk has superior nutritional advantages, such as high levels of fat, protein and minerals. Due to the high value added and the lower availability of buffalo milk, frauds in their derivatives are occurring by addition of bovine milk. The nutritional richness of milk also favors the proliferation of several microorganisms, especially Listeria monocytogenes, a causative agent of listeriosis, a serious disease that can reach mainly pregnant women, neonates, the elderly and immunosuppressed women. Multiplex PCR appears as a tool for the simultaneous detection of several different DNA sequences in a single reaction. The objective of the present work was to develop a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and cheese cheeses by the addition of bovine milk through the production of cheeses experimentally contaminated. For this, cheeses with different percentages of buffalo and bovine milk will be produced, which were contaminated with the standard strain of of Listeria monocytogenes and subjected to DNA extraction to determine the limit of detection through PCR. With the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that it is possible the simultaneous detection of the three species in a single reaction, being the proposed methodology an alternative for the analysis of commercially available cheeses.

  • Determination of the main causes of condemnation and histopathological, microbiological and molecular analysis of chickens condemned by aerossaculitis in a slaughterhouse supervised by the State Inspection Service.

  • Data: 20/03/2018
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  • Brazil is the third largest producer and the world's leading exporter of chicken meat. In order to guarantee an increase in production, it is necessary to control poultry health, injuries to the respiratory system, such as aerossaculitis, interfere with the respiratory dynamics of birds and bring a risk of death. Aerosurgulitis and septicemia, which are mostly changes due to respiratory diseases caused by Escherichia coli infection. In addition to increased condemnation rates, birds with aerossululitis pose a risk of contamination of carcasses with pathogens in processing. Therefore, the State Inspection Service ADEPARÁ, plays an important role, to ensure a product of animal origin within the standards required by the legislation. Based on the foregoing, this study aimed to verify the relationship between visual inspection and microbiological analysis in order to isolate and identify E. coli, in addition to detecting virulence genes of resistance (ISS) and hemagglutination (tsh) through a multiplex PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) in carcasses of broiler chickens from a poultry slaughterhouse in the state of Pará. The records were grouped into tables based on the number of birds slaughtered monthly, according to the nature of the convictions, presented a rate of 50.54% and 60.45% related to pathological causes and those of non-pathological origin, corresponded to 49.54% and 39.55%, in the years of 2014 and 2015 respectively, indicating that there were failures in sanitary management in poultry farms. Of the condemned birds were selected 30 carcasses from chickens convicted in the line of inspection, with suspected aerossaculitis, by the Inspection Service technician. For the processing of the samples, three organs of each chicken were used, being: trachea, liver and lung. Three different diagnostic techniques were used: conventional method, PCR and histopathological examination. Of the 30 condemned chickens, E. coli were isolated in 100%, 97% and 80%, respectively tracheal, lung and liver samples by the conventional method. After confirming the presence of the agent in the samples, the gene search was carried out using the mutaplex PCR, tsh (670pb) and iss (720pb) genes, duly amplified, in the three organs of birds 1, 19 and 22 , characterizing a mixed infection, just as 7/30 birds were identified the two virulence factors only in the respiratory organs, the virulence gene that presented the most frequency was the tsh amplifying 670bp in 7/30 birds in the respiratory organs, were not amplified the genes in 4/30 birds, showing absence in all the organs of the same, emphasizing that in the 17 liver samples studied there was no amplification of any of the virulence factors, certifying that the birds did not present septicemia. The results demonstrated that the proposed technique for virulence factors research was efficient, since the target genes were detected in both the positive controls and the samples. As for DNA extraction, the methodology tested proved to be an essential step in the execution of m-PCR. In addition, the predominance of heterophiles and mononuclears in the trachea (30/30), lung (27/30) and liver (4/30) were detected using histopathological diagnosis, in which almost no abnormalities were diagnosed. respiratory organs. In conclusion, it is concluded that the multiplex PCR for the virulence genes tsh and iss presents a great potential in the
    characterization of E. coli isolates, which makes it necessary to use technologies for the identification and prevention of E. coli in aviaries and poultry slaughterhouses.

  • Padronização e aplicação de uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase multiplex (mPCR) para detecção simultânea de fraudes e Staphylococcus aureus em carne moída bovina

  • Data: 12/03/2018
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  • O presente estudo teve por objetivo padronizar e aplicar uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase multiplex (mPCR) para detecção simultânea de fraudes e Staphylococcus aureus em carne moída bovina e seus resultados serão apresentados na forma de artigo científico. Para a realização da técnica, primeiramente foi realizada a extração de DNA das carnes e cepa padrão de S. aureus. Para a padronização da mPCR, foram empregados iniciadores específicos para espécie B. taurus (12 SBT-REV2), B. bubalis (12 SBUF-REV2), para ambas as espécies (12 SM-FW) e para S. aureus (COAG2-FOR e COAG3-REV). Para determinar a sensibilidade da técnica foram realizadas diluições seriadas dos respectivos DNAs, que foram submetidas a mPCR. Também foram realizadas fraudes experimentais, com adição de diferentes proporções de carne moída bubalina em carne moída bovina e, adicionalmente, essas carnes foram contaminadas com S. aureus. Para a realização da contaminação, as misturas de carne e de UFCs de S. aureus foram homogeneizadas em 225mL de solução salina 0,1% peptonada (SSP 0,1%), em stomacher, por 60s e incubadas 36±1°C. Coletas de amostras das carnes inoculadas foram feitas a cada 8h, durante 48h, totalizando 6 coletas. Por fim, para avaliar a aplicabilidade da técnica, 99 amostras de carne moída comercialmente disponíveis nos municípios de Belém, Marabá, Marajó e Santarém, estado do Pará e Macapá, estado do Amapá foram coletadas e submetidas a metodologia proposta. Os resultados obtidos demostraram que a mPCR foi capaz de identificar simultaneamente a presença de DNA de S. aureus, B. taurus e B. bubalis em uma mesma reação, com amplificação de fragmentos de 800, 346 e 220 pares de base, respectivamente, apresentando boa sensibilidade, com limiar de detecção de 0,825ng/μL. Na fraude e contaminação experimental foi possível observar a presença de DNAs das 3 espécies a partir do incremento mínimo 5% de carne moída bubalina em carne moída bovina. A análise de amostras de campo demonstrou 8,08% (8/99) de fraude por adição, 3,03% (3/99) de fraude por substituição, 47,47% (47/99) de contaminação por S. aureus e 4,04% (4/99) de amostras com presença de DNAs das 3 espécies. Concluímos que a mPCR descrita foi eficaz em detectar a presença de fraude e de contaminação por S. aureus em carnes, podendo ser utilizada como ferramenta por órgãos de fiscalização e que tanto a fraude quanto a infecção por S. aureus ocorrem na região alvo do estudo.

  • Clinical and electrocardiografic evaluation in Chagas’ Disease naturally infected dogs.

  • Data: 28/02/2018
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  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and electrocardiographic changes of dogs naturally infected with T. cruzi, in the municipality of Castanhal, Pará. House visits and clinical and  electrocardiographic evaluations were performed quarterly during the 24-month period. No clinical alterations were observed compatible with the development of heart disease in any of the animals, even in electrocardiographic examination there wasn't indicated progression of Chagas' disease.

  • Evaluation of videolaparoscopic hepatic biopsy technique with babcock forceps in dogs

  • Data: 28/02/2018
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  • The aim of this study was to perform laparoscopic liver biopsies with a babcock manipulation forceps in canine patients with history of liver disorders (n=5). Samples were collected through two portals, initially performing exploratory laparoscopy, choosing the biopsy site. The tissue was grasped with a babcock forceps, pressed for 5 seconds and with aid of the trocar sheath, the section and withdrawal of the liver fragment was performed. Presence of hemorrhage or other complications were checked throughout the procedure. Samples were submitted to standard histological process and analyzed due to the area, legal technical characteristics and histopathological findings of each patient. The procedures occurred without complications and the samples collected allowed proper characterization of the lesion in histopathology, showing viability of the used technique.

  • Evaluation of andiroba oil as a nonstick solution in adhesion processes in uterus and ovary of sheep

  • Data: 27/02/2018
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  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate andiroba oil for the prevention of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. Adhesions were induced by monopolar diathermy in the genital tract of eight ovine females; later two experimental groups were formed: control group, without any nonstick treatment; and treated group, where six drops of andiroba oil were applied at each point of
    cauterization. After 15 days, an exploratory laparoscopy was performed, and the presence, quantity, location and type of adhesions and organs involved were classified. Adherences occurred in 100% of the animals in the control group, and in 75% of the animals in the treated group, being statistically different. In addition, all adhesions formed in the treated group were susceptible to adhesiolysis, while those in the control group showed only one was partially possible. Andiroba oil did not prevent adhesions in all animals, but contributes to the formation of adhesions susceptible to adhesiolysis.


  • Data: 22/11/2017
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  • The objective of the present work was to use the conventional Multiplex and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) in bovine ground beef and Salmonella spp. in meat products. The results of the present PhD thesis are presented through four scientific articles that, together, validated in a comparative way the efficiency of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the multiplex PCR for bovine ground meat authentication and, at the same time, evidenced the ability to detect fraud by species-specific identification of Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus and Equus asinus africanus and mules. In addition, the ability of these techniques to evaluate Salmonella spp. and the correlation between the presence of fraud and possible microbiological contamination by this bacterial genus. We conclude that the different methods, presented here in the four scientific articles, were validated for the authentication of products of bovine origin, at the same time that they were efficient to detect the presence of fraud and in the research of Salmonella spp. In addition, a Report on Complementary Activities related to the experiences of the Sandwich Program Abroad at the University of Pisa, Italy, was included. Finally, we conclude that although the protocols shown are extremely relevant, with high sensitivity and specificity, it is still necessary that such methodologies be applied in commercially available foods, and may become an alternative in the routine inspection of these products.

  • Accidental poisoning caused by castor bean (Ricinus communis) in horses

  • Data: 27/10/2017
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  • Ricinus communis is a shrub of the family Euphorbiaceae popularly known, in Brazil, as "mamona" or "carrapateira". The plant is considered oleaginous and its seeds have been used mainly in the biodiesel production. The oil extraction can be mechanical or with solvents, generating as by-products the castor bean cake and castor bean meal, respectively. Accidental ingestion of these by-products can cause intoxication in animals and humans characterized by digestive signs due to the presence of a toxalbumin called ricin. Seed toxicity varies among animal species, in horses the lethal dose of seeds is 0.1 g/kg body weight. There is a vast literature concerning R. communis intoxication in different animal species and human. In relation to equines, however, the reports are scarce and there is little information about the pathological aspects of intoxication. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects observed of an outbreak of accidental intoxication by castor bean cake in horses. The equines were supplemented with palm kernel (Elaeis guianeesis) cake, however, in the purchase of a new shipment, there was an error in the request, being requested castor bean cake. Four horses that received the castor bean cake had clinical signs indicative of colic, which started at about 21 hours after administration. Three of these died, with clinical evolution 2 to 4.5 hours, the other animal was treated with intravenous fluid therapy, antibiotic therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, recovering in 5 days. In the necropsy of two of these horses, the main lesion were found in the small intestine, where mucosae with pronounced redness and covered by a thin layer of yellow fibrous material were observed. In the intestinal lumen, there was large amount of bloody liquid. The stomach was full and dark lumps similar to crushed castor bean seeds were observed in the contents. The adrenals glands of both horses had congestion and hemorrhage in the cortex. In microscopy, the main lesion was an acute, diffuse and accentuated fibrin-necrotic enteropathy affecting the jejunum. The diagnosis of castor bean cake intoxication was based on the circumstantial evidence of by-product consumption, supported by the clinical and pathological aspects. The results indicate that the castor bean commercially available as fertilizer is extremely toxic when ingested, and there is a need for appropriate detoxification or labeling informing of their toxicity.

  • Epidemiological study of Acute Chagas disease in the state of Pará, 2007-2014

  • Data: 01/09/2017
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  • Chagas disease (CD) is an infectious disease triggered by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the disease is transmitted by infected triatomines known as barbeiro, chupa, hickey, fincão, boll weevil or procotó. In Brazil, the population of triatomines began to grow together with T. cruzi, being responsible for intradomiciliary transmission. The transmission of etiological agents is associated with changes in vegetation cover, particularly with deforestation. With the use of geoprocessing tools and the Geographic Information System (GIS) it is possible to map the disease, collaborating in the structuring and analysis of risk factors for the population. The general objective of this study was to study the epidemiological and environmental factors of Chagas disease
    in the state of Pará in the period 2007-2014 using geoprocessing tools. This is an ecological study, the study area was the state of Pará, located in the North region of Brazil. Data were obtained through the cartographic databases of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), Acute Chagas Disease (ACD) from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), deforestation and land use/cover data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). National Space Research Institute (INPE). The non-parametric chi-square test was used (p-value = 5%), the Pearson and Spearman coefficients to verify if there was a correlation between the ACD cases and deforestation, the Global Moran Index (GMI), the Moran Local (LISA), the Kernel Density Estimator and the Kernel Ratio (RK). A total of 13,042 ACD case records were obtained from SINAN in 68 municipalities in Pará in the years 2007-2014. Of these, 1,308 cases of residents living in Pará were confirmed. Among the variables analyzed, we observed a strong relationship between age group and confirmed cases of ACD, with the highest rates of cases reported in adulthood (n=519), followed by the young phase (n=255), males (n =710) showed the highest prevalence, the brown race (n=938) was the most prevalent, as for education, most had incomplete elementary school (n=415), in most cases there was no presence of traces of triatomines (n=768), as for transmission, most were reported as oral transmission (n=954). The Pearson and Spearman test observed a negative correlation for ACD cases related to deforestation in Pará. For the IGM values, the DCA presents the grouping pattern in all the years studied. It was identified that clusters of ACD cases are present in the Metropolitana de Belém (mMB), Marajó (mM) and Nordeste Paraense (mNP) mesoregions in all years. After application of the Kernel, it showed the presence of a cluster in the mMB in all the years studied. In 2008 there is the presence of a second cluster of lower intensity located in the municipality of Abaetetuba (mNP). In the other years, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2014, these clusters in Abaetetuba showed greater intensity along with the mMB cluster. We conclude that ACD cases are not related to deforestation, but are strongly associated with açaí ingestion.

  • Prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in animals and humans living in a forest fragmentation area in the state of Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 23/08/2017
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  • Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global importance caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, with greater occurrence in tropical and subtropical countries. Studies in humans and domestic animals are important to assess the proximity of coexistence between humans and animals that can favor the
    spread and maintenance of the agent in the environment. Thus, the objective of the present work was to detect anti-Leptospira spp. in sera from humans and their domestic animals, from an area of fragmentation of forest animals located in the northeast of the state of Pará, Brazil, and relating epidemiological aspects to risk factors for infection in the studied population. 221 blood samples were collected from humans, 333 samples from domestic animals (306 dogs and 27 cats) in two expeditions, 35 from other animal species (13 pigs, 9 horses, 8 buffaloes, 5 cattle and 3 sheep). Epidemiological tests were also applied to owners of domestic animals and residents who agreed to participate in the study. The detection of serovars was performed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), using 31 serovars of Leptospira spp. as antigen, strains by weekly replications in the laboratory. Of the total healthy samples, 12.7% (28/221) of seroreactive humans, 18.8% (28/149) and 13.04% (24/184) were found for dogs and cats, respectively in the two expeditions and 15.8% (6/38) for production animals. In humans or the most frequent serovars was Whitcomb, in dogs the most prevalent serogroup Canicola was observed in both expeditions, for cats or serovar Sentot. In the other species, serovar Hardjo was found in buffaloes, Djasiman in pigs and serovar Grippotyphosa in horses as the most frequent. In the statistical analyzes of the variable variables in the responses of the epidemiological behaviors associated with the reagents, one can determine the risk factors for infection of the etiological agent of leptospirosis in humans represented by the area of the place of residence and water treatment, since in domestic animals - the variables access to forest, area of the animal's place of residence and presence of wild animals in the peridomicile. With this, it is valid to infer that there is presence of the bacteria in the environment, causing infection in animals and humans.

  • Effect of Bacillus toyonensis 3 supplementation on the humoral response of experimentally vaccinated animals 4 with Leishmania infantum chagasi particulate antigen

  • Data: 11/08/2017
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  • Immunization through vaccination has proved to be an efficient alternative in sanitary 9 control. But despite the great technological advance, many vaccines are poorly 10 immunogenic or do not offer an immune response capable of preventing infection, as 11 in the case of canine visceral leishmaniasis. A possible alternative for improving the 12 efficiency of these vaccines by modulating the immune system by other means is the 13 use of probiotics, which are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the 14 host. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of the probiotic 15 Bacillus toyonensis in mice experimentally vaccinated against Leishmania infantum 16 chagasi, during the period of administration of the probiotics and after the suspension 17 of the same. For this purpose 24 Balb/c mice, 21 days old, experimentally vaccinated 18 against Leishmania infantum chagasi, were divided into three experimental groups. 19 One group without supplementation (A) and the other two (B and C) supplemented 20 orally with Bacillus toyonensis, at the concentration of 106 UFC / g-1 incorporated in 21 the diet, at different periods. To investigate the kinetics of the production of the 22 antibodies, blood samples were collected and the sera were submitted to the Indirect 23 Enzyme Linked Immunoabsorbance Assay, using particulate antigen as antigen. The 24 animals of all groups presented total IgG seroconversion against the antigen used, but 25 the group supplemented with probiotic in the continuous period showed superior IgG2a 26 / IgG1 seroconversion when compared to the group that was supplemented before and 27 after each vaccine and to the group Who did not receive the probiotic, maintaining their 28 titre until the end of the experiment, thus suggesting that probiotic used may improve 29 the humoral immune response against the vaccine antigen used in the study.

  • Detection of fraud by adding starch products to fresh açaí pulps sold in the city of Castanhal-Pará

  • Data: 03/08/2017
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  • Açaí pulp is a product that due to its high nutritional value occupies an important place in the national and international markets. According to Normative Instruction No. 1 of January 7, 2000, of the Ministry of Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA) this product is extracted from the edible part of the fruit of the açaizeiro (Euterpe Oleraceae Mart.), and must be free of dirt, parasites and microorganisms that may leave it unfit for consumption, and as optional ingredients only water is allowed and, in cases of pasteurized pulps, citric acid. However, in the past three years there have been reports in the media in general that starch-containing thickeners would be added to fresh açaí pulp in municipalities in the state of Pará, which is the largest producer and consumer of food, with the intention of leaving it with an apparently better quality and thus gain illicit profits to the detriment of consumer health. In view of the above, the research aims to detect fraud by starch-based thickeners in samples of fresh açaí pulp commercialized in the municipality of Castanhal-Pará, using the methodology for detection of starch proposed by Normative Instruction No. 68 of December 12, 2006 Of the Ministry of Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), which officializes official physical-chemical methods for controlling milk and dairy products, adapted by Pantoja (2017). A total of 85 samples of fresh açaí pulp were collected from establishments registered and not registered in the Sanitary Surveillance of the municipality, of which 5.88% (5/85) were positive in the analysis for the detection of starch products, three of which originated from official establishments 8.10% (3/37) and two 4.16% (2/48) of unofficial, which leaves the municipality in a prominent position regarding the non-performance of frauds by this product in question, however without exempt the responsibility of the supervisory bodies in supervising these and other establishments, as there are possibilities of fraud with other products.

  • Analyses of cattle transit patterns in the state of Pará

  • Data: 13/07/2017
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  • Knowledge of the movement pattern of animals is an important tool for the surveillance of communicable diseases. The State of Pará distributes livestock both to other states and to other countries. The dynamics of the transit of these animals has been scarcely described. In this context, a retrospective study was carried out with bovine transit data from the state of Pará, Brazil, in the years 2014 and 2015. Data were obtained from Animal Transit Guides issued during the study period and submitted to descriptive analysis and analysis of Network flow. The database was composed of information obtained from 452,142 movements that carried 11,221,847 bovines. The study identified five livestock communities (CPs), revealed by the trade of bovids for various purposes. The communities identified in this study revealed a geographical pattern in trade among municipalities. Three livestock communities were identified that deserve observation of agricultural surveillance. Two (CP1 and CP5) for the amount of animals sent out of the state, especially Altamira, Uruará, Novo Progresso, Xinguara, São Félix do Xingu, Novo Repartimento and Marabá. And the municipality of Paragominas, located at CP4, due to the large concentration of animals from different locations in Pará, Brazil, destined to export. Trade occurs primarily within the State, especially among municipalities within the same community. More than 20 Brazilian federal units maintain a commercial relationship with the properties of Pará. Priority was given to road transport. The retrospective observational method applied in this study was efficient for the characterization of the Paraense agricultural transit network. The study is of importance to improve the understanding of the national and international relations of the Brazilian bovine trade.

  • Interference of tumescence anesthesia in the operative technique of mastectomies performed on bitches.

  • Data: 28/06/2017
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  • Mammary neoplasms are the most common tumor type in bitches, and about 70% of
    all neoplasms that affect this species. Approximately 50% of these are malignant,
    implying high mortality rates due to recurrences and metastases. The most indicated
    treatment is the surgical, and the mastectomy is the surgery of the election.
    Postoperative pain of mastectomy presents deleterious effects on the patient's
    recovery, and in this context the infiltration anesthesia by Tumescence is a local
    anesthetic technique that has been used in a growing way, mainly in Mastectomy, for
    being considered a safe and easy-to-run practice. However, there are still very few
    studies on the effects of anesthesia by tumescence in Mastectomys in the departed,
    with the majority involving the anesthetic and analgesic effects, with no reports on the
    interference of this anesthetic procedure on the technique Surgical. This study
    evaluated the surgical margins and the speed of execution of unilateral mastectomys
    in mammary neoplasms, using the local anesthetic technique of tumescence as
    adjuvant anesthetic protocol. 14 affected dogs were used for mammary neoplasms,
    divided into two groups of seven animals each. In the control group (G1) a
    mastectomy was performed without local anesthetic, and the experimental Group
    (G2) was performed mastectomy using tumescence anesthesia. The lesion caused
    by the surgical incision was measured in cm ² and the time was marked in minutes.
    The diagnosis of the tumor type was by conventional histopathological technique and
    the deep surgical margins were analyzed by histopathology with colouration with
    Nanking. It was obtained the percentage of 42.85% of surgical margins compromised
    both in the G1 and in the G2, and in all cases the neoplasm was malignant. The data
    obtained were statistically analyzed and it was concluded that the tumescence
    technique did not interfere with the quality of the surgical margin, and there was also
    no significant difference in the speed of performing the surgical technique between
    the groups. This study shows that the benefits of the use of anesthesia of
    tumescence can be obtained safely because there is no injury in the quality of the
    surgical margin, nor interference in the time of surgery.

  • Larvicidal action of the extract of leaves of Clibadium surinamense on Aedes aegypti

  • Data: 12/06/2017
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  • Aedes aegypti represents a major threat to public health, and the control of these vectors is carried out through the continuous use of synthetic insecticides, which has led to the selection of populations of mosquitoes resistant to various chemical groups. Thus, compounds derived from plants have emerged as a viable alternative to combat vectors. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify if the leaf extract of Clibadium surinamense has larvicidal action on Ae. aegypti. For this, third and fourth instar larvae were kept in containers containing 99mL of water and one mL of extract diluted in ethanol at concentrations of 1000ppm, 500ppm and 250ppm. The control group contained 99mL of water and one mL of ethanol. Four trials were performed in triplicate, and the lethal concentrations (CL50 and CL90) in 24 hours of experiment were 713ppm and 1,247ppm, respectively, determined by the PROBIT analysis (BioStat PRO - Version 5.9.8). The crude methanolic extract of C. surinamense leaves showed larvicidal action on Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions

  • The hydroalcoholic extract of Acmella oleracea root has insecticidal action on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Data: 05/06/2017
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  • For decades, the control of vector insects has been limited due to the selection of resistance owing to the continuous use of insecticides. Constant investigations by viable alternatives demonstrate some plant extracts have bioactive compounds capable of controlling the population of Aedes aegypti, as is the case of Acmella oleracea, popularly known as jambu in North region. This vegetable is part of the local cuisine, being the main parts used: leaves, stems, and flowers, and although the roots also have compounds that may have larvicidal activity, there are still no studies for this purpose. In this study, we tested different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of A. oleracea root on larvae of Ae. aegypti and we observed larvicidal activity at all tested concentrations (p <0.0001), with CL50=339ppm and CL90=1003ppm, as well as a statistical association between the three concentrations of the tested extract and the number of adult mosquitoes generated (p<0,0001).

  • Diseases of manatees from strandings in the Eastern Amazon

  • Data: 15/05/2017
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  • In Brazil, two species of manatees are found, one in the coastal zone of the North and Northeast, called the manatee (Trichechus manatus) and the other in the Amazonian rivers and estuaries known as the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis). These species are considered critically endangered by anthropogenic actions in all regions where they occur. Knowledge about diseases that plague manatees has been growing steadily. This study aims to report diseases that led to the death of two manatees of the Trichechus genus from strandings in the Eastern Amazon. In the years 2014 and 2015, a copy of Trichechus spp. And one of Trichechus inunguis, fish steers specifically, came to death. Fragments of several organs were collected in 10% formalin and routinely processed for histopathology. Samples were embedded in paraffin, cut 5 μm thick and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). In the finds for Trichechus spp. Corneal opacity was observed, as well as irregular lesions in the thoracic and ventral regions suggesting fungal dermatitis. Microscopically, myxomatous degeneration was observed in the cardiac valves, revealing endocardiosis and pulmonary congestion. In the necropsy findings of the T. inunguis species, it was observed that in the cecum and early colon the mucosa presented light yellow liquid content and erosions partially covered by a layer of yellowish and elastic material (pseudomembranes of fibrin). The histopathological examination evidenced intense bacterial colonization in the stratum corneum, characterized by the presence of basophilic cocci and bacilli between the keratin laminae and on the same. There were also areas of necrosis with nudity of the crypts bordered by mixed inflammatory infiltrate containing eosinophils. A diagnosis of moderate multifocal necrotizing typhlocolitis associated with intense bacterial colonization of the mucosa was established. The bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica (rugosa) was isolated from the contents of the cecum. The report of cases of diseases in manatees is of paramount importance to increase the knowledge about the biology of these animals. In addition, it assists in the development of new conservation strategies in nature and in rehabilitation centers. Therefore, more research in this context should be carried out in Brazil and in particular in the Amazon region, where the two species of the Trichechus genus occur in sympatry.

  • Epidemiologic status of bat attacks to humans in the Northeast of Pará State between 2000 and 2015

  • Data: 05/05/2017
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  • The challenge for Latin America countries is the development of a common strategy for prevention of human rabies transmitted by bats in remote areas of the Amazon region. After the period of 2004 and 2005 outbreak in Para state, Brazil, there were not recorded cases of human rabies in the State. But attacks by bats are a constant reality in the population of the Amazon, because people reside in areas favourable to attacks from vampire bats. We sought to understand human rabies outbreaks that occurred in the municipalities of 4 Regional Health Center in the State of Pará (4th CRS/SESPA). in the years 2004 and 2005, analyzing the attacks by bats in the region before and after the outbreak in order to give subsidies to health surveillance for the prevention of new cases. The study is descriptive retrospective using 7,747 cases from the System of Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) related to anti rabies care due to aggression by bats in the period from 2000 to 2015 of the municipalities that belong to the 4th. CRS/SESPA. Individuals beaten were mostly children and teenagers (60.4%), male (57.7%) and resided in rural areas (89.6%). The kind of exposure more reported by professionals was the biting (97.5%), located in the lower limbs (57.9%), with multiple injuries (61.6%) and shallow (73.4%). The demand for servicing occurred in a period greater than 90 days (44.2%) after the aggression. Notifications of aggression occurred after 2003, mainly in the cities of Viseu and Augusto Corrêa, and spatial analysis by census sectors revealed that individuals resided primarily in areas adjacent to mangroves in the region. With this one can understand that the population of the region could not relate human rabies with aggression by bats until 2003, when the notifications were initiated. Highlights the need for permanent education action for the population and health professionals for mainly protection of children of 5 to 9 years highlighted as most attacks target in this study

  • SILVA, Tatiene Rossana Móta. INFECTION BY Plasmodium spp. IN NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES IN THE WESTERN AMAZON. 2017. 49f. Master degree dissertation (Master degree) – Postgraduate program of Animal Health in the Amazon. Federal University of Pará, Castanhal.

  • Data: 15/03/2017
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  • In Brazil, natural infections by Plasmodium spp. were diagnosed in non-human primates in all regions. Despite the existence of a great diversity of neotropical primates in the Brazilian Amazon, studies on infections by these agents are still incipient. However, the objective of the study was to search the frequency of natural infection by Plasmodium spp. in non-human primates born in free-living and kept in captivity in the Western Amazon. Total blood samples were collected from 98 non-human primates belonging to the families Aotidae (n=1), Atelidae (n=40), Callitrichidae (n=3), Cebidae (n=49) and Pitheciidae (n=5). DNA extraction from the samples was performed with a commercial kit. DNA detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum was performed by Semi-Nested PCR. The amplified products were purified and sequenced. The consensus sequences were subjected to BLASTn to determine the identity of the sequences obtained with respect to the sequences stored in GenBank. To confirm the identity of the DNA sequences, multiple alignments were made to construct a phylogenetic tree. DNA of Plasmodium spp. was detected in 6,12% (6/98) of the primates examined, being detected in 4.08% (4/98) of these animals DNA of P. falciparum and in 2.04% (2/98) DNA of P. vivax. The highest frequencies of infections by P. falciparum were detected in callitrichids (33.33%), followed by cebids (4.08%) and atelids (2.5%), whereas P. vivax DNA was observed only in atelids (5%). No co-infections were detected in the examined primates. The search by homology using the BLASTn algorithm revealed 99% identity between the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences of the two isolates of P. vivax in Lagothrix cana from the Amazonas and the sequences of the isolates of P. vivax available from GenBank. The 18S rRNA gene partial sequences of P. falciparum isolates from Saimiri ustus, Saguinus bicolor, Sapajus sp. and L. cana showed identities of 100%, 99%, 99% and 97%, respectively, with the sequences of P. falciparum isolates available from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the homology of P. vivax sequences obtained of two L. cana from the Amazonas that were clustered together with others P. vivax sequences. The four P. falciparum sequences obtained in the study grouped in the same clade with three other P. falciparum isolates. It can be concluded that non-human primates are infected by Plasmodium spp. in the studied areas, being reported for the first time the infection by P. vivax in a non-human primate (L. cana) in the Brazilian Amazon and P. falciparum infection in S. bicolor. Studies about the etiological agents of malaria are important not only for public health but also for the conservation of species of non-human primates.


  • Data: 15/03/2017
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  • falta

  • The Brazilian legislation defines as a pulp of açaí the product extracted from the edible part of the fruit of the açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.), can not be admitted the addition of substances, besides water, the pulp in natura. However, in the state of Pará, a major producer of this food in the world, there are reports of the incorporation of thickening agents into popular açaí pulp, so that it resembles the special açaí for greater profits. Thus, the objective of this work was to standardize an efficient technique for detecting fraud in açaí pulps by addition of starch-based thickeners, as well as to measure their limit of detection. For this purpose, the frozen and pasteurized açaí natura samples were experimentally falsified by the addition of different percentages of starch, derived from cassava and wheat and were subjected to a starch detection technique suggested by Normative Instruction No. 68 of the Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Supply, which officializes the Physical and Chemical Official Analytical Methods for milk and milk products, with modifications. The results showed that the proposed methodology was efficient, since the test was able to identify percentages of amylaceous products between 1% and 7.5%, according to the protocol adopted and the thickener to be tested. We conclude that the proposed methodology may be a viable alternative for detecting fraud by incorporation of starch products into commercially available açaí pulps.

  • Data: 06/03/2017
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  • Açaí berry, fraud, detection

  • Polyserositis are inflammatory changes of the visceral and parietal serous of the body cavities. A special type of these alterations was identified in buffaloes slaughtered for consumption in the 80's, being associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection. Despite the importance of buffaloes production in Pará, the zoonotic character of C. psittaci and the possibility of involvement of other agents in the polyserositis affection of buffaloes, no studies have been found since this pioneer study. In this work, cases identified as polyserositis by the sanitary inspection service in buffaloes slaughtered for consumption in Belém, Pará, were collected to evaluate the frequency and origin of polyserositis cases in buffaloes. From a total of 2.887 buffaloes slaughtered in a six-month period, 48 (1.66%) cases of polyserositis were detected, being collected for material analysis of 39 animals. Santa Cruz do Arari on Marajó Island was the municipality with the highest frequency of findings, since 6,49% of the buffaloes from this municipality had lesions. However, 52,08% of the cases in the present study came from the municipality of Soure, from Marajó Island, which provided about 51% of the buffaloes slaughtered in the period. Samples of the lung, heart, diaphragm and liver of these animals were analyzed. In the macroscopy, the lesions were characterized by opaque, yellowish white areas, with thickening of the serous ones, sometimes with fibrous fringes on the surface of the organs. Histopathology showed connective tissue projections partially coated by cuboidal cells. Often the projections presented a mononuclear infiltrate of variable intensity, consisting predominantly of lymphoid cells, with occasional formation of ectopic or tertiary lymphoid follicles. Through the IHC it was considered that there was a predominance of T lymphocytes in relation to the B lymphocytes. In the present study, Chlamydia spp. antigens were not detected.

  • Data: 03/03/2017
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  • lymphocytic polyserosytis, tertiary lymphoid tissue, ectopic lymphoid tissue, pathology.

  • Among the most popular fish in the world, salmon species deserve special mention, being among the fish most consumed as raw food, mainly in sushi and sashimi dishes. However, despite the benefits attributed to salmon, increased consumption of this food has led to outbreaks of infection by pathogens. Among the pathogenic bacteria, those belonging to the genus Salmonella sp. has been highlighted as the main responsible for cases of food infections. Besides the microbiological quality, the authenticity of the fish used in salmon dishes has also been studied, since, due to the commercial importance of Salmo salar, many frauds are being practiced by merchants. Therefore, the objective of this work was to standardize a PCR for the detection of Salmo salar, through the experimental production of sushi and the analysis of commercially available samples and establish the limit of detection of a PCR, for the identification of Salmonella sp. in samples of Salmo salar submitted to the pre-enrichment stage, as well as to suggest a suitable DNA extraction method, that can be used in the research of said agent in different molecular techniques. To this end, for the salmon authentication test, two lots of sushi were experimentally produced and 38 establishments selling Japanese food and 10 fishmongers in the metropolitan area of Belém were visited for the collection of sushi, temaki and fish belonging to the species Salmo Salar. For the standardization of a PCR for the detection of Salmonella sp., an artificial contamination was carried out on samples of Salmo salar, with standard strain of Salmonella enteritidis. Both commercial and experimental samples were submitted to an appropriate DNA extraction protocol, so that the samples were subsequently submitted to the proposed PCR reactions. The results demonstrated that the technique proposed for the authentication of Salmo salar was efficient, since the species was detected both in experimentally prepared sushi samples and in isolated fish aliquots used for the preparation of sushi. Furthermore, it was possible to confirm the use of the Salmo salar species in the preparation of the analyzed sushi, temaki and fish samples. The results obtained through PCR for identification of Salmonella sp. demonstrated the presence of the agent in all dilutions from the 18 hour incubation, with the minimum initial bacterial concentration detected being 1X100 CFU/mL. As for DNA extraction, the methodology tested proved appropriate to be used as the essential step of PCR execution. It is concluded that the technique used to authenticate the fish was able to amplify the DNA of this species (Salmo salar) and the method presented for bacterial identification of Salmonella sp. was shown to be a reliable alternative for detecting the agent in Salmo salar samples in a short time.

  • Data: 21/02/2017
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  • sushi, salmon, Salmo salar, Salmonella sp.

  • The use of endoscopic examinations and clinical-laboratory interface in companion animals with gastrointestinal diseases

  • Data: 14/02/2017
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  • The endoscopic evaluations of digestive tract may be divided into the evaluation of the upper digestive tract, evaluating the esophagus, stomach and duodenum; and evaluation of the lower digestive tract, evaluating rectum, colon segments and cecum. The endoscopic evaluation of the digestive tract also has the therapeutic function as the removal of foreign bodies and placement of gastric enteral feeding tube. In both, the procedure allows to evaluate in real time the mucosal integrity, to observe the presence of alterations, besides obtaining fragments of biopsy for histopathological study in a safe and minimally invasive way. This histopathological study is considered gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract as well as neoplasms. The main indications in dogs and cats ate the presence of clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders, with vomiting and diarrhea being the most commonly reported signs, followed by abdominal pain, inappetence and weight loss. Despite being a tool of great importance, there is a shortage of article about the occurrence of the diagnosed diseases. The goal of this study was to compile the findings of endoscopic examinations performed in dogs and cats with clinical signs compatible with diseases of the digestive tract performed between January 2014 and June 2016, totaling 182 procedures. Macroscopic and histopathological findings were tabulated for this study, besides the data of the main clinical signs reported by the tutors. The species in which endoscopic examination was most requested was the canine with 86,3% of the cases (156 exams). Of the 182 examinations made, 114 were for diagnostic purposes (63%). Animals over seven years old were the ones who performed the most procedures; being the youngest patient with two months and the oldest patient with 18 years. For the diagnostic purpose, the male gender (50,5%) was slightly more representative than the female one. Chronic emesis was the most commonly reported clinical sign by tutors, followed by diarrhea and weight loss. Patient non-defined breed, both in canine and feline species, was the most representative one. In canine species, the Yorkshire, French Bulldog and Poodle also had sampling. And, in feline specie, in addition to non-defined breed, only Siameses breed ones was present. Hyperemia and edema were the most observed alterations in the stomach, duodenum and colon being compatible with the endoscopic diagnosis of chronic inflammation. In the histopathological evaluations of the biopsy specimens the lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate was the most diagnosed. Through the endoscopic exams was possible the histopathological diagnosis of Helicobacter spp in 17% of the stomach evaluated, and the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia in 20% of the duodenum evaluated. MALT-like lymphoma was the neoplasm most diagnosed by histopathology. And, through endoscopic exams it was possible to remove the foreign bodies in 79,6% of the cases, being the tricobenzoar the most visualized and removed. Placement of the percutaneous gastric enteral tube for feeding purpose was performed in four patients.

  • Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation on the humoral immune response of experimentally vaccinated mice against Leishmania infantum chagasi.

  • Data: 16/12/2016
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  • Canine leishmaniasis is considered a serious veterinary medical problem due to the high incidence rates and variable signs and severity. In addition, the mechanisms developed by Leishmania spp. to evade the immune response make difficult the elaboration of protective measures, especially the formulation of efficient vaccines. However, the association with probiotics, that is, non-pathogenic microorganisms which confer beneficial effects on the host, seems to be an alternative to improve the vaccine effect. In this way, the efficiency of the use of Saccharomyces boulardii yeast for the modulation of host defenses when stimulated with Leishmania infantum chagasi particulate antigen was evaluated. For this, 16 BALB/c mice were immunized and divided into two groups, one control (not supplemented) and the other continuously supplemented with the probiotic in the daily ration. Blood samples were collected weekly from the animals to obtain the serum and subsequent analysis of the kinetics of antibody production and identification of the subclasses of immunoglobulins produced. For this, the Enzyme Linked Immunoabsorbance Assay (ELISA) was adopted. The results were expressed in seroconversion and the means were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance level of 5%. Modulation of the humoral response was detected in the supplemented animals and was maintained even with the stopping of the supplementation. No statistical difference was detected between total IgG seroconversions between groups, but the supplemented group had a higher IgG2a elevation as evidenced by the IgG2a / IgG1 seroconversion ratio. These results demonstrate the efficiency of S. boulardii in the modulation of the humoral responses of the host, especially the elevation of IgG2a titers that are associated with a Th1 response, efficient in cases of leishmaniasis.

  • Research of Leptospira spp. in fragments of
    liver and kidney marsupials and free of rodents in forest fragment in the
    eastern Amazon

  • Data: 14/11/2016
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  • Leptospirosis is a worldwide distribution anthropozoonosis caused by genus
    Leptospira bacteria, which can cause infection in domestic and wildlife animals
    and humans. Rodents and marsupials are considered synanthropic animals and
    due to increasing devastation of forests, seeking shelter and food near homes,
    this fact can facilitate the approaching of these animals to man and therefore
    serving as carriers of zoonotic pathogens. Because of this, the study aimed to
    diagnose Leptospira spp. in wild liver and kidney tissue samples of marsupials
    and rodents free life in a forest fragment in the eastern Amazon. The capture of
    the animals was carried out in the rainy season and dry using containment traps
    Sherman type, Tomahawk and Pitfall arranged in a straight line, with a distance
    of 10 meters among them, keep opened for at least 10 consecutive nights with
    daily inspections by the morning. During the two expeditions were captured 25
    animals, 11 marsupials (Marmosops cf. parvidens n=7, Didelphis marsupialis
    n=3 and Metachirus sp. n=1) And 14 rodents (Oecomys sp. n=9, Holochilus
    sciureus n=1, Echimys chrysurus n=1, Neacomys sp. n=1, Oligoryzomys sp.
    n=1 and Rattus rattus n=1) were properly anesthetized, euthanized and
    necropsied to collect fragments of liver and kidney resulting in the end a total of
    47 tissue samples (22 liver, 25 kidney), because it was not possible to collect
    tissue of all animals. PCR was performed using primers "A" and "B" specific to
    genus Leptospira bacteria and "lipL32" specific to pathogenic Leptospira
    species. There were 6.38% (3/47) positive: two marsupial kidney fragments of
    the species Didelphis marsupialis and Marmosops cf. parvidens captured in the
    fragment edge and one liver sample of a rodent species Echimys chrysurus
    species captured within the forest fragment using primers "A" and "B". The
    same samples were submmited to a new PCR using the oligonucleotides
    "lipL32", but there was no positive sample. It was concluded that it is possible to
    verify the presence of nonpathogenic leptospira in rodents and marsupials and
    these species could serve as wild reservoirs of Leptospira spp.

  • Sensory analysis, molecular and chemical composition of fraudulent buffalo cheese experimentally and buffalo cheese samples marketed in the archipelago of Marajo, State of Para, Brazil

  • Data: 08/11/2016
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  • This study aimed to evaluate the influence of fraud in buffalo cheese by increasing bovine milk in the composition of cheese and evaluating its acceptance by consumers. In addition we sought to identify the frequency of fraud in cheese buffalo marketed in Marajó archipelago is related to the low milk production period and this entails some variation of chemical composition in these products. To assess consumer perceptions applied sensory tests affective type and purchase intent. Evaluation of chemical composition was through total lipid analysis, measurement of protein, determination of ash, moisture determination, carbohydrate and energy, and to identify possible adulterations was performed multiplex PCR for DNA detection of species Bubalus bubalis and/or Bos Taurus. The results showed that most evaluators said like a lot of mixed cheese and the cheese swiped experimentally was nutritionally inferior to buffalo cheese. As for commercial cheese, the results showed no significant variation in the chemical composition and energy value of buffalo milk cheese produced in the rainy season and dry. However, a larger fraud rate per increment of bovine milk was detected in the dry period. Concluded that although the cheese tampered present significant physico-chemical differences when compared to buffalo and bovine cheese, this can be an interesting product market level, since consumers have shown interest in the produced mixed cheese and that although the seasonality not is on the change in composition of commercial products analyzed is related to the addition of milk for fraud index beef in the production of buffalo cheese sold in the Amazon region.

  • Evaluation of perception of knowledge, attitude and practice of farmers related to brucellosis in farms belonging to Regional Capanema, Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 31/08/2016
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  • Brucellosis is widespread in Brazil, in this sense the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT) aims to reduce the prevalence and incidence of the disease, which still remains a neglected disease in many countries. Impacting in economic losses and health in cattle. The methodology knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) aims to measure the knowledge, attitude and practice of a population, allowing a diagnosis of it, and shows us what people know, feel and also how to behave on a particular subject. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of the CAP registered farmers in the Agricultural
    Protection Agency of the State of Pará (ADEPARÁ) related to bovine brucellosis in their herds. To obtain the data, we conducted a cross-sectional study through questionnaires with farmers of the properties included in the register of the Local Units of Agricultural Health (ULSA) or Office Serving the Community (EAC), the official ADEPARÁ service. The sample size was calculated using the software tool Statcalc EpiInfoTM 7, which led to a total of 186 properties to the sample composition. It was employed georeferencing of the visited farms and then applied a questionnaire to participants, and the data evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. The descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software v.20.0 through emphasis of higher frequencies. It was found in this study that the knowledge, attitude and practice were intermediate in 48.92% (91/186), 66.66% (124/186), 72% (134/186) of respondents respectively. In this context the intermediate knowledge did not induce an effective practice because the producers did not know that some practices are inadequate. Although positive attitudes were noted, but there is a need to change some practical for efficient protection. We suggest in this way improve health education in the municipalities in order to diminish the risk behavior in the population of the countryside.

  • Perception of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of handlers of fresh açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) From the municipality of Castanhal-PA

  • Data: 30/08/2016
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  • The quality of food is one of the essential conditions for preventing and maintaining health. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) It is a fruit appreciated in the diet, however its production is carried out, in most cases, with low hygienic rigor. Thus, it is necessary not only to evaluate the microbiological quality of the açaí pulp, but also the level of perception of the handlers of this food in relation to the importance of Good Manufacturing Practices in the food industry, so that it is offered to the population, foods with sanitary quality . Given the above, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (CAP) of the handlers and / or traders of fresh açaí pulp registered with the Municipal Health Surveillance of Castanhal-PA, in relation to the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of food. This study involved 68 requirements that meet and commercialize a fresh açaí pulp in the municipality ofCastanhal, and the data were obtained with the help of a structured, closed, and nominal questionnaire, using the CAP methodology. The results indicated that the majority of the handlers were trained in food handling training (89.7%), and that 66.2% of the interviewees obtained adequate knowledge in Good Manufacturing Practices. The Attitude considered the highest value, with 76.5% of correct answers, considered sufficient; and the Eliminated Practices were observed in 72.1% of the interviewees. We conclude that there is a need to schedule courses and training for continuous training, as well as periodic inspection by the competent municipal body, not intending to train a food handler aware of its importance in the açaí food chain, providing a
    greater health quality of this much appreciated food in the Amazon region.

  • Chagas disease in urban and peri-urban spaces in the Amazon region: correlations between sentinel hosts, vectors and environment

  • Data: 29/08/2016
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  • Chagas disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a flagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), with the enzootic cycle occurs between wild mammals and triatomines, with the Brazilian Amazon endemic for Chagas disease. The northeast of Pará is one of the areas that concentrate the highest rates of deforestation and wildlife diversity has been reduced due to the habitats losses because forest fragmentation impacting the population of wild animals used by triatomines for feeding what leave them near human habitations to get food. This study aims to understand the dinânima of T. cruzi infection in domestic and wild animals and triatomines in the city of Castanhal-PA, considering the aspects of the landscape. Blood samples were collected from dogs, cats, marsupials (Didelphis marsupialis) and a small rodent (Rattus rattus) from four areas in the municipality of Castanhal. The necropsy, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of two dogs with a history of sudden death was held in the Pathology Laboratory Animal-UFPA during the study period. The first dog necropsied showed amastigote nests of T. cruzi in histopathology and positive staining on immunohistochemistry. The second dog necropsy showed only infiltration by adipocites on miocardium and was negative on immunohistochemistry. But both showed T. cruzi DNA by nested PCR in cardiac tissue analyzed by nested PCR with specific primers TCZ1, TCZ2, TCZ3 and TCZ4. Four areas were chosen for collecting blood of cats and dogs, capture of small mammals and triatomines. Nested PCR was performed on all blood samples of animals and in the digestive tract of insects. In area 1, we analyzed a total of 25 domestic animals (24 dogs and a cat), two marsupais, and two triatomine (Rhodnius pictipes). In area 2, were analyzed 11 dogs and two marsupials. In the area 3, 74 domestic animals were analyzed (71 dogs and three cats), three triatomine (R. pictipes) and a marsupial. In area 4, we analyzed two dogs and four marsupials. In the area 1, DNA of T. cruzi was detected by nested PCR in 50% (12/24) of the dogs and also being the only positive cat (1/1) in 50% of the sample marsupials (1/2) and 100% of the insects (2/2) captured. Area 2 was not detected DNA of T. cruzi in dogs examined nor the captured marsupials. In the area 3, it was identified in 42.25% (30/71) of dogs and 66% (2/3) cats in 100% of the insects (3/3) and the single captured marsupial (1/1). In area 4, it was not identified in the two examined dogs (0/2), but a marsupial was positive by nested PCR (1/4). The findings reveal the importance of research in dogs and cats of Chagas disease in regions such as the Amazon, which has ecotypes containing the reservoirs and vectors, as well as domestic animals were able to participate in the T. cruzi cycle. The proximity of man these sites by changing these forest fragment environments may be contributing to the increased risk of disease transmission

  • The inadequate creation of dogs can endanger the health of the owner's and the animal, public health problems related to dogs occur throughout the world, whether in urban or rural environments. In rural areas, dogs tend to have contact with forest areas and wild animals which may represent great risk to the pathogens transmission.In this sense, the present study sought to characterize demographic aspects of dogs in areas of forest fragmentation in the eastern Amazon, and analyze habits and attitudes of their owners and of the dogs in order to identify critical points and their contributions to possible health problems. They were applied semi-structured questionnaires to dog owners in three communities located in forest fragmentation area in the municipalities of Santa Bárbara do Pará, Peixe Boi and Viseu. In addition, the dogs were inspected for the presence of ectoparasites. With the data collected was performed descriptive analysis, analysis from a generalized linear model (GLM). were collected data from 355 animals. Mostly, the dogs lived free (58%), were males (58%), were not castrated (91%) had no veterinary care (88%) and had frequent contact with wild animals, was observed a strong correlation between the presence of ticks parasitizing dogs and the edge of the forest fragments. it was identified the absence of rabies vaccination and veterinary care in part of the population as critical points in the maintenance of the animals. Therefore, the animals in this study were characterized as free roaming.

  • Data: 25/08/2016
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  • MLG, veterinary care, vaccinations, ectoparasites

  • Padronização de uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) para detecção de Salmonella spp. em carne de frango

  • Data: 28/07/2016
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  • The genus Salmonella is one of the main responsible for cases of food infections. In 2 processed foods or with a competing microbiota, the growth of this microorganism is 3 impaired, which makes it difficult to detect it by conventional methods; moreover, this 4 technique takes time to obtain the results, thus studies establishing the detection of 5 quickly and efficiently are of paramount importance. Therefore, the objective of this 6 work was to standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique for detection 7 of the invA gene of the genus Salmonella. From chicken meat samples contaminated 8 experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium. For this, three samples were prepared 9 with 25 g of chicken meat, inoculating in the first sample the dilution 10-7, in the second 10 at 10-8 and in the third at 10-9 of S.typhimurium, and then 225 ml of 1% buffered 11 peptone water (APT) was added to each sample, then homogenized and incubated at 12 37 ° C for 18 hours. The Salmonella spp. It was performed by two methods, the 13 conventional and the PCR. For the PCR, aliquots of the chicken meat and the APT 14 culture were collected every hour from the time of inoculation until 12 hours and after 15 18 hours of incubation, in parallel to the PCR analysis, the Salmonella spp. By the 16 conventional method recommended by Normative Instruction number 62 of the 17 Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply, following the steps of pre-enrichment, 18 selective enrichment, isolation and serological testing. The two techniques were able 19 to detect in the minimum concentration 3.6x102 CFU of S. typhimurium inoculated in 20 25 grams of chicken meat. In DNA samples extracted from the APT it was possible to 21 detect the DNA from the 7 hours of incubation, while from the samples extracted 22 directly from the meat, the amplification was possible only after 11 hours of incubation. 23 It was concluded that both methods were efficient for the detection of Salmonella spp. 24 In experimentally contaminated foods with a minimum concentration of 3.6x102 CFU 25 of Salmonella typhimurium in 25 g of chicken meat, but the proposed PCR was more 26 efficient, detecting the presence of Salmonella spp. In the analysis period of 48 hours, 27 being considered a shorter period when compared with the time of analysis of the 28 conventional microbiology, which was approximately 96 hours.

  • Evaluation of alcoholic fixation as an alternative for the histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of bovine rabies

  • Data: 22/07/2016
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  • Rabies is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the genus lyssavirus that affects both domestic and wild animals, including man. The standard diagnosis is based on direct immunofluorescence tests and newborn mouse intracerebral inoculation. For this, it is necessary cooled samples which can be a challenge in hot climates and areas of difficult access. The possibility of diagnosis in formalin fixed tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been demonstrated in various studies and could be an alternative in such situations. However, due to its toxicity and carcinogenesis, access to formalin have become increasingly restricted, particularly in remote cities.Furthermore, the formaldehyde fixation can lead to limitations of IHQs and molecular techniques. In the current study samples of neural and extraneural tissues fixed in formalin and in coagulant ethanol-based fixative were evaluated by histopathology and ICH. The results of this study corroborate the application of immunohistochemistry in tissues of the central and peripheral nervous system fixed in formalin for rabies diagnosis. The use of coagulant ethanol-based fixative has shown satisfactory results in the preservation of the histological architecture of tissues and preservation of viral antigens, showing a promising alternative for histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of rabies in cattle.

  • Caracterização dos sistemas de produção de ovinos e caprinos na microrregião de Castanhal, Pará

  • Data: 22/07/2016
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  • Foram realizadas visitas a 60 propriedades criadoras de ovinos e caprinos  da microrregião de Castanhal-PA, no período de março de 2014 a maio de 2015, a fim de caracterizar os sistemas de produção utilizados. Durante as visitas foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico, elaborado para se obter dados relacionados ao manejo produtivo, nutricional, sanitário e reprodutivo do rebanho e dados referentes á infraestrutura e gerenciamento das propriedades. O tipo de criação era predominantemente extensivo, com sistema de pastejo continuo, sendo a suplementação mineral adotada em 46,6%  das propriedades. Poucas propriedades registravam os acontecimentos relacionados ao rebanho, como identificação dos animais, registro de pai e mães, registro de nascimento e taxa de mortalidade. Quanto ao manejo reprodutivo, em 93,3% das propriedades o reprodutor era mantido com as fêmeas durante o ano inteiro. Apenas em duas (3,3%) propriedades utilizavam estação de monta e em duas (3,3%) faziam monta controlada, não sendo registrada a utilização de nenhuma outra técnica, como inseminação artificial e uso de rufiões. Os problemas sanitários mais frequentes as parasitoses gastrointestinais (90%), as afecções podais (80%), a mortalidade de cordeiros (48,3%), a linfadenite caseosa (31,6%), as mastites (25%) e a dermatite alérgica á picada de insetos (20%). Outras alterações relatadas, com menos frequência, foram abortos (10%), problemas respiratórios em animais jovens (8,3%), alterações nervosas (8,3%), ceratoconjuntivite (13,3%) e ectima contagioso (13,3%). As praticas de manejos sanitários eram inadequadas para o controle das principais enfermidades que afetavam os rebanhos. Em todas as propriedades a caprino-ovinocultura era a atividade secundaria, sendo a bovinocultura a principal atividade desenvolvida. Além disso, também não era uma atividade comercial, já que 88% das propriedades não comercializavam animais para abate nem reprodutores. Os resultados deste trabalho  demostram que, na região estudada, o nível de organização das criações de pequenos ruminantes é precário. A maioria dos produtores não utilização técnicas de manejo adequadas, não possuem  assistência técnica e tem elevados índices de mortalidades devido, principalmente, ás parasitoses gastrointestinais e a problemas podais, que foram as doenças mais frequentemente relatadas

  • Intoxicação por etanol em bovinos alimentados com resíduo úmido de cervejaria

  • Data: 21/07/2016
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  • An outbreak of ethanol poisoning that affected a dairy cattle herd fed with the brewery by-product known as malt bagasse, wet brewery residue, malted barley waste or “barley”. The outbreak began about 24 hours after a new product of the by-product was offered to cattle that had an alcoholic odor. Chromatographic and microbiological analysis of this by-product sample confirmed the presence of ethanol and Saccharomyces spp., respectively, indicating the addition of another by-product brewery, brewer's yeast or yeast. The main clinical signs observed were diarrhea, salivation, staggering gait and decubitus. Morbidity was 12.2% (5/41) and mortality was 2.4% (1/41). A cow that died after a 3-day of clinical course was necropsied. No significant macroscopic lesions were observed, but in the histopathology, there was acute, multifocal, moderate necrosupurative rumenitis with secondary bacterial and fungal colonization, indicating concomitant ruminal acidosis. In the chromatographic analysis of samples of rumen and liver contents of this bovine, variable amounts of ethanol were detected. The data from the present study indicate that the possibility of ethanol intoxication should be considered in cattle with neurological and digestive signs fed with RUC when added to brewer's yeast.

  • Evaluation of alcoholic fixatives for histological and molecular studies in canine tissue

  • Data: 13/07/2016
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  • The use of formaldehyde in the fixation and preservation of tissue has been widely
    used for over a century in the pathology and histology studies because it is accessible and
    easy to use substance. However, use of formaldehyde as the fixative and preservative is experiencing increasing criticism because of toxicity to the manipulators and environmental
    pollution. Furthermore, the use of formalin causes DNA degradation and RNA tissue, making
    it unsuitable for parts molecular retrospective studies. In order to replace formalin, studies
    have been conducted with fasteners the basis of methanol and ethanol, which have shown
    promising results for studies investigating the relationship of tissue morphology to molecular
    data in both normal tissue as with the pathological changes. The aim of this study is
    preservation of DNA in dog tissues fixed in formalin and alcohol fasteners. In this study, the
    preservation of DNA extracted from frozen tissue samples were similar to the tissue samples
    preserved in methanol ethanol.

  • Determinação da frequência de Salmonella sp. e Salmonella tiphymurium em amostras de carne bovina fraudadas comercializadas no município de Macapá, estado de Amapá

  • Data: 24/06/2016
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  • Análise espacial e detecção molecular de tripanosomatídeos zoonóticos em ratos de vida livre oriundos de fragmentos florestais na Amazônia Oriental

  • Data: 29/02/2016
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  • Os ratos silvestres e sinantrópicos contribuem diretamente para a dinâmica e troca de energia dos ecossistemas, atuando como consumidores primários e bons dispersores de sementes. Estes mamíferos também podem ser reservatórios de agentes zoonóticos, servindo como fonte de infecção para o homem e para outras espécies animais. O presente estudo teve como objetivos detectar DNA de Trypanosoma cruzi e Leishmania spp. em ratos de vida livre oriundos de fragmentos florestais com diferentes graus de interferência humana e realizar a análise espacial nos municípios visitados no estado do Pará, Brasil. Ratos de vida livre foram capturados em fragmentos florestais dos municípios de Santa Bárbara do Pará, Peixe-Boi e Viseu, estado do Pará. Os animais foram identificados, eutanasiados e amostras biológicas analisadas para a pesquisa de DNA de tripanosomatídeos zoonóticos. Para a detecção de DNA de Leishmania infantum foi realizada PCR com os iniciadores RV1/RV2, enquanto que para a detecção de DNA das espécies do complexo Leishmania braziliensis e das espécies do complexo Leishmania mexicana foram realizadas PCR’s com os iniciadores B1/B2 e IR1/LM15, respectivamente. Para a detecção de DNA de T. cruzi foi realizada Nested-PCR com os iniciadores TCZ1/TCZ2 e TCZ3/TCZ4. Mapas de risco foram construídos segundo o estimador de densidade kernel de 250 metros. Nos ratos do município de Santa Bárbara do Pará foi detectado DNA de L. infantum e T. cruzi, enquanto que em Peixe-Boi e Viseu foi detectado DNA de T. cruzi. Os mapas de risco revelaram a presença de aglomerados em todos os locais de captura nos três municípios. Pôde-se concluir que os ratos estão infectados por tripanosomatídeos zoonóticos, servindo como elo entre os ciclos silvestres e peridomésticos nas áreas estudadas.

  • Dinâmica da resistência a Benzimidazois em uma população de Haemonchus contortus em ovinos na Amazônia oriental

  • Data: 29/02/2016
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  • Dentre os nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos, Haemonchus contortus apresenta papel de destaque por ser o mais prevalente no Brasil. A Hemoncose é caracterizada por uma anemia hemorrágica aguda devido ao hábito hematófago de H. contortus, o que ocasiona severo comprometimento do animal e consequentemente grandes perdas econômicas. O controle desses nematódeos é baseado principalmente no uso de anti-helmínticos, como os Benzimidazois, que são muito utilizados pelo baixo custo e pela ausência de resíduos tóxicos. Entretanto, essa estratégia de controle tem sido um grande problema na criação de ovinos e caprinos, pois tem selecionado nematódeos resistentes às bases utilizadas. O presente trabalho objetivou realizar uma observação longitudinal sobre os níveis de resistência a Benzimidazois em uma população de H. contortus resistente, e que não foi exposta a esse grupo de anti-helmíntico no período de 22 meses. Procedeuse a análise fenotípica por meio da R-OPG e genotípica com AS-PCR, empregandose dois oligonucleotídeos iniciadores alelo inespecífico (PH1 e Pn2) e dois oligonucleotídeos iniciadores alelo específico (PH3 e PH4) em uma única reação. Os produtos amplificados de 250 pares de base (pb) e 600 pb, foram identificados como referentes aos alelos resistentes (r) e susceptíveis (S) respectivamente, e de 800 pb foram referentes à espécie H. contortus. O Albendazol se mostrou ineficaz no início do experimento (64%), revelando a presença da resistência na propriedade estudada. No total 150 parasitos foram genotipados e todos os genótipos foram detectados (SS, rS, rr), sendo 24,7% referentes ao genótipo resistente (rr), 63,3% ao genótipo heterozigoto (rS) e 12% referente ao genótipo sensível (SS). Os resultados mostraram que a população fenotipicamente resistente de H. contortus não retornou ao perfil de susceptibilidade mesmo após 22 meses sem a utilização de Benzimidazois

  • Landscape epidemiology to understand the distribution of Amblyomma spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Pará, eastern Amazonia, Brazil

  • Data: 26/02/2016
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  • The Amazon forest has the highest biodiversity in the world, however, little is known about ticks species, especially in the eastern Amazon. In this context, this study aims to recognize questing ticks diversity and to estimate its abundance in forest fragmentation areas of Pará state, Eastern Amazon, where human communities have free access, often making it vulnerable to tick vectors species. From this information, the work proposes a model to predict the distribution of the species throughout the state of Pará in order to contribute to the monitoring of diseases potentially transmitted by them. Three areas of forest fragmentation, located in Santa Bárbara do Pará, Viseu and Peixe-Boi were investigated. Each forest fragment was divided into three treatments: (A) inside the fragment (B) edge of the fragment (C) Urban-rural area adjacent to the fragment. In order to capture questing specimens four techniques were employed: drag with flannel, flannel leggings, CO2 trap and active search, for each treatment. Nymphs and adults were morphologically identified using specific key, while larvae were subjected to molecular identification. MaxEnt software was used to predict the potential distribution of ticks species captured in Pará state. At Santa Barbara Pará, 16 ticks were captured: Amblyomma varium and A. humerale. Both species were present at treatment A as much as at treatment C. At Viseu, 174 ticks were captured, distributed in three species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, A. oblongoguttatum and A. ovale. Treatment C was the richest one, presenting all the three species. A. cajennense s.s. was the only species present at all three treatments. At Peixe-Boi, 34 ticks were captured, compatible morphologically with six species: A. naponense, A. cajennense s. s., A. calcaratum, A. humerale, A. varium and A. pacae. The interior was the richest treatment, with four species. In addition, three species were present in two treatments: A. naponense, A. calcaratum and A. cajennense s.s. The Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) showed no significant difference between treatments in relation to the composition of the sample and the abundance of ticks. Only five species of ticks were used for the spatial distribution prediction in Pará territory: A. cajennense s. s., A. calcaratum, A. humerale, A. naponense and A. varium. The Northeast mesoregion is the most suitable for the species occurrence, while in Southwest, Southeast and Lower Amazon regions the probability may reach zero. Climatic conditions, topography and distribution of main hosts were discussed in order to understand species distribution in Pará territory. Conducting studies in Pará southwest regions and low Amazon is necessary to know the tick fauna and predict the risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens.

  • Caracterização da profilaxia pós-exposição da raiva humana em região da Amazônia Oriental, Pará, Brasil, no período de 2000 a 2014

  • Data: 26/02/2016
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  • A raiva é uma zoonose que envolve animais domésticos e silvestres. A transmissão ocorre pelo contato com material infeccioso, geralmente saliva, provenientes de mordida, arranhão ou lambedura de animais infectados. No Brasil, agressões ocasionadas por animais domésticos e silvestres devem ser registrados na Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). Este sistema é empregado para investigar todas as possibilidades de exposição humana ao vírus da raiva. Este estudo foi realizado para caracterizar o atendimento antirrábico humano em 11 municípios da microrregião Salgado, estado do Pará, adjacente à microrregião Bragantina, onde a raiva humana foi relatada em 2004-2005. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo descritivo com base no atendimento antirrábico pós-exposição registrado no banco de dados do SINAN de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2014. Durante este período, houve 13403 notificações. Observou-se uma tendência anual crescente no número de atendimento (Y=68.571x + 344,96). 2012 e 2013 representaram os anos de maior número de atendimentos antirrábicos. O município de Salinópolis registrou o número de atendimentos (27,0%), seguido por Vigia (16,1%) e Curuçá (13,5%). A maioria dos indivíduos que procurou tratamento eram do sexo masculino (59,6%) e pertencia ao grupo 1-19 anos de idade (48,7%). Os cães foram a espécie agressora mais freqüente (76,6%), seguida pelos morcegos (12,1%) e gatos (7,4%). A mordida foi o tipo de agressão mais freqüente e a região anatômica mais afetada foram os membros inferiores (39,6%). Este estudo demonstra que a agressão por morcegos foi a segunda razão para o atendimento antirrábico na região, nos últimos 14 anos. A baixa qualidade dos registros revela pontos frágeis na vigilância do atendimento antirrábico no estado do Pará.


  • Data: 22/02/2016
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  • O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da expressão do c-kit em tumores mamários caninos benignos e malignos, através da imunoistoquímica. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto a sua intensidade de marcação, porcentagem de células marcadas, para obtenção do escore final. Para o controle positivo foi usada uma amostra de mastocitoma positiva para a expressão do c-kit. Foram utilizadas 32 amostras de carcinomas mamários e cinco amostras de tumores mamários benignos. Todos os tumores expressaram c-kit, com padrão citoplasmático. Dezesseis carcinomas apresentaram escore baixo de imunomarcação e 16 apresentaram escore alto. Todos os tumores mamários benignos tiveram escore de imunomarcação alto. A expressão de c-kit foi maior nos tumores benignos quando comparados aos tumores malignos. Os carcinomas anaplásico apresentaram escore final alto e grau III.

  • Estudo anatomopatológico em botos-cinza (Sotalia guianensis) oriundos de eventos de encalhe ou captura acidental no litoral do Pará, Brasil

  • Data: 22/02/2016
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  • Desde 2006, o Grupo de Estudos de Mamíferos Aquáticos da Amazônia (GEMAM), do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), realiza o monitoramento de encalhes de mamíferos aquáticos em praias assim como capturas acidentais em portos pesqueiros do litoral Paraense, principalmente no arquipélago do Marajó, no município de Curuçá e na ilha de Algodoal. O GEMAM possui um amplo acervo de mastozoologia no MPEG e também tem desenvolvido estudos anatômicos, genéticos e biogeográficos dos mamíferos aquáticos da região amazônica. Exames post mortem e análise histopatológica de tecidos de mamíferos aquáticos oriundos de encalhes são escassos no Brasil, particularmente no Pará. A parceria entre o MPEG/GEMAM e o Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LPA) da Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA) criou condições para realização de estudos com este enfoque. Estes estudos são importantes visto que alguns mamíferos aquáticos podem refletir as condições dos ambientes aquáticos e podem albergar diversos agentes patogênicos, alguns inclusive de importância zoonótica. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar macro e microscopicamente órgãos e tecidos de botos-cinza (Sotalia guianenses) oriundos de eventos encalhe e captura acidental no litoral paraense. Os resultados foram apresentados em dois capítulos. No primeiro foram apresentados resultados das análises macro e microscópicas de 16 botos-cinza, sendo sete botos provenientes de encalhes nas praias e nove capturados acidentalmente por pescadores e encaminhadas ao GEMAM. Registrou-se marcas de rede na pele de 93,75% (15/16) dos botos do presente estudo. Parasitas pulmonares morfologicamente compatíveis com Halocercus spp. foram encontrados na traqueia e brônquios de 25% (4/16) dos botos em infestação moderada. Baços acessórios foram observados 12,5% (2/16) dos botos. Um boto apresentou fratura na mandíbula 6,25% (1/16) e outro, lesões papilares na vulva. Na histopatologia dos animais com parasitas pulmonares (4/16) foram observados cortes dos parasitos adultos e larvas no lúmen de brônquios, bronquíolos e alvéolos, entremeados por infiltrado inflamatório misto, moderado, com predominância de eosinófilos. Focos de mineralização no parênquima pulmonar e submucosa de brônquios foram observados em três dos quatros botos que albergavam parasitos (18,75%). Um boto com a pneumonia parasitária apresentou hipertrofia da parede de arteríolas pulmonares concomitante. Congestão e/ou edema pulmonar moderados a acentuados foram observados em 56,25% (9/16) dos botos. Em um indivíduo (6,25%) com lesões vulvares, estas se caracterizavam por degeneração vacuolar do epitélio, com hiperplasia da camada basal e inclusões intranucleares. Esse boto-cinza também apresentou meningite não supurativa e necrose multifocal aleatória em linfonodos. No capítulo dois foi apresentado, na forma de relato de caso, os resultados macro, microscópicos e moleculares de um caso de infecção por herpesvírus em um boto-cinza oriundo de captura acidental no Estado do Pará. O diagnóstico deste caso foi baseado nos achados macro e microscópicos considerados típicos da infecção e confirmados através da PCR. O sequenciamento do DNA viral indicou se tratar de um gammaherpesvírus. A infecção de Sotalia
    guianenses por herpesvírus foi um achado inédito.


  • Data: 30/09/2015
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  • Os marsupiais da família Didelphidae podem albergar diferentes espécies de
    Trypanosoma e por possuírem características ecológicas generalistas e oportunistas, têm sido considerados importantes reservatórios, podendo atuar como um elo entre os ciclos doméstico e silvestre desses agentes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivos pesquisar a infecção natural por Trypanosoma spp. e construir mapas de risco da infecção por T. cruzi em marsupiais de vida livre capturados em um fragmento florestal com diferentes graus de ação antrópica no município de Viseu, estado do Pará. Amostras de sangue total foram coletadas de 46 marsupiais capturados em um fragmento florestal no município de Viseu, estado do Pará. Esfregaços sanguíneos foram confeccionados em 39 animais para a pesquisa de formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma spp.. Para a detecção de DNA de T. cruzi foi realizada a Nested-PCR com os iniciadores TCZ1, TCZ2, TCZ3 e TCZ4. O mapa de risco foi construído segundo o estimador de densidade kernel de 500 metros. DNA de
    T. cruzi foi detectado em 60,9% (28/46) das amostras de sangue dos marsupiais e formas tripomastigotas de T. cruzi e de T. rangeli-like foram observadas em um exemplar de M. murina e em um P. opossum, respectivamente. O mapa de risco revelou a presença de três aglomerados, sendo o de maior intensidade observado na área de borda do fragmento florestal. Pode-se concluir que os marsupiais do município de Viseu estão infectados por T. cruzi e T. rangeli-like e a região de estudo é uma área de risco para a transmissão de T. cruzi.

  • Avaliação e aplicação de uma PCR multiplex para detecção de fraude por adição de carne bubalina em carne moída bovina

  • Data: 25/09/2015
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  • O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a sensibilidade de uma PCR multiplex para detecção de fraude por adição intencional de carne moída bubalina em carne moída bovina e sua aplicação em amostras comercialmente disponíveis nos municípios de Belém e Santarém, estado do Pará e Macapá, estado do Amapá. Para tal, carnes moídas de bovinos contendo 0,01%, 0,1%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, 95%, 99%, 99,9%, 99,99% de carne moída bubalina foram produzidas em triplicata com cinco réplicas, bem como carnes moídas exclusivamente de cada uma das espécies foram utilizadas como controle e Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase multiplex foi realizada, para cada tratamento. A fim de auxiliar a análise da sensibilidade do teste, percentagens conhecidas de DNA (0,01%, 0,1%, 1%, 5%,10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, 95%, 99%, 99,9%, 99,99%) das espécies Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram diluídas e misturadas em um volume final de 10 μL e também foram testadas pela metodologia proposta. Adicionalmente, testou-se a hipótese da existência de fraudes pela venda indevida de carne moída bubalina em adição e/ou substituição à carne moída bovina em 91 amostras de carne moída comercializadas como sendo de origem bovina, em diferentes estabelecimentos na região norte do Brasil e a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) multiplex proposta foi realizada. Os resultados demonstraram que a PCR multiplex proposta mostrou-se eficaz para a detecção simultânea de DNA de bovinos e bubalinos, com um limiar de 2,05ng de DNA bubalino e 0,41ng de DNA bovino, sendo capaz de identificar incrementos de 10% a 100% de carne bubalina em carnes moídas bovinas e incrementos de 0,1% a 100% de carne bovina em carnes moídas bubalinas, e que 17,5% das amostras coletadas continham carne bubalina. Concluiu-se que a PCR multiplex é uma de elevada precisão, capaz de detectar fraude por adição de carne bubalina em carne moída bovina e que esta adulteração ocorre na região alvo do estudo

  • Distúrbios digestivos associados ao consumo de feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris Lineu 1753) em búfalos

  • Data: 31/08/2015
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  • Os grãos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris) são uma fonte de alimento básico para os seres humanos. Há grande interesse no seu uso na alimentação de ruminantes, devido ao elevado teor de proteínas. Existem, porém, limitações no uso devido à presença de fatores antinutricionais como, lectinas, inibidores de proteases e α-amilases, saponinas, polifenóis e fitatos. As lectinas, principalmente as fito-hemaglutininas (PHA), são responsáveis pela maioria das manifestações toxicológicas de P. vulgaris. Relatos de efeitos adversos relacionados a ingestão de P. vulgaris em ruminantes são escassos e limitados a bovinos e ovinos. Neste estudo são apresentados os aspectos clínicos e patológicos de casos espontâneos de distúrbios digestivos em búfalos associados ao consumo de concentrado e volumoso contendo feijão preto (P. vulgaris) e de um caso experimental em ovino. Um grupo de 15 búfalos recebia um concentrado contendo cerca de 15% de feijão preto e, como volumoso, uma silagem de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum). Foi introduzido na dieta deste bubalinos uma silagem em que havia sido utilizado grãos de feijão como secante. Cerca de 3 dias após a introdução desta silagem dois búfalos apresentaram alterações digestivas caracterizadas por diarreia, apatia, anorexia e hipomotilidade ruminal. Um destes apresentou adicionalmente regurgitação. A silagem foi retirada da dieta e não ocorreram novos casos. Os búfalos afetados tiveram uma evolução clínica subaguda evoluindo ao óbito. À necropsia os principais achados no sistema digestivo foram avermelhamento da mucosa do intestino delgado e erosões esparsas nas papilas ruminais. Na histopatologia foram observadas no jejuno de áreas com necrose de coagulação em enterócitos das porções médias e superiores das vilosidades, com consequente desnudamento das mesmas ou revestimento por células cuboidais. No rúmen de um dos búfalos havia áreas ocasionais de erosão com exsudato fibrinoso leve. O búfalo com regurgitação apresentou ainda broncopneumonia por aspiração acentuada. Na reprodução experimental o ovino que recebeu feijão apresentou diarreia aquosa. O ovino foi submetido à eutanásia e não havia alterações macroscópicas dignas de nota. Na histopatologia as principais lesões estavam presentes na mucosa do duodeno e terço médio do jejuno, onde havia necrose de enterócitos nas porções médias e intermediárias das vilosidades, com fusão da lâmina própria das porções apicais das mesmas e revestimento por enterócitos cuboidais e pavimentosos. Os dados apresentados no presente estudo indicam que a utilização de feijão preto (P. vulgaris) na dieta de bubalinos em concentrações superiores a 15% da dieta pode estar associada a ocorrência de distúrbios digestivos e a lesões no intestino delgado.

  • Microbiological and molecular evaluation of sushi sold in restaurants specializing in the municipalities of Ananindeua, Belém, Marituba and Castanhal, State of Pará.

  • Data: 31/08/2015
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  • Currently, food based on raw fish coming from Asian countries have become routine in Brazil. Establishments specializing in sushi and sashimi type dishes are increasingly common in Western cities. These products are considered highly perishable foods, both because they are dishes prepared with raw fish, cooled slightly, as the hygienic and sanitary aspects involved in its preparation and conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the sushi sold in specialized stores in the municipalities of Belém, Ananindeua, Marituba and Castanhal, State of Para. To do this, determining the Most Probable Number of coliforms at 35 ° C and 45 ° C, count Staphylococcus positive coagulase and Salmonella spp. They were carried out in accordance with the recommendations by law. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to confirm the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in samples analyzed The results showed that 93,5%% of the samples had coliform counts at 45 ° C higher than those recommended by the Collegiate Board Resolution No. 12 of the National Health Surveillance Agency and that the samples did not contain Staphylococcus positive coagulase counts and the presence of Salmonella spp., which is consistent with current legislation in this regard. The PCR performed confirmed the absence of S. aureus and Salmonella spp. in the samples. It was concluded that, although potentially pathogenic micro-organisms are not identified in the samples, the high coliform count suggests a serious hygienic and sanitary deficiency of the establishments visited.

  • Detection of the main bovine herpesvirus with encephalitis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded bovine brain by multiplex PCR

  • Data: 31/08/2015
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  • The present study aimed at the use of the multiplex PCR (mPCR) for diagnosis of the main herpesvirus that affect the nervous system of cattle, bovine herpes virus (bovine herpesvirus type) and herpesviruses Sheep 2 (OvHV-2) in paraffin embedded samples in a single reaction decreasing the time and the cost of analysis. They selected 33 cattle being analyzed four samples from each animal (preferably: admirable network, thalamus, midbrain and cerebellum), received by the Animal Pathology Laboratory (APL) between 2007 and 2014 regardless of race, gender or age, which showed the suspect Initial clinical Nerve Disease, including confirmed cases of rabies. The samples were divided into two groups. Group 1 had 17 animals with histological lesions and group 2, 16 animals showed no histological lesions. The use of paraffin included samples allows retrospective studies on samples stored in the LPA of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) and prospective studies in fixed samples submitted by veterinarians of the Defence Agency of Para State of Agriculture (ADEPARÁ) or by independent veterinarians for histopathological diagnosis. The difficulties encountered in the transportation of samples chilled to the laboratory by the distances and lack of power in many state of Para regions lead to a need to establish diagnostic tools to assist in the Health Protection System State Animal, within the monitoring program Rabies and other encephalopathies. The possibility of diagnosis in negative cases to anger with encephalitis brings benefits to farmers of the region, it provides bases for the implementation of health measures by veterinarians defense or autonomous reducing economic losses. Of the 33 animals that underwent mPCR in five detect the presence of herpesvirus DNA. Two animals (035/07, 083/12) had specific bands and OvHV to BoHV-2 (6.06%), two animals were positive for BoHV (119/07 and 393/12), and one animal was positive only for OvHV-2 (053/07). Only the animal 119/07 (3.03%) showed lesions compatible with the microscopic disease caused by bovine herpesvirus type although four (12.12%) are positive for the presence of DNA of this agent. Of these, three had the DNA to OvHV-2 with no noticeable lesions compatible with the disease (9.09%).

  • In this study, the efficiency of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique combined with the conventional microbiological test established by Normative Instruction No. 62 of August 26, 2003 was verified to confirm the presence of Salmonella sp. in açaí pulps in natura produced and marketed by traditional beaters from the municipalities located in the Metropolitan Region of Belém. Staphylococcus coagulase positive analysis was also performed to verify the hygienic-sanitary quality of the acai pulp acquired in natura. We analyzed 300 samples collected from different açaí points of sale of the different municipalities of the studied region. These samples were analyzed by means of the PCR assay combined with conventional microbiology to replace the serological confirmation step performed in the colonies suspected of Salmonella sp and were also analyzed by the Coagulase positive Staphylococcus count. It was confirmed that 31% (93) of the total samples analyzed showed contamination by this pathogen. The municipality of Castanhal was the one with the highest prevalence of contaminated samples with 92.85% (13/14), Marituba was the municipality with a lower prevalence with 7.14% (1/14) of contaminated samples. The PCR assay satisfactorily replaced the serological confirmation step, because in combination with the standard microbiological technique it was able to detect and confirm the presence of Salmonella sp. In samples of fresh açaí pulps. As for the Staphylococcus coagulase positive count, it was observed that most of the samples presented results within the established standard, however, in a significant number of samples there was presence of this pathogen and 2.3% (7) of the samples presented values above the limit Production of enterotoxins. The results obtained showed that many outlets of fresh açaí pulp do not make adequate use of hygienic-sanitary procedures established by the legislation, which endangers the health of the population because of the supply of contaminated food. Therefore, it is essential toapply hygienic-sanitary quality tools that reduce the risk of the supply of contaminated natural açaí pulps to consumers.

  • Data: 31/08/2015
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  • Fresh açaí pulp; Salmonella; Staphylococcus coagulase positiva; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Public Health; Pará

  • Diagnóstico histopatológico de enfermidades nervosas em herbívoros domésticos e diagnóstico imuno-histoquímico de raiva no estado do Pará

  • Data: 29/08/2015
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  • Avaliação higiênico-sanitária de estabelecimentos comerciais e análise microbiológica de carne bovina in natura (coxão mole) comercializada em mercados públicos dos municípios que compõe a microrregião de Cametá, estado do Pará

  • Data: 25/08/2015
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  • A comercialização da carne bovina in natura na região norte do Brasil é comumente realizada em mercados públicos. Estes locais, em geral, apresentam deficiências quanto às condições de higiene e sanidade, visto que a exposição à venda e o armazenamento da matéria prima geralmente são realizados em condições inadequadas. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as condições Higienico-Sanitaria de 64 (sessenta e quatro) boxes de comercialização de carne in natura, localizados nos mercados públicos de seis dos municípios que compõe a Microrregião de Cametá, no estado do Pará. Para tal, uma lista de verificação de conformidades (check list) foi aplicada nos diferentes estabelecimentos e amostras de carne in natura comercializadas nos mercados estudados, foram coletadas para a realização da determinação do Número mais Provável de Coliformes 35ºC e 45ºC e contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positivo, de acordo com a Instrução Normativa nº 62, de 26 de agosto de 2003, do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, bem como da pesquisa de Salmonella spp., através da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase. Os resultados obtidos através da aplicação do check list evidenciaram que todos os mercados públicos apresentaram condições higiênico - sanitárias insatisfatórias, sendo classificados como deficientes. As amostras de carne apresentaram Número Mais Provável de coliformes a 35°C e 45°C que variaram de 64 NMP/g à >1100NMP/g, sendo que 81,25% e 62,5% das amostras, respectivamente, apresentaram contagens de Coliformes a 35°C e 45°C superiores a 1100 NMP/g. As contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva variaram entre e 1,8x10² UFC/g e 2,3 x 105 UFC/g. Para aos resultados obtidos através da Reação em cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), observou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em  31,25% das amostras analisadas. Concluiu-se que os estabelecimentos avaliados não atenderam as exigências mínimas de higiene e sanidade e a carne comercializada nos seis municípios pesquisados possui elevada contagem de micro-organismos de importância para a Saúde Pública, podendo ocasionar riscos a saúde dos consumidores.

  • Avaliação da expressão do marcador P53 em neoplasia de mama de cadela

  • Data: 30/06/2015
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  • Gammaherpesvírus, herpesvírus ovino 2, PCR, patologia, vasculite.

  • Data: 26/06/2015
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  • Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an acute and systemic viral infectious disease of domestics and wild ruminants. The disease has high fatality rate and on Brazil has been associated to ovine herpesvirus-2. The disease is reported in several regions of Brazil, but there is no data the same in the north of the country and in the state of Maranhão. The aim this paper was reported the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and molecular findings of MCF outbreaks in cattle from four farms in the state of Pará and two in the state of Maranhão. In five farms was observed a mixed farming of cattle and sheep. The morbidity rate ranged from 0.07% to 37.14% in all outbreaks. While the fatality rate was 100% in almost outbreaks, but just one outbreak the fatality rate was 99.5% due to recovery of an animal. The main clinical signs included hyperthermia, corneal opacity, keratoconjunctivitis, ocular discharge and nose, drooling, anorexia, diarrhea, erosions and ulcerations in the oral mucosa and neurological disorders. The main changes observed in necropsies were erosive and ulcerative lesions in the mucosal of the oral cavity, tongue, esophagus, nasal cavity and trachea. Additionally it was observed catarrhal exudate in the nose, hyperemia and edema in the nasal turbinates, and petechiae and bruising in the central surface of the tongue and esophagus, respectively. Other relevant findings in the outbreaks were enlargement of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, whitish foci in the renal córtex, ulcerative and hemorrhagic lesions in the bladder and hyperemia of leptomeninges of the brain. Microscopically, the main finding was vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis in small and medium-sized arteries of multiple organs. Other common findings were necrosis and inflammation epithelium lining in several tissues, lymphoid hyperplasia, as well as nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis, cystitis and pneumonia. The ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in tissues fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin of cattle from a outbreak in the state of Pará and two outbreaks in the state of Maranhão. The present data confirm the occurrence of MCF in cattle herds on states of Pará and Maranhão and demonstrate that the disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological or digestive diseases in cattle in both states.


  • Data: 21/05/2015
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  • Polimorfismo de códon 200 do gene β-Tubulina isotipo 1 em diferentes populações de Haemonchus contortus de rebanhos ovinos criados na Amazônia Oriental

  • Data: 22/04/2015
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  • Haemonchus contortus é o principal nematóide gastrointestinal de pequenos ruminantes em todo mundo e sendo responsável por importantes perdas econômicas e produtivas. O controle desse parasito é baseado na utilização de antihelmínticos como os benzimidazóis, no entanto, essa estratégia de controle seleciona parasitos resistentes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência dos genótipos associados à resistência à benzimidazóis em diferentes populações de Haemonchus contortus oriundos de infecções naturais em ovinos na Amazônia oriental, utilizando a PCR Multiplex. Exemplares de H. contortus foram coletados diretamente do abomaso de ovinos pertencentes a 12 propriedades rurais localizadas em nove municípios do estado do Pará. A identificação da espécie foi realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico para posterior extração de DNA e análise molecular. Também foi aplicado um questionário sobre as práticas de manejo para os produtores de cada propriedade rural. A PCR Multiplex foi realizada empregando-se dois oligonucleotídeos iniciadores alelo inespecífico (PH1 e Pn2) e dois oligonucleotídeos iniciadores alelo específico (PH3 e PH4) em uma única reação. Os produtos amplificados de 250 pares de base (pb) e 600 pb, foram identificados como referentes aos alelos resistentes (r) e sensíveis (S), respectivamente. Também foi gerado um produto de 800 pb referente à espécie H.
    contortus. Os resultados demonstraram a presença de todos os genótipos (rr, Sr e SS), em um total de 305 parasitos, onde foram encontrados 30,82% de homozigotos resistentes, 37,05% de heterozigotos e 32,13% de homozigotos sensíveis. Os resultados demonstraram a existência de populações de H. contortus resistentes aos benzimidazóis na Amazônia oriental. Verificou-se também que as propriedades rurais avaliadas empregam uma série de práticas de manejo que favorecem o desenvolvimento da resistência a anti-helmínticos.


  • Data: 17/04/2015
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  • O objetivo do presente estudo foi detectar a infecção natural por Trypanosoma cruzi e por Plasmodium spp. em primatas neotropicais oriundos da Amazônia brasileira. Durante o período de fevereiro de 2013 a julho de 2014, foram coletadas 112 amostras de sangue total de primatas neotropicais dos estados do Amapá (n=25), Amazonas (n=63) e Pará (n=24). Os animais pertenciam às famílias Cebidae (n=59), Callitrichidae (n=5), Aotidae (n=3), Atelidae (n=41) e Pitheciidae (n=4). A extração de DNA genômico das amostras foi realizada com um kit comercial. Para a pesquisa da infecção por T. cruzi esfregaços sanguíneos também foram confeccionados. Para a detecção de DNA de T. cruzi foi realizada a Nested-PCR, enquanto que DNA de Plasmodium spp. foi detectado por uma Multiplex PCR. DNA de T. cruzi e DNA de Plasmodium spp. foram detectados em 12,50% (14/112) e 10,71% (12/112) das amostras analisadas, respectivamente. Pelo esfregaço sanguíneo, não foram observadas formas tripomastigotas de T. cruzi. Pode-se concluir que primatas neotropicais albergam T. cruzi e Plasmodium spp. e podem atuar como hospedeiros nas áreas estudadas. A infecção por T. cruzi em Cebus olivaceus, Lagothrix cana, Ateles paniscus e Pithecia chrysocephala e a infecção por Plasmodium spp. em Saguinus bicolor são registradas pela primeira vez.


  • Data: 10/04/2015
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  • A doença de Chagas é uma enfermidade endêmica nas Américas e tem como agente etiológico o protozoário flagelado Trypanosoma cruzi, que infecta uma diversidade de mamíferos e tem como vetores os insetos triatomíneos. Cães e gatos são importantes reservatórios domésticos de T. cruzi e pelo contato direto com o homem e suas habitações são considerados sentinelas para a doença de Chagas humana. O presente estudo teve como objetivos detectar a infecção natural por T.
    cruzi em triatomíneos e reservatórios domésticos e analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos que possam contribuir para a ocorrência da infecção desse agente em São Domingos do Capim, estado do Pará. Foram coletadas amostras biológicas de 123 cães, 28 gatos e 85 triatomíneos. Para a pesquisa da infecção por T. cruzi foram realizados esfregaços sanguíneos de cães e gatos, xenodiagnóstico em triatomíneos vivos e Nested-PCR com iniciadores específicos em todas as amostras coletadas. A extração de DNA genômico das amostras foi realizada com kits comerciais. Pelo esfregaço sanguíneo, não foram observadas formas tripomastigotas de T. cruzi, no entanto o DNA desse agente foi detectado em 22,8% dos cães e 7,1% dos gatos. As espécies R. robustus (50,6%), R. pictipes (17,6%), P.
    geniculatus (27,1%) e E. mucronatus (4,7%) foram capturadas e o DNA de T. cruzi foi detectado em 63,5% desses triatomíneos. Pode-se observar que dos 18 triatomíneos positivos no xenodiagnóstico, 88,9% foram positivos na Nested-PCR, entretanto houve fraca concordância entre essas técnicas de diagnóstico (k= 0,3636). Quanto à análise de risco foram observados três aglomerados para os animais domésticos, com maiores intensidades localizadas na região nordeste e sul do município e dois aglomerados para os barbeiros, com maior intensidade na região nordeste. As características do ecótopo associadas à infecção por T. cruzi em cães, gatos e vetores, o histórico de picada por barbeiros nos moradores e moradias com luz artificial localizadas próximas de áreas de floresta servem como alerta aos órgãos de saúde para a ocorrência de surtos da doença de Chagas em humanos na região.

  • Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi in mice experimentally vaccinated against Leishmania infantum chagasi.

  • Data: 27/03/2015
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  • Immunization by vaccination is the most effective alternative proven health control, a possible alternative for improving the effectiveness of these vaccines by modulating the immune system of probiotic supplementation, which are live microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host. Several studies have demonstrated effective results on the immunomodulatory effect of probiotics. Among parasitic diseases, canine visceral leishmaniasis is a serious disease difficult to control and prevention, since vaccines for dogs, existing in Brazil, do not demonstrate the expected effectiveness in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Bacillus cereus var Toyoi immunomodulatory effect in mice experimentally vaccinated against Leishamania infantum chagasi during the period of administration of probiotics. For this purpose we used two groups of animals, and another one supplemented control. The supplemented group received diet with probiotics in the concentration of 106 CFU g-1 feed and the control group the same diet, except for the addition of the probiotic. All animals were vaccinated with the particulate antigen of Leishmania infantum chagasi and blood collected weekly for investigating the kinetics of antibody production. To evaluate the effect of probiotics on the cellular immunity of the animals was used for amplification of gene fragments cytokines (IL-12, IFN-, IL-10 and IL-4) cDNA obtained from RNA of splenocytes, the quantitative method polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The data of serology and differences in gene expression were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared by Tukey test (p <0.05). During the supplementation period all animals seroconverted against the antigen used, however the supplemented group had a mean seroconversion of 1.42 times compared to the group that did not receive probiotic. As fit the evaluation of cytokines, the treated group showed higher expression of IL-12 and IL-4 and lower expression of IFN- e IL-10 when compared to the control group. Based on the results and the literature suggest that probiotics Bacillus cereus var Toyoi can present evidence in the modulation of the immune system and vaccine responses, so to assist in modulating the proper and efficient vaccine response for the control of canine leishmaniasis.

  • Estudos morfológicos e moleculares de Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes da família Boidae na Amazônia Oriental

  • Data: 04/03/2015
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  • Os parasitos do gênero Hepatozoon são hematozoários de anfíbios, répteis, aves, e mamíferos. Contudo, a criação de serpentes em cativeiro pode gerar uma situação que contribua para a transmissão destes parasitos, favorecendo desse modo o aparecimento de sinais clínicos. O manuscrito 1 teve como objetivos estudar a prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes da espécie Boa constrictor constrictor, e descrever a morfologia e morfometria das formas parasitárias observadas em serpentes mantidas em cativeiro em um criatório na Amazônia oriental. Para isso foram examinadas 11 B. c. constrictor, das quais foram colhidas amostras de sangue para confecção de esfregaços sanguíneos. A parasitemia foi determinada contando-se 10.000 células em campos homogêneos aleatórios. Os gametócitos encontrados foram analisados morfologicamente e morfometricamente utilizando-se um software de análise e fotodocumentação. Dentre as 11 serpentes examinadas, em sete (63,6%) detectou-se a presença de gametócitos semelhantes aos de Hepatozoon spp. no esfregaço sanguíneo. A parasitemia observada em 71.4%(5/7) dos animais infectados foi inferior a 1%, e nos outros 28.5%(2/7) infectados variou entre 1 a 2%. A análise morfológica revelou 12 tipos de gametócitos distintos, com morfometrias que apresentaram diferença em poucas variáveis estudadas. Desse modo conclui-se que protozoários do gênero Hepatozoon estão presentes em amostras de sangue de B. c. constrictor no estado do Pará, e se apresentam morfologicamente distintos. O manuscrito 2 objetivou determinar a ocorrência da infecção por Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes da família Boidae, e comparar o diagnóstico realizado através do esfregaço sanguíneo com a reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) empregando-se diferentes oligonucleotídeos iniciadores, em serpentes da família Boidae. Foram examinadas 29 serpentes, destas 25 eram Boa c. constrictor e quatro Eunectes murinus. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue através de punção cardíaca ou paravertebral para confecção de esfregaços sanguíneos e extração de DNA. O diagnóstico da infecção e parasitismo foi dado de acordo com a metodologia proposta no manuscrito 1. As amostras foram submetidas à PCR utilizando-se cinco pares de oligonucleotideos, sendo três universais e dois desenhados para espécies do gênero Hepatozoon. Das 29 serpentes examinadas, em 23 (79,3%) detectou-se a presença de gametócitos intraeritrocitários semelhantes à Hepatozoon spp.. A parasitemia observada em 69,6% (16/23) dos animais infectados foi inferior a 1%, e nos outros 56,5% (13/23) infectados observou-se parasitemia entre 1,3% a 4,6%. Na PCR, os cinco pares de iniciadores testados amplificaram fragmentos de tamanho esperado, a maioria dos iniciadores apresentou boa ou excelente concordância com o teste parasitológico. Protozoários do gênero Hepatozoon infectam Boa c. constrictor e E. murinus, e ocorrem em alta frequência nos animais estudados, na Amazônia oriental. A técnica de PCR apresentou concordância boa ou excelente entre a maioria dos iniciadores avaliados e o teste parasitológico.

  • Avaliação da expressão de cicloxigenase-2 e infiltração de macrófagos em carcinoma de células escamosas e tumor de células basais em cães

  • Data: 27/02/2015
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  • As cicloxigenases são enzimas que participam na conversão do ácido aracdônico em prostaglandinas e estão divididas em dois tipos: COX-1, que participa de processos fisiológicos normais do organismo e a COX-2, induzida por estímulos inflamatórios, mitogênicos e promotores de tumor. Os macrófagos são responsáveis por proteger o organismo contra infecções e lesões, no entanto, o microambiente tumoral pode manipular a resposta imune em prol do tumor, fazendo com que os macrófagos produzam citocinas que favoreçam o desenvolvimento deste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão de cicloxigenase-2 e infiltração de macrófagos em carcinoma de células escamosas e tumor de células basais e relaciona-los com o comportamento biológico destes tumores. Os carcinomas de células escamosas apresentaram maior expressão de COX-2 e maior infiltrado inflamatório, de onde podemos sugerir que seu microambiente tumoral pode favorecer o comportamento mais agressivo deste tumor.

  • Raiva em animais de produção no estado do Pará, Brasil: um estudo descritivo, 2004 a 2013

  • Data: 23/02/2015
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  • Brucella abortus em queijos: diferenciação da cepa em vacinal (B19) ou infecção a campo

  • Data: 05/05/2014
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  • A brucelose é uma enfermidade infecto-contagiosa causadora de grandes perdas econômicas à cadeia produtiva da carne e do leite. Também considerada uma antropozoonose cosmopolita, tem como agente etiológico, bactérias do gênero Brucella, de grande importância para a saúde coletiva. Os objetivos deste estudo foram detectar DNA de Brucella spp. e diferenciar cepa vacinal B19 da cepa de campo em amostras de queijos artesanais, informais e fiscalizados provenientes da região norte do país. Foram adquiridas 66 amostras de diferentes queijos produzidas e comercializadas em três estados pertencentes a Amazônia Brasileira: Amapá (05), Pará (55) e Rondônia (06), somando 39 amostras de queijo de vaca e 27 de queijo de búfala. Deste total quatro eram produzidas em estabelecimentos sob fiscalização de Serviço de Inspeção Federal, nove eram produzidos em estabelecimentos com Serviço de Inspeção Estadual, cinco amostras possuíam rótulo de produto artesanal e as demais (48) eram provenientes de produção informal. A metodologia utilizada foi a reação em cadeia pela polimerase empregando os oligoiniciadores B4 e B5 para detecção de Brucella spp. e oligoiniciadores eri1 e eri2 para diferenciar cepa de infecção a campo da cepa vacinal B19. Foram encontrados 21,21% (14/66) de amostras positivas para Brucella spp. das quais 21,43% (3/14) das amostras foram positivas para B. abortus de campo e 7,14% (1/14) foram identificadas como cepa vacinal B19. Concluiu-se que a técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase pode ser utilizada como ferramenta para identificação de Brucella spp. em queijos, além de diferenciar em amostra de infecção a campo ou cepa vacinal B19. Entretanto sugerimos que mais estudos sejam realizados para conhecermos a real situação epidemiológica destes agentes patogênicos em queijos.

  • Levantamento soro-epidemiológico da infecção pelo agente etiológico Streptococcus equi subespécie equi, em propriedades de Cachoeira do Arari, Ilha do Marajó, PA.
  • Data: 25/04/2014
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  • The filarídeo Dirofilaria immitis é the nematode , better known as the dog heartworm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria immitis in the four villages that make up the complex of Algodoal Island / Maiandeua, Pará. The place presents the tourism as the main economic activity. The study took place from July to September 2013, and blood samples obtained by puncture of the cephalic vein, in 69 pet dogs of the four villages were analyzed. There was no predilection for race or sex, and all animals were aged from six months, with 41 dogs from Algodoal, Fortalezinha 12 dogs, 10 dogs from Mocooca and 6 dogs from Camboinha. Techniques of search de microfilaremia (Knott, thick film and fresh blood), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for diagnosis. Positive animals were detected in all villas, and the occurrence found in the four villages was 39.13% (27/69). Algodoal The village had an occurrence of 51.21% (21/41), in the village of Fortalezinha was of 25% (03/12), in the Mocooca was 20% (02/10), and in the village of Camboinha an occurrence of 16.70% (1/6) was found, there was statistically significant difference (p =0,02) and the animals that lived in the village had Algodoal 3.85 more chance of being infected by D. immitis (odds ratio = 3.85). There was no statistical difference between males and females (p = 0.06). In studying the ages of the dogs, there was a statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.01) and the highest yearlings were four times more likely to have infected up (odds ratio = 4.09) Therefore it is concluded that Dirofilaria immitis is  present in dogs of all villages of the island of Algodoal. This was the first study conducted on the entire length of the island, and that the techniques of PCR and microfilaremia used were effective for the diagnosis of infection in dogs and the PCR technique, an important tool for the diagnosis of infection by Dirofilaria immitis.

  • Data: 11/04/2014
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  • Algodoal, Dogs, Dirofilaria immitis, microfilaremia, PCR

  • Data: 31/03/2014
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  • Data: 21/03/2014
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  • Os objetivos do trabalho foram detectar a infecção natural por Theileria equi através da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) em equinos oriundos da Microrregião do Arari, Pará, Brasil, identificar as espécies de carrapatos que infestam esses animais e pesquisar o DNA de T. equi em carrapatos coletados de equinos infectados. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue total de 442 equinos em cinco municípios da Microrregião do Arari, estado do Pará, Brasil. Os animais também foram inspecionados visualmente para a presença de carrapatos, sendo os exemplares desses ectoparasitos coletados manualmente e armazenados em frascos identificados. As amostras biológicas foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia Animal da Universidade Federal do Pará para posterior processamento e análise. Os carrapatos foram classificados e as fêmeas acondicionadas em câmara de germinação para oviposição. Os ovos foram coletados e armazenados a 20ºC negativos, enquanto que os carrapatos foram armazenados em álcool absoluto. As extrações de DNA de sangue total, dos carrapatos coletados de animais positivos na PCR e seus respectivos ovos foram realizadas utilizando kits comerciais. Para pesquisa de DNA de T. equi foi realizada a PCR utilizando os iniciadores BEC UF e Equi-R. Das 442 amostras analisadas, DNA de T. equi foi detectado em 8,14%. Um total de 429 exemplares de carrapatos foram coletados, sendo identificados adultos de Dermacentor nitens (96 machos e 248 fêmeas), adultos de Amblyoma cajennense (6 machos e 3 fêmeas), ninfas (32 exemplares) e larvas (44 exemplares) de ixodídeos. Apenas três equinos infectados por T. equi estavam infestados por carrapatos, sendo encontrados 30 fêmeas e seis machos de D. nitens, e duas ninfas e 28 larvas de ixodídeos. Através da PCR destes exemplares e dos ovos obtidos das teleóginas não foi detectado DNA do agente pesquisado. Pôde-se concluir que na Microrregião do Arari T. equi infecta naturalmente equinos, D. nitens e A. cajennense infestam esses animais e o DNA de T. equi não foi detectado através da PCR em D. nitens e em ninfas e larvas de ixodídeos coletados de animais infectados.

  • Detection of nature infection by Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis in wild felines (Carnivora: Felidae) kept in
    captivity in the brazilian amazon region

  • Data: 21/03/2014
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  • The aim of the present paper was to realize the detection of natural infection by Cytauxzoon felis and Hepatozoon spp. in wild felids kept in captivity in the Brazilian amazon region. During the period from February 2012 to May 2013, whole blood samples and blood smears were obtained from 45 wild felines from maintainers and Zoobotanical Parks in the states of Pará, Amapá and Amazonas under the permission of the System of Authorization and Information in Biodiversity. Blood samples were refrigerated and sent to the Laboratory of Animal Parasitology, Federal University of Pará, where it were kept at -20ºC for DNA detection of C. felis and Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Blood smears were processed and examined for the presence of parasitic forms of the agents. DNA extraction from whole blood was performed using a commercial kit. For the detection of C. felis DNA was performed a PCR with primers Birk1 and Birk2, while for the detection of Hepatozoon spp. DNA with primers PiroA1 and Piro B. By PCR, DNA of C. felis was detected in 11.1 % (5 /45) of samples, two ocelots and one jaguar of the Pará state, one jaguar of the Amapá state and one jaguar of the Amazon state. Through the analysis of blood smears, intraerythrocytic forms of ovoid and shape of ruby ring similar to C. felis was observed in 15.5 % (7/45) of samples. The blood smear of one ocelot of the Pará state similar forms to schizonts in the cytoplasm of monocyte were also observed. Of the seven positive blood smears in animals, five were also positive by PCR, confirming the parasitism by this species of theilerídeo these animals. DNA Hepatozoon spp. was detected by PCR in 22.2 % (10 /45) of samples, one ocelot, two pumas and margay cat state of Pará and ocelot and two pumas of Amazonas state and two ocelots and one puma of state Amapá. Gametocytes of Hepatozoon sp. were observed in 4.44 % (2 /45) of blood smears, with an ocelot in the state of Pará and Amapá State other. It was concluded that C. felis and Hepatozoon sp. naturally infect wild felids in Brazil Amazon region, L. wiedii and P. onca are new hosts of Hepatozoon species in the Americas and the PCR and blood smear should be used for studies on the occurrence of these agents.


  • Data: 10/03/2014
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  • Acmella oleracea, popularmente conhecida como jambu, é uma espécie vegetal
    típica da região norte do Brasil, onde faz parte de pratos da culinária local. Na
    medicina popular é utilizada no tratamento de afecções da boca e garganta, como
    analgésico Na indústria, extratos deste gênero têm sido utilizados em produtos de
    higiene oral e em composições alimentícias como agente refrescante e
    aromatizante. Recentemente vem sendo utilizada em composições cosméticas como
    agente antissinais. Este vegetal é bastante estudado pelas ciências médicas em
    geral, no entanto, na medicina veterinária poucos são os estudos relacionados à sua
    utilização. A crescente utilização de produtos naturais na clinica de animais
    domésticos, buscando minimizar os efeitos colaterais dos fármacos industriais
    nestes animais demonstra a necessidade de pesquisas nesta área. Neste trabalho,
    foram feitos ensaios farmacognósticos, para padronizar o extrato produzido, via
    padrões de qualidade. Realizou-se a cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD) do
    extrato e de suas frações para indicar as classes de metabólitos secundários
    presentes, bem como, sugerir a presença de um composto majoritário entre as
    frações de baixa e média polaridade, reativo ao reagente de Dragendorff,
    possivelmente o espilantol. Além disso, foi feito um teste in vitro para avaliação da
    atividade antimicrobiana do extrato bruto desta espécie vegetal e de suas frações
    que produziu a inibição da Salmonella typhi, constituindo o capítulo um desta
    dissertação. Foram também realizados testes in vivo para avaliar a toxicidade oral
    aguda, a eficácia anestésica local e testar capacidade cicatrizante deste extrato
    floral. Tendo como objetivo avaliar a eficácia anestésica local e potencial cicatrizante
    do extrato floral de A.oleracea e suas frações em ratos wistar, de modo a sugerir sua
    utilização de maneira segura em animais domésticos.

  • Data: 28/02/2014
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  • Trypanosoma evansi na lha do Marajó: estudo epidemiológico, patológico, molecular e imuno-histoquímico da infecção em equinos, na microrregião do Arari

  • Data: 27/02/2014
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  • São relatados dois surtos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma evansi em equinos no município de Chaves, Ilha de Marajó, Pará. O primeiro surto ocorreu em abril de 2011, afetando uma propriedade, onde de um total de 147 equinos, 47 (31,97%) adoeceram e 40 (27,21%) morreram. O segundo surto ocorreu em maio de 2012, afetando nove propriedades. De um total de 679 equinos, 209 (30,07%) adoeceram e 183 (26,97%) morreram. Os principais sinais clínicos observados foram emagrecimento, edema abdominal, arrastamento das pinças e atrofia da musculatura pélvica. Todos os proprietários relataram casos suspeitos de tripanossomíase em equinos e que, na estação seca muitas capivaras são vistas arrastando os membros posteriores ou são encontradas mortas. Foram necropsiados dois equinos, um em cada surto. No equino do segundo surto observou-se caquexia, palidez e icterícia, além de aumento de volume do baço com polpa branca proeminente ao corte. Na histopatologia do sistema nervoso central dos dois animais, havia encefalite linfoplasmocitária difusa, com células de Mott, variando de leve a acentuada. Na imuno-histoquímica para T. evansi foram demonstradas estruturas semelhantes a formas tripomastigotas. Entre novembro e dezembro de 2013 foi realizado ainda um inquérito epidemiológico nos municípios de Cachoeira do Arari, Santa Cruz do Arari, Salvaterra, Soure e Chaves. Somente nos municípios de Santa Cruz do Arari e Chaves havia histórico da doença. Durante o inquérito foi coletado sangue de 243 equinos para teste de Woo e reação do polimerase em cadeia (PCR). Dos 243 equinos que participaram do inquérito, apenas um foi positivo no teste de Woo e 20 foram positivos na reação do polimerase em cadeia (PCR) para T. evansi. Desses 20 equinos, 14 amostras procedentes de Chaves e seis de Santa Cruz do Arari. Não foram encontrados equinos infectados nas propriedades de Soure, Salvaterra e Cachoeira do Arari, embora tenha sido relatada a presença de carrapatos e mutucas, além de espoliação por morcegos hematófagos. Os dados indicam que a tripanossomíase por T. evansi tem impacto importante na ilha de Marajó, particularmente em Chaves e Santa Cruz do Arari.

  • Data: 20/02/2014
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  • O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar o diagnóstico molecular de Hepatozoon sp., Leishmania infantum chagasi e Trypanosoma evansi e analisar a infestação por carrapatos em procionídeos dos estados do Amapá e Pará. Durante o período de fevereiro de 2012 a agosto de 2013, amostras de sangue total, esfregaços sanguíneos e fragmentos de pele foram obtidos de 54 procionídeos de vida livre e mantidos em cativeiro em mantenedores e Parques Zoobotânicos dos estados do Amapá e Pará. Os esfregaços sanguíneos foram processados e examinados para pesquisa de Hepatozoon spp., L. i. chagasi e T. evansi. Os carrapatos coletados foram mantidos em álcool etílico 70% para posterior classificação específica. O DNA das amostras de sangue total foi extraído e submetido a PCR utilizando-se os iniciadores Piro A1 e Piro B para pesquisa de DNA de Hepatozoon spp. e RoTat 1.2 F e RoTat 1.2ver para pesquisa de T. evansi, enquanto que os iniciadores RV1 e RV2 foram utilizados para pesquisa de L. i. chagasi nas amostras de pele. Através da PCR, DNA de Hepatozoon spp. foi detectado em 3,77% (2/53) dos procionídeos, enquanto que DNA de T. evansi foi diagnosticado em 18,52% (10/54), não sendo detectada infecção por L. i. chagasi nos animais estudados. Nas análises dos esfregaços sanguíneos, não foram detectadas formas parasitárias dos agentes pesquisados. Quanto a infestação por carrapatos, formas imaturas de ixodídeos foram obtidas em quatis de vida livre de ambos os estados (13,2%), sendo 6 ninfas de Amblyomma spp. e 49 larvas de ixodídeos. Pôde-se concluir que o quati e o jupará são reservatórios para Hepatozoon spp. na Amazônia Oriental, que quatis e mãos-peladas são reservatórios para T. evansi no estado do Pará e os quatis de vida livre são infestados por carrapatos ixodídeos nos estados do Amapá e Pará.

  • Data: 30/08/2013
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  • A toxoplasmose é uma doença bastante difundida mundialmente e existem registros de que a doença acomete mais de 70% da população mundial. A doença e causada por um protozoário intracelular obrigatório, Toxoplasma gondii, que foi descoberto em 1908 e, desde então, vários relatos da doença vem sendo atribuídos a esse agente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii, e detectar DNA em oocistos nas fezes de gatos domiciliados no município de Belém. Associados à colheita foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico, para relacionar os resultados dos testes diagnósticos com as respostas dos proprietários. Foram colhidas 447 amostras de soro e 105 amostras de fezes de gatos oriundos dos oito distritos administrativos do município. Os soros foram testados pela Reação de Imunofluorêscencia Indireta (RIFI) utilizando como ponto de corte a diluição 1:16 (IgG) e as fezes pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). A frequência para anticorpos de T. gondii foi de 21,92% na RIFI e após o processo de extração do DNA, PCR e eletroforese foram encontrados 0,95% positividade nas fezes. Em relação a variável sexo observou-se 20,57% para machos e 22,79% fêmeas sororeagentes. Foi observado que não houve associação entre os hábitos comportamentais e nutricionais dos animais investigados em relação ao resultado da sorologia (P>0,05). Foi encontrada associação estatística significativa referente à faixa etária entre os animais com idade acima de um ano de idade e a sorologia (P˂0,01), onde no grupo até um ano observou-se 12,82% de animais reagentes e no grupo acima de um ano 26,80% de reagentes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos a partir de questionário aplicado aos proprietários, pode-se observar que 74,04% desconheciam a doença e 93,51% não conheciam as formas de transmissão. Pode-se avaliar que o grupo estudado de gatos do município de Belém apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e foi observada a carência de informações a respeito da doença e suas formas de contaminação, sendo que os proprietários desses animais não conhecem a toxoplasmose e desconhecem seus meios profiláticos efetivos

  • Avaliação hematológica e bioquímica sérica de cães naturalmente infectados com microfilárias de Dirofilaria immiti
  • Data: 23/07/2013
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  • dirofilariose, zoonose emergente e muitas vezes negligenciada, é causada pelo helminto Dirofilaria immitis que, além de cães e gatos domésticos e selvagens, acomete também focas, furões e leões marinhos. É transmitida aos cães durante o repasto sanguíneo de mosquitos do gênero Culex, Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia e Psorophora. A infecção e a doença foram diagnosticadas em todos os continentes, sendo reconhecidas, sobretudo nos trópicos e subtrópicos e em zonas temperadas. Alterações causadas por D. immitis em caninos incluem alterações cardíacas, renais, hematológicas e bioquímicas, todas elas não patognomônicas para o diagnóstico da doença, porém indicativas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar as principais alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas sérica de cães naturalmente infectados com microfilárias de D. immitis. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 82 caninos residentes na Ilha de Algodoal (Pará), dos quais 53 apresentaram microfilaremia e 29 não apresentaram microfilaremia, diagnosticados a partir da técnica de Knott. Os principais achados na hematologia foram anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, linfocitose e basofilia. Na bioquímica sérica apenas os valores de ureia estavam acima dos níveis de normalidade. Não foi possível identificar achados nos exames patognômicos da infecção nos cães. Entretanto, avaliações laboratoriais devem ser levadas em consideração para o diagnóstico e tratamento.
  • Determinação da qualidade microbiológica da polpa in natura de açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) e da água utilizada na sua produção e avaliação microbiológica das mãos dos manipuladores que comercializam este produto no município de Ananindeua, Pará
  • Data: 07/06/2013
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  • Histopathological and molecular diagnosis of lesions suggestive of tuberculosis in buffaloes slaughtered in the municipalities of Macapá and Santana, Amapá state, Brazil

  • Data: 22/03/2013
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  • Samples of 20 buffaloes slaughtered in abbatoirs with lesions suggestive of tuberculosis in the cities of Macapá and Santana, Amapá state, were collected. The samples were divided into two portions, one being fixed in 10% of buffered formalin and routinely processed for histopathological evaluation stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen and other refrigerated and used for conventional PCR for identification of representatives of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and M. avium (MAC) and Nested-PCR specific for M. bovis. Gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were observed in the lungs, bronchial, mediastinic, retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph nodes, liver and pleura. Histopathologically, all samples showed lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, characterized by granulomas composed of large amount of infiltration of epithelioid cells, Langhans cells and lymphocytes, bordering a necrotic core, calcified or not, surrounded by fibrous connective tissue capsule. In Ziehl-Neelsen staining acid-fast bacilli were observed in three of the 20 buffaloes, 13 were positive for MTC and/or M. bovis in Nested-PCR. Those 6 reacted positively to MTC and M. bovis, one was positive only for MTC and 6 amplified products only for M. bovis by Nested-PCR reaction.


  • Data: 21/03/2013
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  • O leite de búfala quando comparado ao leite de vaca, oferece vantagens nutricionais como maiores teores em sólidos totais, gordura, proteína, cálcio e fósforo e, por seu valor nutricional, este produto torna-se de grande importância tanto para o consumo in natura, quanto para elaboração de seus derivados, principalmente o queijo. Por esta razão, a avaliação da qualidade organoléptica, microbiológica e físico-química e a utilização de métodos eficazes para detecção de fraudes tornam-se necessários, para evitar que os consumidores sejam lesados em relação aos valores agregados ao produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficiência da técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase, para detecção de fraude por adição de leite bovino em queijo de búfala comercializado nos municípios de Belém e Castanhal e na Ilha do Marajó - estado do Pará e determinar o limite de detecção da técnica através da produção de queijos experimentalmente fraudados e avaliar a qualidade microbiológica dos diferentes queijos de búfala comercializados na região alvo do estudo. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os primers utilizados neste trabalho foram capazes de detectar o incremento de 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 90% de leite de vaca em queijos de búfala experimentalmente fraudados. Das 22 amostras de queijo de búfala coletadas, três estavam fraudadas por adição de leite de vaca, todas provenientes da ilha do Marajó. Já na avaliação microbiológica, nove amostras estavam em desacordo com a legislação vigente em relação aos coliformes 45°C e uma amostra apresentou presença de Salmonella spp. Concluiu-se que a PCR é uma técnica capaz de detectar fraude em queijo de búfala por acréscimo de 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 90% de leite de vaca, e que os queijos produzidos de forma artesanal na Ilha do Marajó podem estar fraudados com diferentes quantidades de leite bovino. Além disso, os queijos de búfala aqui analisados apresentaram crescimento de bactérias do grupo coliformes e a presença de Salmonella spp. em uma amostra, o que demonstra a deficiência higiênico-sanitária da produção destes alimentos.

  • Determination and characterization of populations of dogs and cats residing in the municipality of Inhangapi

  • Data: 15/03/2013
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  • The estimated number of resident animals as well as the characterization of the relationship between owners and these animals are important factors to be considered before establishing a schedule of surveillance. In addition, there is a need to conduct studies in the Amazon region about these relationships, since the reality in this region differs from contrasting fashion with the reality of other regions where similar studies have been developed. The present study was designed with the purpose of evaluating the importance of holding the animal census before the possible underestimation of the number of animals (dogs and cats ) available for conducting the rabies vaccination campaign based on the proportion stipulated by the WHO as well as gain profile epidemiological these animals and the relationship between them and their owners in order to obtain important information to support the actions of health surveillance in the city of Inhangapi . From June to September 2011 1299 interviews with semi-structured questionnaire in the four areas that make up the municipality of Inhangapi , Pará state , with areas of Pernambuco and Patauateua belonging to rural areas and areas of Vila Nova and center belonging to were performed urban area . For data analysis we used the model of Bayesian network through the GENIE system version 2.0, where 3003 resident animals were accounted for 76% of dogs (2282) and 24% of cats (721) respect for human / cat was 13.9:1 and human relation / dog was 4,4:1 , the overall mean number of dogs per household was 0.80 and 0.25 for cats and medium dogs and cats per household with animals was 1.75 and 0 , 55 respectively. It can be concluded that the values for the canine and feline population based on human population may result in underestimated values and when the census strategy is incorporated in the assessment of the rabies vaccination campaign, more actual vaccination coverage patterns are observed. Furthermore, knowledge of the epidemiological characterization allows better targeting of appropriate actions for planning and evaluation of the vaccination campaign.

  • O uso de equídeos na vigilância sorológica para arbovírus de importância em saúde pública em seis microrregiões do Estado do Pará, Brasil.

  • Data: 14/03/2013
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  • Diagnóstico molecular da infecção por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães do município de Belém, Pará

  • Data: 08/03/2013
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  • As doenças transmitidas por carrapatos constituem um amplo grupo de enfermidades que levam os proprietários de caninos às clínicas veterinárias. Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são rickettsias intracelulares que parasitam os monócitos e plaquetas respectivamente. Babesia canis vogeli é um parasita intraeritrocitário. Acredita-se que o carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus seja o principal transmissor destes agentes, sendo os mais encontrados em cães, presentes em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O diagnóstico parasitológico ainda é a técnica mais utilizada,devido seu baixo custo e praticidade, porém pouco precisa em animais assintomáticos. Neste trabalho foram coletadas 300 amostras de sangue venoso de cães domiciliados e errantes na região metropolitana de Belém, sem distinção de sexo ou raça. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 168 cães errantes capturados pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ) (Grupo A) e 132 cães domiciliados (Grupo B). Foi realizada extração de DNA das amostras e estas serão submetidas a Reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) para verificação de Babesia spp., onde os positivos sofrerão uma nova PCR específica para B.c.vogeli e no caso das espécies E.canis e A.platys. serão utilizadas as técnicas de PCR para a primeira reação e Nested PCR para a segunda, onde esperamos encontrar uma alta incidência dos agentes, visto que existem muitos casos relatados em clínicas veterinárias e o carrapato é abundante na região.

  • Data: 01/03/2013
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  • Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum e Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis são os agentes causadores da micoplasmose felina, estes agentes são bactérias gram-negativas, pleomórficas, pequenas e que se aderem à superfície dos eritrócitos do animal acometido. Os sinais clínicos da micoplasmose felina são manifestações de anemia aguda ou crônica, ocorrendo perda de peso, anorexia, depressão, membranas mucosas pálidas, fraqueza, dores articulares, hiperestesia e, ocasionalmente esplenomegalia e icterícia, podendo o animal vir a óbito nos casos mais graves. O diagnóstico é baseado na detecção do parasita em esfregaços sanguíneos e também no diagnóstico molecular pela PCR. Objetivando determinar a ocorrência de Mycoplasma spp. em felinos domésticos da região de Belém-Pará, e as alterações hematológicas dos animais naturalmente infectados por estes parasitos, foram coletadas 201 amostras de sangue com EDTA para análise de hemograma e extração de DNA para realização de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR) bem como esfregaços sanguíneos de ponta de orelha para detecção do parasita na superfície do eritrócito. Foram encontrados 5,47% (11/201) de positividade no exame de esfregaço sanguíneo, sendo 1,47% (1/68) de machos e 7,51% (10/133) de fêmeas. O DNA de Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum foi encontrado em 7,96% (16/201) dos animais onde 16,17% (11/68) eram machos e 3,75% (5/133) eram fêmeas, já Mycoplasma haemofelis foi detectado em 1,49% (3/201) das amostras, totalizando 2,94% (2/68) de machos e 0,75% (1/133) de fêmeas. O hemograma mostrou alterações em eritrócitos, volume globular e hemoglobina apenas nos animais em que foi detectado DNA de Mycoplasma haemofelis.
  • Data: 01/03/2013
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  • Libidibia ferrea é uma planta muito utilizada popularmente para fins terapêuticos, inclusive para acelerar processos de cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. Apesar do seu extenso uso popular, o seu potencial cicatrizante ainda não foi comprovado. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial cicatrizante do extrato etanólico dos frutos de L. ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) em ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar divididos em 4 grupos. Em todos os animais foi retirado um fragmento de pele do dorso e cada grupo recebeu um tratamento diferente: solução de NaCl 0,9%, digliconato de clorexidine 1%, extrato etanólico dos frutos de Libidibia ferrea 12,5% e 50%. O processo de cicatrização foi avaliado macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. O tratamento de feridas com extrato etanólico dos frutos de L. ferrea a 12,5% não influenciou de forma significativa o processo de cicatrização, quando comparado ao grupo tratado apenas com solução fisiológica. O tratamento com extrato etanólico dos frutos de L. ferrea a 50% foi inferior ao tratamento com solução fisiológica no processo de cicatrização.
  • Estudo da ocorrência, sinais clínicos e laboratoriais da infecção natural por Trypanosoma cruzi (CHAGAS, 1909) em cães naturalmente infectados no município de São Domigos do Capim - Pará

  • Data: 28/02/2013
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  • A doença de Chagas, também conhecida como tripanossomíase
    americana, é uma zoonose causada pelo protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi o qual pode
    infectar cães tornando-os sentinela da presença do parasito e um importante
    reservatório, sem necessariamente manifestar sintomas. Este trabalho teve como
    objetivo determinar a ocorrência de cães naturalmente infectados por T. cruzi no
    município de São Domingos do Capim, Pará. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de
    113 cães domésticos provenientes de quatro comunidades, e analisadas por exame a
    fresco e hemoconcentração, hemocultura, Teste de Imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI)
    e Ensaio Imunoenzimático (ELISA). Uma amostra para hemocultura foi positiva e a
    mesma foi identificada como T. cruzi, DTU TcI. Além do cão com isolamento de
    parasitos, foram consideradas positivas todas as amostras soro reagentes para ambas
    as técnicas (RIFI+ELISA) somando 31% (35/113), distribuídos em quatro
    comunidades: (12/44) em Uricuriteua (19/40) em Cezaréia, (1/16) em Aliança e (3/13)
    em Catita. Os cães deste município podem ser considerados sentinela da infecção por
    T. cruzi, tendo sido expostos ao ciclo de transmissão, comprovando a ocorrência da
    infecção neste local.

  • Surto zoonótico de Vaccínia vírus na Amazônia Brasileira: um novo isolado

  • Data: 08/02/2013
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  • Surtos provocados por vírus pertencentes ao gênero Orthopoxvírus, principalmente variantes Vaccínia vírus tem sido comumente relatados nos últimos anos em diversas regiões do país. No presente estudo descreve-se um surto de infecções em bovinos e humanos no Estado do Pará. Os bovinos afetados apresentavam lesões vesiculares, crostosas e ulcerativas, principalmente nas fêmeas em lactação e nos bezerros lactentes. A doença apresentou caráter ocupacional e foi transmitida aos humanos através do contato direto com lesões dos bovinos enfermos. Houve queda na produção leiteira, além de promover um quadro de incapacidade temporária aos trabalhadores acometidos. O diagnóstico molecular através da reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) identificou como causador do surto uma nova estirpe de Vaccínia vírus, pertencente ao Grupo 1 do VACV-BR, o qual foi classificado como VACV-PARV. Esses achados comprovam a circulação do vírus na região Amazônica e revelam a necessidade de novos estudos a respeito da doença, uma vez que certamente outros surtos são sub-notificados na região.

  • Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. em cães do município de São Domingos do Capim, estado do Pará

  • Data: 30/10/2012
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  • Avaliação higiênico sanitária de açougues e análise microbilógicas da carne bovina comercializada nos municípios da microrregião Castanhal, Estado do Pará
  • Data: 31/08/2012
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  • Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias dos estabelecimentos comercializadores de carne bovina “in natura” da microrregião Castanhal – Pará, assim como determinar a carga microbiana da carne comercializada nos municípios dessa microrregião. Para tal, avaliação higiênico - sanitária de 68 estabelecimentos foi realizada nos municípios de Bujarú, Castanhal, Inhangapí, Santa Izabel do Pará e Santo Antônio do Tauá, através de preenchimento de “chek list”, confeccionado de acordo com a RDC n° 216, de 15 de setembro de 2004, da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Análises de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, coliformes a 35°C e a 45°C, além de pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram realizadas em 63 amostras obtidas nos estabelecimentos visitados nos diferentes municípios. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que, em média, 88,23% dos estabelecimentos analisados apresentaram condição higiênico - sanitária insatisfatória, 8,82% dos locais foram considerados regulares e somente 2,94% foram considerados satisfatórios. A presença de Salmonella spp. foi detectada em apenas uma amostra coletada no município de Santo Antônio do Tauá e uma amostra coletada em Inhangapi. Das amostras de carne analisadas, 92% e 73% apresentaram coliformes a 35°C e 45°C, superiores a 1100 NMP/g, respectivamente, e as contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva variaram entre < 1,0 x 101 e 8,4 x 102 UFC/g. A legislação brasileira preconiza somente a pesquisa de Salmonella spp. para carnes resfriadas comercializadas no país, sendo consideradas impróprias para o consumo humano aquelas amostras que apresentem presença deste microrganismo, mesmo quando se evidenciam altos índices de microrganismos indicadores e falhas nas condições higiênico – sanitárias dos estabelecimentos comerciais. Conclui-se que os estabelecimentos que comercializam carne bovina “in natura” na microrregião Castanhal apresentaram condição higiênico-sanitária insatisfatória, confirmada pelas altas contagens de microrganismos indicadores encontradas nas amostras estudadas.
  • Ocorrências de Anticorpos Ati-Toxoplasma gondii e Anti-Brucella abortus em estudantes ingressantes em Instituições Federais de Ensino de Belém e Castanhal, Pará
  • Data: 31/08/2012
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  • Data: 30/08/2012
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  • O abate de aves para consumo requer condições sanitárias adequadas e conhecimentos tecnológicos, caracterizando-se como uma atividade estritamente industrial. No estado do Pará, o frango in natura abatido informalmente tem aceitação por uma parcela significativa da população. Porém, informações a respeito da qualidade desta carne se existem não estão disponíveis e inexistem dados a respeito da qualidade microbiológica e sobre a realidade do abate clandestino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a condição higiênico-sanitária de estabelecimentos que realizam abate clandestino de aves na microrregião Castanhal - estado do Pará e determinar o NMP de coliformes a 35°C e 45°C, realizar a pesquisa de Salmonella spp. e a contagem de microrganismo mesófilos aeróbios da carne produzida e na água de escaldagem utilizada nestes estabelecimentos. Para tal, foram visitados 49,2% dos estabelecimentos de abate clandestino de frango registrados junto as Secretarias de Vigilância Sanitária dos cinco municípios que compõe a microrregião Castanhal. Foram coletadas 31 amostras de frango nos estabelecimentos dos municípios que compõe a microrregião Castanhal e 22 amostras de água de escaldagem, somente provenientes de estabelecimentos localizados nos municípios de Castanhal e Santa Izabel do Pará. As análises microbiológicas foram realizadas de acordo com a Instrução Normativa n° 62 de 2003, do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Das amostras de frango analisadas observou-se a contagem NMP acima de 103NMP/g em todas as amostras analisadas para coliformes a 35°C e em 90,3% das amostras para coliformes a 45°C, ausência de Salmonella spp. em todas as amostras e contagens de aeróbios mesófilos variando de <1.0x101 a 2,5x108UFC/g. Os resultados obtidos para água de escaldagem foram para NMP de coliformes a 35°C entre <3,0 e >1100 NMP/mL, de coliformes a 45°C entre <3,0 e 240 NMP/mL, a contagem de aeróbios mesófilos entre <1.0x101 e 3,0x107 UFU/mL e ausência de Salmonella spp. em todas as amostras. Os resultados demonstram que os estabelecimentos visitados não apresentam condição higiênico-sanitária satisfatória e que a carne fornecida e a água de escaldagem utilizada por estes estabelecimentos apresentaram níveis de crescimento de microrganismos indicadores acima dos limites aceitáveis. Concluiu-se que os estabelecimentos de abate clandestino de frango visitados não apresentaram condição sanitária adequada para funcionamento e que as amostras de frango analisadas foram consideradas inadequadas para o consumo.
  • Ocorrência de rotavírus em aves migratórias neotropicais encontradas no litoral do Nordeste do Pará

  • Data: 30/08/2012
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  • Rotavírus é o principal responsável por gastroenterite em lactentes e crianças jovens em todo o mundo e também em diferentes espécies de mamíferos e de aves. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a ocorrência de rotavírus em aves migratórias neotropicais encontradas no litoral nordeste do estado do Pará, Brasil e detectar os grupos circulantes nas amostras fecais desta espécie. Foram coletadas 23 amostras fecais individuais de aves migratórias das espécies Calidris pusilla (20 aves), Numenius phaeopus (1 ave) e Charadrius semipalmatus (2 aves), na praia da Corvina em Salinópolis, município do nordeste do estado do Pará. Suspensões fecais foram preparadas a partir das amostras colhidas para posterior extração do dsRNA, que foi submetido à eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (EGPA) e também à Reação em cadeia medida pela polimerase precedida de transcrição reversa (RT-PCR), na qual foram utilizados primers específicos para amplificação dos genes NSP4 e VP6 de rotavírus dos grupos A e D, respectivamente. Todas as amostras fecais de aves migratórias testadas apresentaram resultado negativo na EGPA, não sendo detectado nenhum perfil eletroforético característico de algum grupo de rotavírus o que se confirmou posteriormente com a execução da RT-PCR, revelando que essas espécies migratórias neotropicais presentes na praia da Corvina, não albergam o referido vírus. Entretanto, estudos posteriores devem ser realizados com um maior número de amostras, grupos-alvo de diferentes idades e coletas em diferentes períodos do ano, afim de se esclarecer com maior precisão o real papel dessas espécies de aves na epidemiologia das rotaviroses no litoral do Brasil

  • Dermatite alérgica em ovinos Texel no município de Castanhal, estado do Pará
  • Data: 28/08/2012
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  • Epidemiologia da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina e detecção de infecção natural por Leishmania infantum chagasi em cães de área de transmissão intensa de Leishmaniose Viceral Humana no Estado do Pará

  • Data: 24/08/2012
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  • O presente estudo objetivou contribuir com estabelecimento do perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose visceral canina em áreas rurais do município paraense de São Domingos do Capim e realizar a detecção de infecção natural por L. infantum chagasi em cães. O estudo foi realizado nas comunidades rurais Monte D’ouro, Santa Luzia do Prata, Urucuriteua, Baixo Palheta, São João do Botafogo, SantíssimaTrindade, Catita, Canari e Nova Betel, localizadas no município de São Domingos do Capim, estado do Pará. Entre o período de janeiro de 2010 a janeiro de 2012, foram coletadas 264 amostras de sangue total e soro, sendo realizadas necropsias de 32 cães sororreagentes. Durante as coletas foi preenchido um questionário epidemiológico com informações sobre os animais e sobre alguns hábitos dos proprietários. Foram utilizadas as técnicas ELISA indireto, RIFI, imprint e PCR com iniciadores específicos para L. i. chagasi. Nas análises sorológicas foram detectados anticorpos contra Leishmania spp. em 44,31% (117/264) de cães assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Os principais sinais clínicos observados nos cães sintomáticos foram emagrecimento, lesões de pele e onicogrifose e o achado anátomo-patológico mais frequente foi o aumento de linfonodos. Em 100% dos cães sororreagentes necropsiados foram visualizadas formas amastigotas de Leshmania spp. nos imprints e através da PCR, DNA de L. i. chagasi foi detectado em 68,8% (22/32) destes animais. Em ambas as técnicas parasitológicas as amostras de linfonodo foram as mais positivas. A circulação do agente da leishmaniose visceral canina e da leishmaniose visceral humana, a grande disponibilidade de hospedeiros vertebrados, a proximidade dos domicílios com área de mata e a falta de informação da população sobre a importância das leishmanioses favorecem a manutenção do ciclo epidemiológico deste agente e serve de alerta para os órgãos de saúde competentes.

  • Estudo da fauna flebotomínica (Diptera: Phychodidae) e pesquisa molecular de Leishmania ssp. em vetores capturados em Comunidades Quilombolas do município de Inhangapi, Estado do Pará.

  • Data: 17/08/2012
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  • Os flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) apresentam importância para o homem e para os animais por atuarem como vetores naturais de agentes etiológicos de doenças, como protozoários do gênero Leishmania, causadores das leishmanioses. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo epidemiológico sobre a diversidade da fauna flebotomínica e pesquisar a infecção por Leishmania spp. em Lutzomyia flaviscutellata capturados em Comunidades Quilombolas de Inhangapi, município paraense com transmissão de Leishmaniose Tegumentar. As capturas de flebotomíneos foram realizadas nas Comunidades Quilombolas de Menino Jesus de Petimandeua e Itaboca no município de Inhangapi, Estado do Pará. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas Hoover Pugedo instaladas no intradomicílio, peridomicílio e mata adjacente. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente em quatro pontos fixos e 48 pontos móveis, durante o período de dezembro de 2010 a novembro de 2011. A pesquisa da infecção natural por Leishmania spp. em L. flaviscutellata foi feita em 65 fêmeas através da PCR com iniciadores específicos. Foram capturados 1118 flebotomíneos de 22 espécies do gênero Lutzomyia, sendo 320 espécimes oriundos da Comunidade Quilombola Menino Jesus de Petimandeua e 798 da Comunidade Quilombola da Itaboca. As fêmeas representaram 52% do total capturado e 48% foram machos. A maioria dos flebotomíneos foi capturada no peridomicílio (55%) e na mata (37%), sendo somente 8% capturados no intradomicílio. Dentre as espécies capturadas L. auraensis foi a mais abundante (34,4%), seguida por L. antunesi (24,5%). As espécies de importância médico-veterinária encontradas foram Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, vetor natural de Leishmania amazonensis, Lutzomyia antunesi, incriminada como possível vetor de Leishmania lindembergi e Lutzomyia complexus, vetor de Leishmania braziliensis, sendo que estas espécies de flebotomíneos foram encontradas na mata e no peridomicílio. Através da PCR não foi detectada a presença de DNA de Leishmania spp. nas fêmeas de L. flaviscutellata, contudo, a presença das espécies L. flaviscutellata, L. antunesi e L. complexus serve de alerta quanto ao risco de transmissão de Leishmaniose Tegumentar na área estudada.

  • Data: 17/07/2012
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  • O estudo objetivou contribuir com o estabelecimento do perfil epidemiológico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar e da Leishmaniose Visceral em cães de comunidades quilombolas do município de Inhangapi, estado do Pará, utilizando diferentes técnicas de diagnóstico e amostras biológicas. O estudo foi realizado nas comunidades quilombolas Menino Jesus de Petimandeua e Itaboca, onde no ano 2011 foram coletadas amostras de sangue total, soro e pele íntegra de cães, sendo realizado também o preenchimento de questionário contendo informações sobre os animais e características sócio-econômicas e culturais dos habitantes. Foram utilizadas as técnicas ELISA indireto, RIFI, imprint de órgãos, histopatologia e PCR para L. i. chagasi, L. amazonensis e espécies do complexo L. braziliensis. Dos 143 cães examinados, 2,1% (3/143) foram sororreagentes para Leishmania spp. pelo ELISA indireto e pela RIFI, e 8,4% (12/143) foram positivos para L. i. chagasi na PCR. Os três cães sororreagentes não foram positivos nas PCR’s. Nas amostras positivas pela PCR de L. i. chagasi, houve amplificação em 8,4% (12/143) de amostras de pele íntegra e 1,4% (2/143) de sangue. Em nenhuma amostra de pele foi detectado DNA de L. amazonensis e de espécies do complexo L. braziliensis. No único cão sororreagente eutanasiado não foi detectado DNA das espécies de Leishmania. A presença de L. i. chagasi associada à dispersão de cães, às características ambientais, à ação antrópica e ao saneamento básico inadequado podem favorecer à disseminação do agente e a ocorrência de LV em humanos nas comunidades quilombolas Menino Jesus de Petimandeua e Itaboca, servindo de alerta aos órgãos de saúde.
  • Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis vogeli e Leishmania infantum chagasi em cães domiciliados do município de Castanhal, Pará

  • Data: 12/07/2012
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  • No Brasil é cada vez maior o número de cães atendidos na clínica de pequenos animais acometidos por doenças cujos agentes etiológicos são transmitidos por artrópodes. Dentre estas enfermidades pode-se destacar a erliquiose monocítica canina, a babesiose canina e a leishmaniose visceral canina, que são causadas pelas espécies Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. e Leishmania infantum chagasi, respectivamente. O objetivo desse trabalho foi detectar, através da reação em cadeia pela polimerase, a infecção natural por E. canis, Babesia spp. e Leishmania infantum chagasi em amostras de sangue coletadas aleatoriamente de cães domiciliados de área urbana e rural do município de Castanhal, Pará. Foram coletadas 349 amostras de sangue da veia cefálica de cães, sem distinção de sexo e raça e sem levar em consideração o estado clínico do animal, dessas 79,36% (277/349) eram de cães que viviam no ambiente urbano e 20,63% (72/349) na zona rural. O DNA foi extraído utilizando-se um kit comercial específico para a extração de DNA de amostras sanguíneas. Com a utilização da nested PCR foi possível detectar o DNA de E. canis em 28,65% (100/349) dos cães amostrados, sendo que 83% (83/100) desses eram de zona urbana e 17% (17/100) eram de zona rural. O DNA de Babesia spp. foi detectado através da PCR em 0,28% (1/349) das amostras testes, sendo a mesma caracterizada como Babesia canis vogeli. O DNA de L. infantum chagasi não foi detectado em nenhuma das amostras testadas. Assim, foi possível concluir que E. canis e B. canis vogeli estão presentes na população canina da região estudada, sendo essa a primeira caracterização molecular de B. canis vogeli em cães da região Norte. Além disso, os resultados nos permitem afirmar que a n-PCR é eficaz para diagnosticar a infecção pelo agente testado e que na região estudada não foi possível diagnosticar a infecção por L. i. chagasi através da PCR com amostras sanguíneas.


  • Eficácia de uma formulação aquosa contendo 10% de óleo de Nim (Azadirachta Indica) no tratamento de otite fúngica por Malassezia pachydermatis em cães
  • Data: 31/03/2012
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  • Caracterização dos Processos de Cicatrização Cutânea em Bubalinos (Bubalus bubalus)
  • Data: 23/03/2012
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  • O processo cicatricial compreende uma sequência de eventos moleculares e celulares que interagem para que ocorra a restauração do tecido lesado. Desde o extravasamento de plasma, com a coagulação e agregação plaquetária até a reepitelização e remodelagem do tecido lesado o organismo age tentando restaurar a funcionalidade tecidual. Assim, este trabalho abrange os diversos aspectos celulares envolvidos no processo cicatricial da pele dos bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis) e bovinos (bovinae). Para tanto, utilizou-se bubalinos das raças Murah e Jafarabadi e bovinos mestiços, que foram submetidos à anestesia local para a confecção de ferimentos a serem cicatrizados por primeira intenção (grupo II) e segunda intenção (grupo I). No grupo I foi realizada uma incisão quadrangular de quatro cm2 de pele no flanco direito e esquerdo, e no grupo dois foram realizadas duas incisões lineares no flanco esquerdo, medindo seis cm de comprimento. Os animais foram avaliados macroscopicamente segundo o tempo de cicatrização, força de tensão e aparência da ferida cirúrgica e microscopicamente através de exame histopatológico dos fragmentos coletados durante a cicatrização. No presente trabalho observou-se uma redução diária média, da ferida, de 0,137cm2 nos bubalinos e 0,089cm2 nos bovinos, demonstrando um bom potencial de cicatrização. Este trabalho possibilitou a verificação de um processo orgânico ainda não conhecido na espécie bubalina e identificou a necessidade de estudos mais abrangentes com relação ao uso de cicatrizantes.
  • Perfil Soroepidemiológico de Brucelose, Leptospirose e Toxoplasmose em Equideos de Tração da Ilha de Maiandeua - Estado do Pará"
  • Data: 26/08/2011
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  • O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de brucelose, leptospirose e toxoplasmose em equídeos de tração da Ilha de Maiandeua/PA. Foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 86,67% (52/60) animais, de ambos os sexos e diferentes idades (2 a 17 anos), em dois períodos climáticos distintos da região amazônica, totalizando 104 amostras. Dos 52 animais examinados na prova de triagem pela soroaglutinação rápida em placa para pesquisa de anticorpo anti-B. abortus na primeira colheita, nenhum (0/52) animal foi reagente, entretanto na segunda colheita foram observados 5,76% (3/52) de animais sororeagentes na prova da triagem, que foram negativos na prova confirmatória de 2-Mercaptoetanol. Através da técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM) para pesquisa de anticorpo anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado uma coleção de antígenos vivos de 25 sorovares para análise das 52 amostras na primeira colheita, onde observou-se 23,07% (12/52) de animais reagentes e 15,38% (8/52) na segunda colheita, para um ou mais sorovares de Leptospira spp. com títulos entre 100 e 200. O maior percentual de reagentes na primeira colheita foi para o sorovar Autumnalis com 40%, seguido do Grippotyphosa 30% (3/10) e na segunda colheita 37,5% (3/8) também para o sorovar Autumnalis e 12,5% (1/8) para os sorovares Castelonis, Gripothyphosa, Pyrogenes, Hardjo e Wolffi cada um, na segunda colheita. Na análise da variável sexo, foi observado que os machos apresentaram reatividade de 25% (9/36) e 16,66% (6/36) na primeira e segunda colheitas, respectivamente. Enquanto que nas fêmeas observaram-se 18,75% (3/16) e 12,5% (2/16) de sororeagentes, respectivamente em ambas as colheitas. A positividade, das amostras em relação a faixa etária, foi de 27,78% (10/36) para o grupo 1 ( 2 a 7 anos) e 12,50% (2/16) de reatores para o grupo 2 (> 7 anos), na primeira colheita. Enquanto que na segunda colheita observou-se 13,89% (5/36) de sororeagente para o grupo 1 e 18,75% (3/16) para o grupo 2. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), observou-se 9,61% (5/52) e 17,31 % (9/52) que reagiram respectivamente na primeira e segunda colheitas, com títulos entre 64 a 512. Das amostras reagentes relacionadas com a titulação observou-se para o título 64, 20% (1/5) e 44,44% (4/9) e para o título 128, 40% (2/5) e 11,11% (1/9) na primeira e segunda colheitas respectivamente. Analisando-se a variável sexo em relação à reatividade no diagnóstico da toxoplasmose, foi observada positividade em 13,90% (5/36) dos machos em ambas as colheitas. Para as fêmeas, nenhuma foi positiva na primeira colheita, no entanto a frequência relativa de positividade foi de 25% (4/16) na segunda colheita. Em relação a faixa etária, a positividade, foi de 8,33% (3/36) e 16,67% (6/36) para o grupo 1, enquanto que no grupo 2 foi de 12,50% (2/16) e 18,75% (3/16), na primeira e na segunda colheitas. Pode-se concluir no presente estudo que na ilha de Maiandeua há circulação de Leptospira spp. e T. gondii, e provável ausência de Brucella spp., entretanto devem ser realizados outros estudos para conhecer a real situação dessas três doenças nos animais da ilha.
  • Perfil Soroepidemiológico de Brucelose, Leptospirose e Toxoplasmose em Eqüídeos de Tração da Ilha de Maiandeua - Estado do Pará"
  • Data: 26/08/2011

  • Perfil dos produtores de leite e Caracterização técnica das propriedades leiteiras dos municípios de Rondon do Pará e Abel Figueiredo, estado do Pará
  • Data: 11/04/2011

  • Data: 18/02/2011

  • Data: 11/02/2011

  • Data: 11/11/2010

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